Venice
June 1623, 16-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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40-52

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'Venice: June 1623, 16-30', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 18: 1623-1625 (1912), pp. 40-52. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88889 Date accessed: 24 October 2014.


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June 1623

June 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
55. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
It is quite twenty days since letters came from Spain by any express messenger, and yet the prince agreed to send one every week. Every one is amazed. Some think that his Majesty is not only hiding the letters but concealing the bearers, a thing both false and practically impossible. Many of the prince's court are arriving, but have made a slow journey. They say they are his precursors, but their return seems an indication of his staying. This much I know for certain, as I had it in a letter of the 15th May from a person very near the prince, that the dispensation is still in the hands of the nuncio, being held back under pain of excommunication, until the conditions have all been arranged and fulfilled, namely, the education of the children, the annulling of the penal laws against the Catholics, the exclusion of every Protestant from the Infanta's household, upon which they require a public promise and suggest retaining the dowry as a security; but as regards the prince and the Duke of Buckingham many desire and long for their return, while the Spaniards are trying every means to put it off until Michaelmas. Upon this point many proposals have been made, but all rejected so far. From this no small ill feeling has arisen between Buckingham and Olivares, to such an extent that for some days they did not speak to each other. Olivares accused Buckingham of being an enemy to the marriage and of negotiating with the French ambassador. This ill feeling is represented as real, though on the other hand it might be considered simulated. That the prince's physician advised him to leave before the heat because it threatens to be the greater owing to the very rainy weather so far. That the prince has not been admitted to visit the Infanta more than once, and only sees her as it were from an ambush and furtively, but the writer of this news concludes with the hope of a speedy conclusion to the affair.
The Marquis of Inogiosa is on the road. They wish him to hasten. One of the royal ships named the Bonaventura, is to fetch him from Calais, which fought valiantly with Turkish pirates on its recent return from Spain.
They are working diligently at the chapel. The Spanish ambassador laid the first stone, giving the workmen 100 crowns. (fn. 1) There are some who wager long odds that it will be used as much for a hall as a church.
The ships are all at sea in the Downs. They seem to be only awaiting a wind, which is contrary. For my own part I believe that they are also awaiting new orders. In the matter of equipment and every excellence they are incomparably finer than any vessels which plough the seas. The king has told the Earl of Southampton that he shall have the first honour of seeing and receiving the prince and the Infanta, because of their landing in the county of Southampton. These courteous words have been the more remarked because the earl was not always in favour with his Majesty.
Eight of the principal lords of the Council are leaving to-day by royal order, to see what is necessary and give instructions for the landing and for lodging the Spaniards. The duty seems rather to belong to purveyors and such like people than to councillors of such distinction and in such numbers. Moreover, these preparations are well in advance as they have not heard of the movements of the persons, much less the conclusion of the affair. However, here they ride spurring ahead, while in Spain they hold the reins tight; they may hope to quicken the progress of the Spaniards by their own haste, or keep up the expectations of the people by such appearances. The Spaniards have everything to gain with time, as by extracting large promises from the English they will alienate those whom they pretend to conciliate by the marriage, and to let them go free would gain nothing, lose the princess and blacken the name of the Catholic.
The Protestants here, laying aside their great repugnance of old, seem better disposed to this marriage, This increases the suspicion of the Spaniards that they have been assured it will not cause them any prejudice. We hear that they propose to send a bishop from Rome over the Catholics here. But the Jesuits have offered a strong opposition, from fear that this primate, with his new dignity, may deprive them of their present influence.
The day before yesterday the king came to London almost alone to visit the Duchess of Buckingham. Everything of importance remains in suspense until the duke's return. One does not know whether he is more loved or feared by the king.
The Spaniards are proposing a truce in Holland; they are short of money and men, with many in revolt. So it is not thought that they will take the field. In conversing with the Dutch ambassador upon this subject I told him that they now had an opportunity to change defensive for offensive operations, that as they would have to bear the expense in any event, that Germany shows signs of arousing herself, that France helped with money and men, and we heard that the 4,000 foot conceded to Mansfeld had become 6,000. The King of Denmark is said to have dismissed harshly an ambassador sent to him by the emperor. The Diet of Upper Saxony voted a flying army of 8,000 foot and 2,000 horse to go where most needed. It is thought that Tilly will move towards Austria from suspicion of Gabor. The Spanish ambassador here has said that Savoy is trying to draw Bavaria into the league and the Spaniards suspect the duke of being about to abandon the House of Austria or pretend to. They draw closer to France.
The Secretary Calvert sent to me this morning to complain in his Majesty's name that his packets from Constantinople were so badly treated by the Board of Health at Venice. He let me see them, and asked me to report to your Serenity; I made excuses, but indeed they were more lacerated than cut.
I have received the ducal missives of the 19th May with Wotton's exposition. He has a letter from the king to your Serenity for his departure, as I wrote.
London, the 16th June, 1623.
[Italian.]
June 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
56. GIROLAMO SORANZO, extraordinary and RANIER ZEN, ordinary Venetian Ambassadors at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A courier has arrived from Spain for the Duke of Pastrana. It is understood that the marriage of the Prince of England and the Infanta is not yet arranged, but fresh English cavaliers keep arriving at Madrid, and the expenses occasioned thereby to the royal palace amounts to a very considerable sum, and the Spaniards are most anxious to terminate this affair. It seems that the distaste of the Infanta, the destined bride, for this marriage, steadily grows stronger.
Rome, the 17th June, 1623.
[Italian.]
June 17.
Misc. Cod. No. 62.
Venetian
Archives.
57. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They have never said a word about the marriage of Madame Henriette, sister of the Most Christian, to the young prince here. I did indeed hear it said that if the marriage of the Infanta to England took place, there would be no one for the prince except the said princess. It would not be surprising, however, if the Capuchin Father Hyacinth, who likes to meddle in everything, had not himself introduced this idea through Father Magnus, his dependant at the French Court, who was at Paris for the affairs of the Duke of Bavaria; but no negotiations have taken place here.
Vienna, the 17th June, 1623.
[Italian; copy.]
June 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
58. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador extraordinary of the Catholic had a splendid reception at Fontainebleau. It is said that he was to inform his Majesty of the negotiations for the marriage of the Prince of Wales, speak about the Valtelline and influence the ministers here in favour of a truce with the Dutch. But there is little likelihood that he did anything of the kind, though he exchanged visits with Puysieulx. He left offended because the English ambassador extraordinary was accompanied by a prince, while he only had a marshal of France, M. de Bassompier.
The ships which went to Havre had 140 Irish on board for Flanders. They reached that port by good chance, being chased by Dutch ships. The ambassador asked for a passport. They refused this after deliberating thereupon, but offered him one for the Irish to return by sea and take provision in the ports of this kingdom. But as the ships are ill furnished they are afraid to go out because of the Dutch. The ministers here told the Dutch ambassador that they hoped they would be taken, though they told the ambassador, that if he wished his Majesty would give him an escort for England. It is remarkable that an ambassador of the Catholic should speak for the subjects of the King of Great Britain, while the English ambassador has preferred no office on the subject, although he said he hoped no harm would befall them.
Paris, the 19th June, 1623.
[Italian.]
June 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
59. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
No news reached the King of Bohemia from the King of Great Britain from the 1st of last month, when the arrangement was made in England between that sovereign and the deputies of the Infanta for an armistice in the Palatinate for fifteen months, before the 15th inst. The King of Bohemia told me that the agreement had been sent from Brussels by his father-in-law's agent to the Ambassador Carleton here with instructions about signing it. His Majesty is much agitated and perplexed. On the one side he does not see how he can do it without prejudicing his own reputation and the safety of his friends. On the other hand, if he does not sign, he clearly perceives that the King of England will seize upon the pretext to abandon him utterly. He said that the Ambassador Carleton advised and urged him to sign, but added that he spoke with the breath of his master, recognising that he could not do otherwise.
He communicated the articles to Sig. Bos and myself. His Majesty summoned us to the Cabinet and read them over uttering exclamations rather than comments upon them. Among other things he said he was willing to be a son but not a slave. The queen said much the same a little while earlier. She seems eager and constant in persuading her husband not to sign, or at least not to do it so soon. In the presence of Sig. Bos she remarked to me, This heat is too great. There is no need for such haste. She looked angered and upset at her father's conduct, and turning to me she shook her head, saying, What folly it would be in my husband to sign such a treaty so lightly, without any other security for getting back his own.
The Prince of Orange in particular called the treaty foolishness, remote from everything proper and showing clearly that the Spaniards had won over that sovereign heart and soul, and they guide him as they wish. He thought to make himself the arbiter of all Germany and wished to introduce peace there and throughout the world, but he did not perceive that the Spaniards were playing with him and were reducing him to play a part in which he did not gain the slightest advantage for himself or for his son-in-law, while prejudicing the others.
The king here will try and gain time, saying that he wishes to send to France to ask that king's advice upon a matter of so much consequence, and if he can obtain support from France he will not mind anything else. Meanwhile, in order to gain time he said he would send another mission to England, under the pretext of obtaining a declaration from that monarch upon various points, pretending not to understand his meaning and at the same time to point out that the treaty possesses no advantages for either of them, and desiring to know what security there is for the restitution of his possessions.
The expresses for both of these courts are ready to depart and the king asked Sig. Bos and myself to write likewise to our princes about these particulars. Although I feel sure that your Serenity will receive the articles from England, yet in case of accident I enclose a copy.
When the king here first heard of these articles he felt sure that the Spaniards and Austrians would publish these abroad and persuade the Sultan and Gabor that they had been signed; accordingly his Majesty informed Gabor of the true state of affairs, telling him that he would not sign unless absolutely compelled by necessity.
Here the mention of associates and confederates is considered to refer to the States and they think that the King of Great Britain cannot have considered what it means. The king and queen here think so, especially as the majority of the councillors were not consulted, and some took themselves off, notably Weston, who was ambassador extraordinary at Brussels, saying that he would take no part in such an ignominious negotiation. The king again asked us to write to our masters and asked me to write to England. I will do so, sending an account of all that has taken place.
The Hague, the 19th June, 1623.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
60. A general armistice has been arranged in the name of the King of Great Britain in the empire, on behalf of himself, his son-in-law and all those of his party, to last for fifteen months, during which no fresh levies shall be made. During this armistice the King of Great Britain, his son-in-law and their partisans shall make no incursions or captures or commit other acts of hostility within the limits of the empire or their associates, and her highness the Infanta likewise promises not to commit any such act against those of the opposite party or their vassals; and no fresh levies shall be raised to throw into the Palatinate.
During this armistice the King of Great Britain and his son-in-law shall not enter any league to its prejudice, and those who commit any act of hostility against the empire shall be declared breakers of this treaty, and the King of Great Britain and the Infanta promise to do everything possible to prevent such hostilities, so that peace and intercourse may be re-established.
During the armistice neither side shall erect fortresses or fortifications in the Palatinate, but all places therein shall remain for the said period in their present condition.
The Infanta undertakes that a general treaty for the final settlement of all the disorders at present rife in the empire shall be discussed between the commissioners of his imperial Majesty and the other interested parties, including the King of Great Britain and the city of Cologne.
The King of Great Britain and the Infanta have agreed that the said general treaty shall begin within three or four months after the date of the present treaty, and the powers interested shall arrange time and place.
The king of Great Britain, by virtue of the powers he has from his son-in-law, and the Infanta, by virtue of her powers promise the punctual fulfilment of the above conditions, the Infanta undertaking to obtain the emperor's ratification and the king that of his son-in-law.
Dated at London, the 21st April, 1623, style of England or the 1st May, new style. (fn. 2)
[Italian.]
June 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
61. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have received fresh confirmation of what the king here said about the treaty. His chamberlain told Dulbier that his Majesty certainly did not intend to sign the articles and declared he would rather go and beg his bread. This involves what the king actually said to a gentleman who told me that nothing remains for his father-in-law to do except to deprive the queen of her small allowance of ten florins a month. In that case he would have patience and no other course would remain to him than to send his wife and children to England while he would withdraw to live as he could until God gave him better fortune.
In Brussels they are expecting the Marquis of Inoiosa on his way to England, to negotiate about the marriage, according to what they say here, to obtain security for the Infanta, according to the Spaniards, as the Catholic king desires such security from parliament. It is thought that the Spaniards have devised this to delay the completion of the marriage, so that they may pursue their own advantages in the meantime. Your Serenity will have more authentic news from Spain and England.
The Hague, the 19th June, 1623.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
62. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Wind still fails for the ships for Spain. No letters reach his Majesty yet from Spain. If they do not come I am assured that the ships will on no account start. The king has borne this long interval supported by the hope that the prince has stopped the advices in order to send word at one stroke of the final completion of the negotiations; but his feelings seem to be awakening. But this may quickly be assuaged or even simulated, as those best acquainted with his character think him destitute of the natural affection of a father and merely concerned own his inveterate longing for peace. I hear every moment more to confirm what seems incredible, either the king will not have the courage to recover his son or does not wish to have him back, his natural timidity suggesting the one, and the other his jealousy of his own authority, since it is very clear he will not at all like the prince having a wife in addition, with the formidable support of Spain behind her (certo io sento ogn' hor più a confirmarmi quello che ben ha forse del incredibile, che nel Re o non sara coraggio per ricuperar o forse anco niun desiderio di rihaver il figliuolo, cosi, l'uno persuadendo la qualityà della sua naturale timidità e l'altro la gelosia della propria auttorità alla qual' com e' ben chiaro, ripugna molto che al Principe si aggiunga una moglie con la sponda formidabile di Spagna).
His Majesty is trying to induce the Palatine to accept the armistice arranged by the Ambassador Boischot, promising a new assembly at Cologne to be attended by the ambassadors of all those interested to negotiate for a general peace. The promise is specious, but the armistice is chimerical, as neither the emperor nor the Palatine has his own forces. But the Spaniards desire it not without mystery to remove pretexts for arms in Germany, while the king is in his element in negotiations, but the Palatine delays his answer. We hear he has sent Pauli to France to disturb the friendship with Bavaria and ask for the money due from the Crown. The rumour continues that your Serenity favoured Bavaria in the transfer of the electoral vote. A leading lord and follower of the Palatine pressed me for the truth. I showed him the impossibility and made him recognise it, asking him to undeceive others, assuring him that the Palatine's misfortunes only increased your Serenity's esteem.
The king has received word that Tilly has gathered his force, and is moving against Brunswick or Mansfeld. The latter has inflicted more harm on the Count of Emden, and being unable to get more money out of him proposes to sell his state to the highest bidder, having perhaps already offered it to the King of Denmark. The French ambassador spoke to me of the count as if he had already entered his king's service. I suggested that we should tell the king what the allies had arranged about the deposit. He assented, though as usual coldly, and so we informed his Majesty through the Secretary Calvert. I did this in order to show our union with France and to obviate the doubtful name of deposit, and particularly in order to state that there was no slackening in the preparations for war amid these negotiations for peace. I seized the opportunity to apologise to Calvert about the packet of Constantinople, and satisfied him.
Two preachers have been arrested for seditiously inciting the people to take arms to maintain their religion, at a place outside London. A very biting pasquinade against the king has been circulating of late, a licentious custom introduced into this kingdom only a few years ago.
A gentleman from Flanders tells me that the soldiers there are very scattered and not being paid, they are an intolerable burden upon the people. The infantry in the towns and the cavalry numbering 6,000, was utterly ruining the country. The Ambassador Inoiosa will be on the sea. He is anxiously awaited.
London, the 23rd June, 1623.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Firenze.
Dispacci,
Venetian
Archives.
63. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They write from Genoa and Milan that the duke of Feria is advised that the marriage with England will not take place. In this the Spaniards have to consider when they look for advantages from this alliance that it is repugnant to nature and reason to grant it or believe in it, when the one who contracts it prejudices himself or deprives himself of advantages (il sperar vantaggi per questo parentato da chi nel farli si pregiudica o si priva di procacciarne a se medesimo e termine fuor di natura e di ragione il concederlo et il crederlo). Moreover even if the King of England was willing to slacken the voyages to the Indies the English would not be.
In other respects also it will be difficult for that king to give natural assistance to Spain, as his own strength is diminished, and the mere thought of the marriage has weakened his credit with his own people, while if it were actually accomplished he would lose to an even greater extent the confidence of his allies of Germany, Holland and France, which are the props which enable him with his friends to claim to be able to afford some help and favour (Per altro poi scarsamente poter giovar quel Re agl' interessi di Spagna; poiche diminuto gia di proprie forze, et reso per la opinione dello stesso parentato più debole di credito colli suoi; all' hora succendone l'effetto maggiormente perderebbe la confidenza de confederati d'Allemagna, d'Olanda et di Franza; che son gl'appoggi da quali per se et per gl'amici può prettendere d'ottener qualch giovamento et favore).
Moreover, if the Spaniards make this marriage, they will apparently commit themselves to the obligation to fulfil their promises about restoring the Palatinate, which remains in their hands. To revive a crushed foe, strengthen both him and his party, which remains armed in Germany against the house of Austria, are considerations which will operate to delay and prejudice the completion of this marriage.
My letters from Genoa state that the prince of England has sacked Madrid without an army and produced an extreme scarcity of every thing there. One only sees copper money in Spain, the silver being exhausted, causing excessive loss to the merchants and increasing the exchanges. They have no news of the fleet, which they urgently need, and the king has ordered twelve galleons to go and meet the new fleet, but the ocean is swarming with pirates and Dutch.
Florence, the 24th June, 1623.
[Italian.]
June 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
64. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Many of the Irish detained at Havre have come to this city seeking employment, and have in particular offered to serve the Duke of Savoy. They dare not put to sea and I am assured that the refusal of their passport was solely due to the animosity of the king's council.
The French ambassador writes from Spain that the gentlemen of the Prince of Wales have made overtures of marriage for madame. This is interpreted merely as a device to arouse jealousy and impel the Spaniards to conclude the alliance with the Infanta.
Paris, the 26th June, 1623.
[Italian.]
June 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
65. LORENZO PARUTA, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The agent of England has just informed me that he has letters from London advising him that on the 5th inst., the Count of Olivares at Madrid went to the house of the Earl of Rutland, ambassador extraordinary of his king at that Court and with him had adjusted the marriage contract to the mutual advantage of both parties. The only point remaining for settlement was the departure, but he heard from England that his Majesty was on the point of dispatching the ships with the personages destined to bring back the prince and his bride. For the Infanta, his Majesty was hastening on the work at the chapel at St. James's, London, which is to serve for her, as he intended that it should be finished in time for their arrival.
Turin, the 26th June, 1623.
[Italian.]
June 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati,
Venetian
Archives.
66. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The King of Bohemia, with the advice of his intimates, including undoubtedly the Prince of Orange, has sent the enclosed reply to the articles for an armistice arranged by the King of Great Britain with the Infanta's ministers. The king sent Doctor Camerano to inform me and Sig. Bos. I have also sent copies to the Ambassadors Pesaro and Valaresso. When the king gave this reply to the Ambassador Carleton to send to his king, he seemed to consider the reasons very weighty and apposite, but said he feared that they were not in time. The king told me this on Saturday, adding that he knew that the ambassador could not say anything else, but his feelings were different. His Majesty will await the reply from England. Meanwhile he has sent to France the articles and his reply.
Amsterdam, the 27th June, 1623.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
67.The powers given by the emperor to the Infanta are of ancient date, namely the 4th June, 1622, and matters have greatly changed since then, the whole Palatinate being occupied and desolated, violating the protection afforded by the King of Great Britain, and the electorate transferred to Bavaria, the emperor declaring that he will not restore it. The King of Bohemia wishes to know if the emperor persists in this resolution, or if he means to treat for peace with restitution of the provinces and the electoral dignity.
Although the articles provide for things being left as they are, confiscations continue in the two Palatinates, where they are introducing popery and laying heavy charges on the people. It is necessary to know, therefore, when the truce will begin and if these acts will not previously be revoked, or if they mean the King of Bohemia to confirm them by his signature.
A truce means promises from both parties. Does the contrary party mean to lay down its arms, as on this side they were laid down long since?
Will the King of Bohemia, his children and subjects enjoy security in the empire during the truce?
The king of Bohemia particularly wishes to know who are the associates mentioned in the second article. In the last treaty the Duke of Bavaria did not wish the Archduke Albert and Lower Burgundy to be included, although they soon afterwards came to help the invasion of the Palatinate.
The King of Bohemia asks for a declaration about raising levies, as the contrary party may apparently put fresh garrisons in the Palatinate.
The third article about leagues and acts of hostility is too general, and requires further elucidation. As the King of Bohemia has no forces he cannot invade, but he cannot answer for the action of other princes.
The appointment of commissioners by the emperor for a general treaty requires explanation since the emperor has declared that he will not permit the King of Bohemia to re-enter his electorate, and has transferred it to Bavaria, whereas the Kings of Great Britain and Bohemia by a final accommodation understand the complete restitution of dominions and dignities. It is therefore necessary to know if Bavaria consents to such a general treaty, but if the emperor means to summon him to such a conference in the quality of elector, the King of Bohemia cannot consent to anything so prejudicial to himself and the liberty of the empire.
Finally the King of Bohemia asks for a declaration from the contrary party as to whether the omission of his titles and rank in this treaty and the signing of his name alone will prejudice his rights or no. He humbly asks the King of Great Britain to express his decision and the resolution of the contrary party upon all these points so as to clear the way for a sure peace, and avoid all errors, doubt or false interpretation.
Dated at the Hague, the 20th June, 1623.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
68. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
After a long interval of 28 days with no letters from Spain, Cottington, the prince's secretary, arrived the day after my last despatch, one of the four who made the journey with him. His Majesty, as usual, keeping the news from every one soever announces that the negotiations are proceeding favourably and the marriage will be completed soon. His secretaries announce the same derived from him. But many indications speak otherwise. The king passed some nights in unbroken fury (continua smania). By day he can hardly conceal his internal agitation. The departure of the ships is stayed. The commander, Rutland has permission to disembark. The very quality of the person sent betrays a difficult mission. And although they sedulously prevent individuals from writing, in addition to the old letter of our ambassador I receive one secretly from my friend, who is very near the prince. One of the 7th inst, tells me that the Spaniards treat the affair as no longer their own but the pope's. To their own inclination is added the incitement of the English Catholics, by which they would give up the old treaty with its connivance and in its place ask for open liberty of conscience. When the prince complained of this innovation they told him that before his coming the negotiations were merely a show, and it was not true that the late king had prescribed this marriage in his last will, because he left the Infanta to the emperor's son. When, upon this, the Ambassador Bristol produced various signatures of the king and the deputies, Olivares and Buckingham grew so heated that they came to an open quarrel, though they were reconciled afterwards through various offices and by Olivares yielding. That the prince was resolved to leave, but the Spaniards, knowing him to be offended, are trying every means to soothe him, offering less severe conditions and promising the nuptials immediately, but that the pair should remain a year in Spain, while in the meantime the English Parliament should annul the penal laws against the Catholics. When the prince would on no account agree to these proposals, the king obtained a promise from him that he would not leave before Cottington should return with a reply to the new conditions sent to the king here by him. The Spaniards hope they will find it easier to obtain the father's consent than the son's, and meanwhile they will at least gain the time of the prince's stay.
By this last promise he finds himself committed at least as late as Michaelmas, and possibly until the following spring, owing to the intervening winter, in which time they hope, among other things, to secure his conversion. But the courage and resolution of the prince in not yielding to the hardness of these new conditions appear so great that he asserts he will refuse them even if the king consents. This agrees with what he has written himself to the Marquis of Hamilton, as I know for certain, that he will never commit an action unworthy of his rank. Though those who credit the prince with a feeble character cannot place implicit confidence in these protestations, yet the emphasis with which they are delivered and the just occasion for making them may give them credit, as they are sufficient to move even a spirit destitute of royal generosity although possessing some sparks of natural feeling.
Even if the marriage takes place without any further quarrel, the past disputes may serve to render their friendship very lukewarm despite the union, if it does not render them altogether hostile. In confirmation of this the Earl of Carlisle told me confidentially that if God wills the prince to return, whatever happens he will not return a Spaniard. It is certain also that once Buckingham is offended he is very tenacious and most difficult to reconcile. Arguments for his alienation from the Spaniards are not lacking. But if the feelings of these two in the ardour of youth do not promise some good, the king is past all hope, having become utterly stupid (per quello tocco al Re, già fatto stupido, eglie tutto disperato). He has sent a gentleman to Spain with his reply. I have not yet discovered its purport, but shall not be far wrong in concluding it is bad.
The Ambassador Inoiosa arrived on Wednesday with a train of 50 persons in a very fine livery. Earl Kelly met him, a Scottish lord not of the first flight. He had his first audience of the king at Greenwich before reaching London. It was public, short and merely complimentary. In the evening he came to London to the palace sumptuously fitted up for him, and at present he is entirely defrayed by the king. I divine that after a few days he will bear his own expenses. He brings a remittance of 9,000l. sterling to be paid in monthly instalments. This indicates a long stay, and one who had it from himself told me that he will not leave before the prince's return, and in some sense he seems to have come as a hostage for his person. Upon the marriage he told somebody that it would be completed within four months, while everything remained suspended in Spain until the arrival of his letters.
The universal belief is that besides the compliments his business is to receive the guarantees for the fulfilment of the promises and for the dowry, but it is doubtful if he will be satisfied with the king's word or will desire some Act of the Parliament. I do not think he is personally very popular with the English, partly because they do not consider him friendly to their nation and partly because they think ill of him as a deeply interested minister.
I decided to behave punctiliously with this ambassador. He received the gentleman I sent courteously and used no title, in order, apparently, not to offend me with Most Illustrious. As I cannot go in person I have done nothing further.
I hear on good authority that they have sent from Spain to the Infanta at Brussels authorising her to conclude a truce with the Dutch, but on condition that France has no share. I drew the French ambassador's attention to the importance of this exclusion, though I assured him that it would not occur. He attached a proper importance to the subject. I wish, however, that so many incentives would arouse the necessary wrath, and hope they may lead France insensibly from mistrust to offence and open enmity with Spain.
London, the last day of June, 1623.
Postscript.—A few hours ago Lord Rosfort arrived from Spain, who was selected to bring word of the conclusion of the marriage. The first report among a few was that he brought good news, but there has not been time to penetrate further. I will make this good in my next.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 "This day sennight was the first foundation of the new chapel at St. James's for the Lady Mary of Spain in the afternoon. The Spanish ambassador made a cross on the first stone, laid it in mortar, made a prayer in French that God would dispose of that foundation to his glory and to the good of the church and the universal general good of all Christians, and gave 80l. to the workmen; his son laid the second stone and gave them 80l." Letter to Mead of the 30th May, o.s., Birch: Court and Times of James I, ii, page 400
2 A French version is printed in Dumont: Corps Diplomatique, vol. v, pt. ii, pages 434–6.