Venice
June 1624, 11-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1912

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338-353

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'Venice: June 1624, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 18: 1623-1625 (1912), pp. 338-353. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88912 Date accessed: 22 November 2014.


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Contents

June 1624

June 11.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
430. It being necessary to choose an ordinary ambassador for England in place of Alvise Valaresso, who has completed his term, that this Council take the first opportunity to select such an ambassador, under the penalties provided in case of refusal, who shall receive his instructions from this Council. He shall have for his expenses 300 gold ducats a month for which he need not render account. For horses, trappings and coffers, 300 ducats of lire 6 grossi 4 shall be given him, and 1,000 gold ducats as a gift. For expenses of every kind, except couriers and letter carriers 40 crowns of lire 7 a month shall be assigned to him.
To his secretary to put himself in train, 100 ducats. To two couriers accompanying him, 20 ducats each. For the salary and table expenses of the chaplain and interpreter, 186 ducats yearly for the first, and 100 ducats yearly for the second.
Ayes, 148.Noes, 1.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
June 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Franeia.
Venetian
Archives.
431. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I could not avoid the meeting to which Wake invited me, and at Sanlis there assembled the English ambassador, the ambassador of Savoy, the Duke of Angoulême and the Count of Mansfelt. (fn. 1) The French came to learn from a minister passing through what they ought to gather from three English ambassadors resident at this Court, but the meeting produced nothing but phrases and compliments. The duke asked some questions which the count answered categorically. They superfluously told Wake of the decisions of the allies, to obtain his consent, but they did not tell him of the article which binds Mansfelt to serve the League in any eventuality. They asked what were the intentions of his king. He commended the plan, said his king's intentions were good but as he had no special charge at this Court they should refer to the resident ambassadors of his king. He suggested an additional article that the question of the Valtelline should not be settled without that of the Palatinate. The Duke of Angoulême told him that his Majesty would like to see Denmark and the North create some diversion. He said the King of England had already sent to Denmark with this intent, and that monarch replied that he would only draw his sword with his Majesty.
I have had several conversations with Wake, renewing our intimacy in Piedmont. He told me how Mansfelt had obtained the decisions from England by pretending to have obtained a promise from France to make a diversion in Alsace, and the decision was unexpected from the king, although much discussed. He told me he was to go to Turin first and Venice after, and if necessary he had instructions to go to the Swiss. He could stay where he liked as he had the direction of Italian affairs and he could keep subordinate agents under his orders with the Swiss and in Piedmont, Venice being his residence.
He told me he had letters and proposals from the Prince of Wales which should please your Serenity. He had instructions to treat with any agent of Gabor at Venice. He held a very ample instruction upon the frauds of the Spaniards to publish at a convenient season. But all these things are subject to delay as he proposes to stay some weeks with his Highness. He had suggested that France should satisfy the Lords of Berne, offended by some ill-ordered distributions, for which the king had sent to thank him, saying he had ordered his ministers with the Swiss to cultivate the best relations with him.
Bacq a Choysi, the 13th June, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
432. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Earl of Carlisle and Lord Rich are authorised ambassadors for the King of England. They have seen the king and opened their negotiations with the ministers. They clearly announced that they asked for Madame in marriage and they also asked for a defensive and offensive alliance. The king does not continue to defray them, but every day they receive 1,000 francs for refreshments. They have never appeared covered before Madame, beginning already to serve her as their lady. The three ministers deputed for this, as the Cardinal cannot deal with heretics, have insisted that the marriage must be concluded before the alliance, suggesting that besides the union between the two kings, something might be done for the Palatinate, but they could not give the English an advantage while the match remained doubtful, This is the first difficulty in the negotiations.
The second will be the restitution of the dowry in case of widowhood or death, as England has never been accustomed from time immemorial to restore anything which she has received. In addition religious matters will constitute the hardest rocks. The French have already drawn up various articles which I have discovered.
As the French have not declared themselves about Mansfelt the English have kept silent although they say privately that the promises of their king are public and quite authentic, and he is ready to fulfil them, but that France affords no opportunity of treating upon this subject, referring to the exclusion of the union. But upon this the Earl of Carlisle suggested to me that our league might operate in one direction, and another league, to wit, England, Denmark and their allies with the States in another, without all joining together, the two leagues working simultaneously.
I should like to know what your Serenity thinks of this proposal.
Bacq a Choysi, the 13th June, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
433. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Mansfelt has gone three leagues away from the Court. The ministers consider a diversion in Alsace impossible and they think it would be better to have Mansfelt to England and attempt a diversion in some other way. If England set the count on his feet, France would not fail, if she received the satisfaction of the marriage, to play her part in Germany, but a distant diversion would do no good. The Cardinal of Richelieu assured me that they desired to employ the count to advantage. His employment is seriously prejudiced not only by considerations of Rome but by the interests of France with England. They would like to see England committed, and France will promise to contribute but wants to see the marriage accomplished first of all.
Bacq a Choysi, the 13th June, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
434. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In arranging the articles of the marriage contract with England the chief difficulty consists in the claim to obtain as many advantages for the faith as the Spaniards had, which the English will not agree to grant more than was arranged in the contract between Madame and the late Prince of Wales. They say that the promises made by the king to the three estates are unalterable.
I find that the difficulties centre about three articles, first, the French require twenty-six chaplains for Madame's service; the Spaniards had agreed upon twenty-four, the English will consent to twelve. Second, that no harm shall be done to the Catholics and the promise shall be announced in parliament. To this they promise to let the Catholics alone if they live modestly, but will not agree to the public promise or the participation of parliament. Third, that every kind of appointment in connection with the children of the marriage shall be given to Catholics, and the children themselves shall remain in their mother's charge until the age of twelve years at least. They reply that they do not wish such education to make the sovereigns of England Catholics. This is all I have been able to gather on good authority. After some consideration the English ambassadors have sent back the articles as not acceptable, with no little scorn. The beginning of these negotiations is broken off, but both sides are willing to re-open them. A settlement will prove difficult without mediators,
Bacq a Choysi, the 13th June, 1624.
[Italian.]
June 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
435. To the Ambassador in England.
When the Count of Mansfelt arrived at that Court we heard from you of the favourable progress of his negotiations. The welcome and honours he received were likely to encourage him and your conduct has augmented our high opinion of your prudence. If results correspond to what the king has achieved for the relief of his son-in-law and grandchildren, we may hope for some good, but we can only wait and watch. The operations of our league for the relief of the Valtelline, at so much expense and labour, has also served the interests of the Palatinate, and ought to be considered a great advantage in England, which is very greatly to be desired that fluctuations in the government may not prejudice their own service.
For your relief from that important and very costly charge we have chosen as your successor the Ambassador Pesaro, now at the Most Christian Court. You will inform his Majesty and the ministers of this.
Ayes, 150.Noes, 2.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
June 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
436. To the Ambassador in France.
With regard to Mansfeld or another commander, if England wishes to use him for the affairs of the Palatinate, as her own captain and at her own expense, it will be most opportune for the general advantage and the offices of his Majesty will help in any case, as the league will employ for the Valtelline either Mansfeld, if England does not engage him, or some other commander. On the other hand, to place the forces of the allies under a single commander would give rise to many difficulties and we cannot consent to it.
We have chosen you to go as ambassador to England, and from the voting of the Senate you will understand the value put upon your abilities.
Ayes, 114.Noes, 8.Neutral, 27.
[Italian.]
June 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
437. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Parliament rose last Saturday, as I reported it would. In closing it the king made two speeches to the members. In one he answered their complaints about grievances, the remedy of which would to some extent abridge the authority of the great seal, and he withdrew some pensions or assignments made to his servants. The reply was rather a very bitter and acid reproach, so that they were much dashed; accordingly, to prevent any remembrance thereof they forbad any note of it by common consent. Two remarks, however, proved more pungent than the rest, one on the reduction of pensions, upon which the king remarked that they wished to rob him of his money, the other that they so abhorred the king's seal that they would not even respect the Lord's Prayer under it.
For the second reply, which was much milder and of which I hope to send a copy, the king spoke about accepting and rejecting parliamentary bills. He approved some touching special interests of the realm, and also those upon the subsidy including all the conditions, assuring them with an oath that the money should be expended as they desired and the Palatinate should be recovered one way or another. As regards the subsidy he said it was not for him to thank the parliament except in the name of his children, as it was contributed solely for their interests, taunting and blaming them for imposing so many conditions, which were simply to bind him and nothing else. He proceeded to thank the clergy warmly for their subsidy, calling it really his own, because subject to no conditions. He did not accept the new laws against the Catholics, saying that the old ones sufficed; he would have the old ones enforced and could do no more without prejudicing negotiations already begun, referring to France. He said he would reflect upon the treasurer's sentence, as he attached great importance to the charges against him, practically accusing the parliament either of ignorance or of passion in that judgment. He added with some bitterness that they ought to respect his ministers, and he hoped that for the future they would do so from the highest to the lowest, as indeed they have under other kings.
Such was the reply in substance. One cannot deny that this speech was full of ambiguities and like the lance of Achilles, it did not always wound but sometimes healed, but he certainly expressed his natural sentiments more freely than before, which seem as inseparable from him as harmful for the public service.
The reply met with a varied reception, every one interpreting it in his own favour. Many of the Protestants seemed satisfied, and among these the most prudent, as it is a stroke of art to appear satisfied and render thanks sometimes for what one does not obtain. But others are not satisfied and make no pretences about it, more particularly at the king saying that he would not thank them for himself for the money given to his children, as if their interests were distinguishable, and they also object to his calling them robbers of his money after they have so lavishly and courteously supplied him with such a rich subsidy.
The Spaniards have become hopeful again, while the Catholics feel perfectly happy and many Catholic lords, who have already gone away, have all returned boldly to the city. As regards the resumption of the session, the king himself said that it would take place at All Saints, but many do not believe it and it does not seem likely.
Three days after the close of the session the king released the deposed treasurer from the Tower and he returned to his own house. They do not think he will escape all the pecuniary penalty, as the temptation of the money will be too strong for the king, but for the rest he will be reinstated to some extent. This is the way in England, hardly has the ink dried of a sentence fulminated by parliament than the king annuls it, and against all reason one sees the resurrection of one who is practically the declared enemy of the prince, and absolutely declared of the favourite Buckingham, yet it all happens without exciting disgust, Buckingham, in his feeble state of health, is wavering in the royal favour, in the general belief. He has gone away from the Court on the pretence of a change of air; God grant that desperation has not induced this step. John (sic) Bret, the treasurer's kinsman, is now frequently seen at Court, about whom chiefly the quarrel with Buckingham arose.
The Council of War so far has been nothing but a name, although it meets. One of the members, General Vere, has already left for Holland for his post. It is true that by the king's order they have sent 38 waggon loads of powder and cannon shot for the requirements of Ireland.
The king has not yet signed the Dutch league. They have promised the ambassadors every day but the fulfilment never comes, and they allege first one and then another pretext. The ambassadors do not despair, but the hope of the colonels has greatly diminished and their fourth colleague has never been nominated. The three others are much blamed by many for having lowered themselves to such a small command, since it was the custom for English earls to take none but great appointments; but the worst thing for the league is the news recently brought by the Dutch themselves that their countrymen have hanged ten Englishmen in the East Indies, who were on guard in one of the forts and were found guilty of treason. Many of those, in whom the old hostility and rivalry with the Dutch still flourish, condemn this action as cruel, but the Hispanophiles, to increase the exasperation, declare that they put the English to death without any reason for their commercial advantage and by trumping up false charges. At the first news the king certainly spoke strongly against the Dutch and seemed to flare up, though he grew milder after.
The prince sent some hint to the Earl of Bristol that he would like to end his business by silence and by his absenting himself from the Court for some time. But Bristol replied boldly that he desired either justification or death, and wherever he went he wished to go with honour. This, I fancy, will precipitate action against him and the Lords of the Council who had charge of Spanish affairs have been designated as the judges. He does not lack friends among them, including the Earl of Arundel, who seems to rise hourly in the king's favour. Twice within a few days the king slept at one of his country houses near the city, (fn. 2) and I have been told, though I do not believe it, Bristol also was there in secret; certainly the Spanish ambassadors were secretly present. A courier has recently reached these last with news of the arrival of the fleet in Spain, though every one does not believe this. The departure of Inoiosa in a few days seems certain, and they expect the other Mendoza with ample commissions and complete satisfaction. However, the ambassadors have not yet had the audience so often requested in any recognised place, indeed they complained, I know, that the French ambassador had one when they did not.
This night they set double guards thoughout the city; no one knows the real reason. The Ambassador Carlisle has sent a person with the news of his first offices with the Most Christian, showing that he has begun well. I hear, however, that in general they have little hope in that affair, and the negotiator is considered unfortunate, by the memory of his past embassies.
The French ambassador here, as usual, encourages the Catholics, favours them as much as he can and has already earned much commendation from them.
The Dutch league remains in the balance, I will withold my opinion. Tosi has arrived and given me your Serenity's letter. I will zealously help the business although the exactions here become impossible. Certainly the poor man deserves compassion for his many misfortunes, especially the recent loss of his ship in the Strait of Messina. Giovanni Martinengo has also come, saying he previously received leave from your Serenity to come and see the wars and foreign countries for some time. I received him honourably at the embassy.
London, the 14th June, 1624.
Postscript.—If the league is not signed by Sunday, it is done for.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
438. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Of six Dunkirk ships which should have gone to Spain, one was sunk in leaving the harbour, the others were attacked by twenty Dutch ships, two being sent to the bottom while three took refuge in the port of Dover, where they stood in danger of attack from the English and of becoming their booty.
We hear from England that parliament has voted the subsidy for the public purse so that it shall not be in the king's control, for arming by sea and land and to supply help to the States. The Spanish ambassadors after accusing the favourite of giving the prince the government and the Crown, had fled upon this calumny being submitted to the parliament. They propose to punish them in such way as to render the rupture with Spain irreparable.
Florence, the 15th June, 1624.
[Italian.]
June 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
439. LORENZO PARUTA, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
My informant tells me that in a conference with the Ambassador Marini about the Valtelline, the duke advised that Mansfelt should merely devote himself to serving the King of England in the Palatinate, so as to afford no pretext to the pope and the Spaniards on the score of religion. He said he could prefer a diversion against Genoa rather than against Burgundy, as this would cut off money supplies from the Spaniards.
The last letters from France inform me of the arrival of Lord Hay (Milord d'Es) with precise instructions to bring the negotiations for a marriage with Madame to a head.
Turin, the 17th June, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
440. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have recently received a visit from the English ambassador of the usual cordial description. He asked me if I had his paper, and when I showed him my copy he made a few corrections of non-essential points. He said he was glad I had it. I learned that he had orders to declare himself expressly upon the points set forth, but in such a way as not to irritate the Spaniards and let them know their decision. He said he would like his Majesty, without a rupture here, to help his son-in-law with all his power to recover what was lost. He considered this more expedient than a declaration of open hostility, just as they had acted on this side with the emperor in taking the Palatinate. However, he could not tell what would happen, as they deal with their usual tricks and intricate generalities, because they merely sent commissions to London to their ministers who were leaving. He put a very bad interpretation upon the action of the Catholic king, because every satisfaction had been procured by him for the King of Great Britain about the Palatine's interests, and as the contents of the paper had been decided upon and were not proposed they saw no reason for any reply except that they would continue in their original friendship and good wishes, having recourse to arms merely for the good of Christendom.
This, he said, was the substance of the reply, consisting of ten lines only. He had contrived to see it furtively, because he had not asked for it, and it had not been sent to him. The count sent it that the king might know the mind of the Catholic. The Count of Gondomar also read a minute of the reply to a friend of mine, which corresponded with what the ambassador told me. The latter told me that when he spoke to Olivares the count fidgeted (si torceva), indicating the most lively distress, asking him if he would punctiliously express the king's will. He told me that the count could not conceal his extreme trouble at the breaking off of the treaties, and that he wished a different decision had been taken. Gondomar said much the same to my friend, though without entering into any particulars.
I remarked to the ambassador that reports were published about the resumption of the negotiations. He seemed aware of this but declared that unless the Palatine was restored to what had been taken from him they would never agree to the fulfilment of past agreements or the opening of new ones. He learned from his last letters that contrary to the statement of the Catholic ambassadors, the Earl of Bristol had not been admitted to his Majesty's presence, and as the parliament continued he considered the renewal of the business most unlikely.
Gondomar similarly declared that he despaired utterly unless the aspect of affairs changed. He remarked that they would make an effort, but the emperor seemed firmly resolved not to restore the Palatinate. The Council forsees that if the English move in earnest, they will move along with them a great force and union to the hurt of the house of Austria in every direction.
The Marquis of Aitona, in speaking on the same subject, admitted that they greatly feared the inclination displayed by the Most Christian to unite with England, but that the incitement came mostly from your Serenity and Savoy.
The ambassador also told me that in addition to the slights which the prince had experienced here the Marquis of Inoiosa, with abominable malignity, had endeavoured to persuade the king of a design on the Prince's part, fomented by Buckingham, to put himself forward, with the help of parliament. Kings are always suspicious and his Majesty felt uneasy, but the prince completely cleared himself and the elaborate perfidy therefore became manifest. The prince claimed that the marquis had forfeited his privileges under the Jus Gentium, as a traitor, and demanded his exemplary punishment, the more so because he accused him of plotting murder. The ambassador told me this with much emotion, enjoining secrecy; but nevertheless it is known at Court, where they say that the marquis is in custody. The ambassador stated that so far nothing had been said about it, but the Spaniards would defend themselves, either denying the miserable business or laying the blame on the marquis, according to the usual fashion of attributing what does not suit them to the ministers. He told me what happened when the Infanta married the present Queen of France (sic), their ambassador in London was negotiating for the deceased prince, and when the king complained of their duplicity upon the conclusion of the marriage with the Most Christian, they laid it all upon their ambassador. But he, when his confidence in the royal promise not to publish it had been thus removed, showed the commissions by which he acted. At this the ambassador remarked that with the exception of Olivares and some of his dependants, they always meant to deceive, and the prince expressed himself as most satisfied with the advice he had given, contrary to that of Digby, to go away and not wait for the nuptials or the Infanta, as they only aimed at making him a Catholic; otherwise, deceitful in everything, they would drag things out, with still further affronts to his honour, and possibly with the danger that they would not allow him to leave Spain. He condemned the nuncio severely, who in his pretended wisdom, imposed conditions impossible of fulfilment, in the assurance that the prince must of necessity accept them, but he had protested that if they pressed his Highness too far, once he had returned to his father, he would not observe them (certificando che per necessarii rispetti il Principe vi assenti, et che egli protestò che reducendosi Sua Altezza in certi termini ritornato dal padre non si manterebbono poi).
He asked me how the affair of the Grisons was going, if the league continued vigorous and of one accord, and especially if fresh troubles had arisen between the Spaniards and your Serenity. I told him of the condition of the Valtelline and the decision of the Most Christian. When I referred to the frequent vexations inflicted on your Serenity's subjects he went off into a long disquisition upon the extortions made from his king's subjects, for which they could never obtain any redress, although they promised faithfully countless times. He said that things were all going badly for this monarchy, by the judgment of God, and if his king decided to attack it by sea, and if the Dutch, the Most Christian, your Serenity and Savoy all attacked their strength would not enable them to resist.
I merely remarked that the attack would be most formidable. The ambassador did not conceal that they were sending embassies to various places, especially to Paris and Venice, for most important negotiations, so that the Spaniards were most alarmed and he understood that they contemplated giving full satisfaction upon the Valtelline. He was aware that the Nuncio Massimi divulged that the prince had come not only for the Infanta but to offer a league to counter the one already arranged, thinking that this lie would upset the French marriage and their close understanding with the league. I told him they had tried to make me believe it, but I had always seen through the trick, because the Spaniards make use of the nuncio's mouth.
The interview with the English ambassador lasted a long while. I behaved tactfully but thought it best not to show any reserve.
Madrid, the 18th June, 1624.
Postscript.—I am advised that they have certainly given a written reply to the English ambassador and he has despatched it by a special courier. They also say that he has decided to send home (a sua casa) the jewels which the prince left for the Infanta at his departure.
[Italian.]
June 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
441. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador of Germany told the French ambassador here that the emperor grieved that the Most Christian listened to proposals for a league with his enemies. France assured him that his king had no such idea, adding that the shadows would soon be removed and suspicions disappear. I tried to learn more from him but without success, except that upon the Valtelline he remarked that the dispute could not be settled except by permitting the pass to the Catholic; that they were firmly resolved to restore nothing to the Palatine, and the ambassador commended the decision, saying that Olivares had shown him the reply for the English, who they hope will soon give up all idea of moving, if they are not strengthened by the Most Christian and the allies.
I also hear that they recently sent a courier to the Marquis of Mirabel, probably about Mansfeld, not the Valtelline. So much the French ambassador told me.
Madrid, the 18th June, 1624.
[Italian.]
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
442. To the Ambassador in England.
Giovanni Pesaro is proceeding from the embassy of France to that of England to relieve you of your cares and labours. We direct you to consign to him all the instructions and papers, the more necessary owing to his long absence from home, to enable him to take up the thread of current affairs. You will perform the customary offices of presentation and leave taking with the king, the prince and the ministers, and that done you will return home, with the knowledge of having afforded us complete satisfaction in all the posts you have occupied.
Ayes, 146.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
443. To the Prince of Wales.
Notification that Giovanni Pesaro has been appointed to take up the embassy at the English Court.
Ayes, 146.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
444. To the King of England.
Valaresso has completed his embassy and Giovanni Pesaro is coming in his place, coming straight from the Court of France to maintain the cordial relations existing between his Majesty and the republic, and request to give him credence.
Ayes, 146.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
445. That the following Instructions be given to GIOVANNI DA PESARO, chosen as Ordinary Ambassador to England.
When your successor arrives you will take the customary leave of the Most Christian and his ministers. Arrived in London you will at once ask for audience of his Majesty, with Valaresso. In presenting your credentials you will express our esteem and desire to maintain cordial relations feeling sure that we shall always find his Majesty responsive. You will wish him a long and happy life and your chief object will be to try and foster friendship and increase confidence.
You will also pay your respects to the Prince of Wales, to whom we have given your letters, in a most cordial way, assuring him of our highest esteem, so as to fill him with an assurance of our most friendly disposition, and saving other respects you will, in the course of your embassy, show him such signs of confidence as you may consider helpful. You will keep on the alert upon the affairs of the Palatinate and the States and everything else, to advise us of all that concerns our service.
You will observe the terms prescribed to your predecessor towards the foreign representatives, maintaining good relations with them.
The popes have previously asked us to direct our ambassadors in England to help the Catholic religion. You must proceed with reserve in this matter and act with great tact and circumspection in order not to do harm instead of good.
You will receive the papers of your charge from the Ambassador Valaresso as well as our orders. We send you a copy of the decision of our Council of Ten about ciphers and that of the Senate about keeping the affairs of Rome apart.
We desire you to have a chaplain and an English interpreter, and have assigned 186 ducats a year to the former, including table expenses, and 100 ducats to the latter.
You will receive 300 gold ducats of lire 7 each a month, without obligation to render account; you must keep six horses, including those of your secretary and servant; we will give you a subvention for four months and 1,000 gold ducats as a present. For horses, trappings and coffers 300 ducats, for which you need not render account.
We give your secretary 100 ducats and 20 ducats each to two couriers accompanying you. We grant you 150 ducats of lire 6 grossi 4 each for the expenses of couriers and carriage of letters, for which you will render account.
For all other expenses we have assigned to you 40 crowns a month, paying you four months in advance, as we have done with the salaries of the chaplain and interpreter.
You will take silver at the risk of Our Serenity to the sum of 400 ducats, in conformity with the permission we gave when you left this city.
Ayes, 146.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
446. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Constable asked leave to go to Dauphiné. The king held out hopes of obliging him, but after the completion of the negotiations with England if they did not require his command in Picardy.
The Count of Soissons never ceases to complain about the marriage negotiations with England, but the king has promised to afford him every satisfaction, subject to reasons of state and the public advantage. They have sent word to the prince of these negotiations in conformity with the custom of informing him about all the most important affairs.
The ordinary English ambassador has left dissatisfied with his own country, because after his labours and expenses he is recalled at the moment of such great negotiations. However, he takes away a rich present of silver from France.
Bacq a Choysi, the 20th June, 1624.
[Italian.]
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
447. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Duke of Angoulême told Mansfeld of the decision of France. He softened the refusal with fair words, suggesting that he should go to England, in the assurance that if the English and French become more closely united, the king will give him greater tokens of affection and something more substantial for his employment. Your Excellencies may imagine Mansfeld's disgust. He said he was ruined and would lose the support of England, who certainly would not move without France. He asked for a written paper to tell him what answer to give in England, whither he would go to restore that king's promise, as he had undertaken to do. The duke asked him to put his demands in writing and promised him every possible satisfaction.
Mansfelt spoke separately to the ambassadors of England and Savoy. He said the English assured him that their king was quite disposed to act, but if France would not employ him, it was superflucus for him to return to England. The count told me that the King of Great Britain agreed to the diversion in Burgundy and the landing of his troops at Nice. He told me in great confidence of the Duke of Savoy's designs upon Genoa, and that in passing he would have to satisfy him. This would be necessary because he would have to go directly to Burgundy. The Savoyard ambassador had pledged him to conceal this plan from me. It must be of long standing because Wake knows something about it, so Mansfelt assured me. The negotiation for two distinct commands of English, one for the league and the other for the duke, confirm my idea that the ambassador of Savoy first suggested the count's journey to England, and as Wake left Piedmont at the very time that the Prince of Wales left Spain, I feel sure there was something preconcerted.
Mansfelt commended the design against Genoa, as striking the Spaniards at the heart. I cannot estimate the consequences of these designs. I do not think that the French would object. I cannot speak of the English with authority, because the ambassadors have not yet returned my visit. Mansfelt certainly showed me most friendly letters from Buckingham, assuring him of their constant favour, saying that the Earl of Carlisle would find a way of fulfilling the promises, telling of his improved health and showing that it would be most difficult to obtain a grant of 30,000l. sterling from parliament at present and assuring him that they would contrive to obtain every possible satisfaction for him in that quarter.
Upon this last point I sounded the ministers and the Marquis of la Vieville in particular. He passed it by and said it was necessary first to join their interests with England and make sure of the marriage; he did not believe that the English would employ Mansfelt unless the league would engage itself also. He did not believe that England would interest herself in the Grisons unless the league gave undertakings about the Palatinate, but as we have already decided to act, the King of England should seize the opportunity for his own advantage. He said they could not consent to the Burgundy expedition without the marriage. He thought the employment of the Duke of Savoy would prove more effective than that of Mansfelt, but with England friendly and allied they would not mind anything, otherwise the plan would end with making a covert diversion in Italy. He told me what he would like to see done, the prosecution of the objects of the league among the Swiss and Grisons, if the English match takes place. Mansfelt's diversion in Burgundy, and Alsace, landing the English at Nice, if it does not. A diversion by Savoy in Italy, with their secret assistance, approaches being made to Rome and elsewhere to arrange a satisfactory peace.
They asked Mansfelt to become a Catholic. He said he had no other faith than what his Majesty commanded, but he could not make a more explicit declaration without injuring himself with other princes with whom he had interests.
The two queens, Madame and Monsieur expressed a wish to see the count, so the Ambassador Carlisle took him in a coach to meet their Majesties and their Highnesses in the country. As regards the difficulties with Rome they seem more disposed to throw aside such considerations at the instance of England. I fancy the Cardinal Richelieu has provided facilities as they could not have done so much without his consent.
Bacq a Choysi, the 20th June, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
448. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassadors asked for prompt audience of the king and queen. They offered their excuses for not accepting the marriage proposals, as their powers only allowed them to treat upon the terms of another negotiation at this Court. The king expressed his readiness to grant all in his power, but he could not put aside what depended upon others or his own honour and conscience and that of Madame. The queen replied to the same effect; I fancy she wants the part of mediatrix; because the ambassadors speak highly of Richelieu.
They object and refuse to accept the articles because they say these are in the same words as the Spanish ones, and the causes which broke off the Spanish match would not allow the French one. They protested that rather than concede such a public promise of security to the Catholics and contravene the promises made to parliament, they would rather perish or depart, although with promises in the name of the king and the Prince of Wales that the Catholics should be tolerated and not molested.
The French say they have not used the same words as the Spaniards, though in a similar subject the sense is the same. Two sorts of conditions were granted to the Spaniards, some voluntary in the course of the negotiations, the others forced through the presence of the Prince of Wales and to get him safely out of that country. The first kind could not be refused to the French, as the honour and credit of France are involved, as well as their conscience, their standing with the Catholic powers, and the question of the dispensation from Rome, which may be easily obtained or refused.
For dowry they offer 700,000 crowns, which the English want increased, and if the question of religion is settled, the king will generously augment it. The English will find a satisfactory compromise upon the restitution of the dowry. There will be no difficulty about the number of priests as it matters little whether there be more or less. The question of the children's education will be settled by halving the term from twelve to six years. As the English remain very firm in declining anything but verbal promises that the Catholics shall not be persecuted, they suggest that as a prince's word is worth more than any promise in a treaty, the marriage shall be made without this condition, with a separate promise in favour of the Catholics and a declaration that this protection shall avail them if they obey the laws and the king, but they shall only be safe from persecution.
The English will not even accept this and both sides seem very obstinate. The ministers here have asked for my help, and I will try to oblige the two nations.
The English also wish to join together the marriage with an undertaking for the recovery of the Palatinate; but the French will not agree and do not want to buy war at the price of the princess. They promise, however, on the completion of the marriage, to add to it a defensive and offensive union between the two kingdoms, which would embrace the Palatinate.
They have introduced an article prohibiting the king and prince from instructing Madame in any religion except her own. They have sent word to his Holiness of these negotiations, and the Secretary Villeocler has informed the nuncio, who promised that the pope would meet his Majesty's wishes in the assurance that the Catholic faith would be safeguarded. Some touch of ill feeling arose between the nuncio and the secretary because the former professed to receive this office as a sign of respect for his Holiness, while the secretary said it was nothing more than a display of filial affection. However, the nuncio goes about saying that what has been done for the Spaniards will not be refused to the French, and that it is necessary to do everything that the Spaniards promised, otherwise they will not get the dispensation from Rome, or else that after what has been done it would be better to let the affairs of those Catholics go to ruin than agree to a marriage without assured advantages for the faith. It avails nothing to point out that Madame herself will constitute a pledge for all the Catholics there, and without such a pledge their peril is certain.
All the same, from my observations, the French mean to carry this business to completion promptly, and they will not submit to delays from Rome, acting, if necessary, before the dispensation arrives.
The nuncio spoke to me about Bavaria and the Catholic league. The French missions had proved unsuccessful. He imparted the ridiculous information that 50,000 Turks and 30,000 English were about to fall upon the Empire.
Bacq a Choysi, the 20th June, 1624.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The meeting at Senlis took place on Saturday the 6th June. See Wake's despatch of the 31st May, old style, State Papers, Foreign, France.
2 Chamberlain, in a letter to Carleton of the 5th June, old style, states that James spent the night of Sunday the 9th at Arundel's house at Highgate. Birch: Court and Times of James I, ii, page 459.