Venice
October 1624, 16-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1912

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459-473

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'Venice: October 1624, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 18: 1623-1625 (1912), pp. 459-473. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88921 Date accessed: 28 November 2014.


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October 1624

Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
615. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I went to Court this morning and had a private conversation with Sciombergh, with the purpose of removing the bad impression created by the enemies of the republic. As regards Mansfelt, he told me that the league never proposed that he should fight under its flag, indeed, they proposed he should make a diversion in Burgundy in his own name. The king would never agree to this for several reasons, which he recounted. The League must know what Mansfelt intended to do. As England had a half share in this force, it could not be called the League's, without making the world believe that they were united with the English who are interested in the Palatinate; it would, moreover, disgrace the king and his allies to let the world see that to pay 30,000 men, the King of England must bear half, while they together only bore the other half, as if the League could not support the whole force. Thirdly, and in great secrecy, he told me that they had made an arrangemont with Bavaria and Tilly promising not to meddle in the Palatinate or Germany, while they on their side promised not to interfere with the Marquis of Coure or help Leopold. If Mansfeld took the flag of the League, everyone would know that England had most to do with that force, and straightway it would be announced that the League had united with England and that they had entered Germany in the interests of the Palatinate, so that Bavaria and Tilly would be released from their obligations. Fourthly, if Mansfelt had the League's flag, the pope would make a great disturbance, and he might feel constrained to join the Spaniards.
St. Germains, the 16th October, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Oct. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
616. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador of Denmark has gone, leaving his business incomplete. As regards trade, they referred him to the Infanta in Flanders. Nevertheless he seemed satisfied. They do not attach great importance to the matter here as from Denmark they only receive corn, cattle, fish and vegetables. Nothing was said about religion, but nothing more would be allowed than they allow to the English. Accordingly, I think that the Dutch may be relieved of the great anxiety they had that the negotiations of this ambassador might mortally affect their interests.
Madrid, the 17th October, 1624.
[Italian.]
Oct. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
617. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The French ambassador remarked to me that although the marriage with England is arranged and the conditions as regard religion are even more advantageous than those granted here, yet he feared that the pope might raise difficulties about the dispensation, under the pretext that as France was full of heretics they could more easily obtain help from England with the new bond: a condition that did not apply to Spain, which has none. This consideration may delay the grant, at least as long as the question of the Valtelline remains open.
Madrid, the 17th October, 1624.
[Italian.]
Oct. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
618. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
In your reply to the English ambassador's office about the Queen Palatine you have fully satisfied us by accepting in general terms her proposed invitation to the republic to take part at the christening of her expected child if it is a boy. We direct you to see the ambassador and tell him that we shall greatly value the honour which so worthy a princess does to us. But as you cannot take part in the ceremony, owing to the Catholic faith which we profess, we will send you instructions, if the event happens, so that you may substitute one of the princes to hold the child at the font. We do not know whether any present is made upon such occasions; you will notice what France and Sweden do, so that we may decide accordingly.
Ayes, 102.Noes, 5.Neutral, 16.
[Italian.]
Oct. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
619. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English affair has run a danger of rupture these last days, and without much labour and tact all would have been ruined. The question of religion, already settled, again rose in dispute, not in essence but incidentally, as the English king did not want to include it in the articles, but claimed he would be sufficiently bound by a declaration in a letter to the Most Christian. The ambassador of Savoy and I were called in and we tried to bring them to terms, but in vain, until at last, the English ambassadors gave in and agreed to an article being made, but separate from the others. This being settled, the ambassadors asked audience of the king and said that at the beginning of their embassy they had proposed two things, one was the marriage, the other an offensive and defensive alliance against the Spaniards and Austrians They were told that when the first had been arranged, the second should also be settled. They accordingly asked his Majesty to give orders for the discussion and conclusion of this league. The king referred them to the Council, where they have worked hard on this affair these last days. They say here that they have declared themselves sufficiently against the Spaniards and Austrians by all they have done, and deeds speak better than words. But the English, recognising their advantage and the weakness of the others, stood firm, declaring that it had been promised them that a league should follow the marriage, and if they failed in the one, they might easily fail in the other. I did not want to interfere in this affair, although they asked me, and although I am sure your Excellencies are interested in a settlement between the two kings, especially as I find that they do not take my interference in good part. The Ambassador of Savoy intervened and suggested a reasonable compromise, that the King of France should write a letter to the King of England, undertaking to declare himself upon the consummation of the marriage, when Madame has reached England; but so far the ministers have not consented to this, though they said that the king would say as much verbally. Such is the present state of the affair. I cannot pass an absolute opinion on the subject although I feel sure that the marriage cannot be broken off whatever happens, although the English ambassadors here speak doubtfully about it, but as I have said before they are men to make the most of their opportunities (sono huomini avantaggiosi), who know with whom they have to deal, who see the present state of affairs, and consequently expect to obtain all they ask.
Poissy, the 18th October, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
620. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In the council upon Mansfeld's affairs I may state that they agreed to pay him 20,000l. a month or 200,000 francs; to ordain a levy of 12,000 English in this kingdom, which will cost the king 40,000l. or 400,000 francs, and to supply Mansfeld with a sum of 15,000l. down, for his requirements and other expenses. These would be most helpful decisions if the execution were not delayed by waiting for assurances from France. The English did not want a breach, but to carry on negotiations in order to proceed or excuse themselves, following the example of the French. I have already reported the two claims, an assured passage for the troops through that kingdom, and a written promise, similar to the one given to Mansfeld by the king. Upon this point they are treating further to insert in the documents not only the separate interests of the Grisons and the Palatine, but to unite the interests in both. To prevent a breach, if it cannot be managed otherwise, each party may declare its own interests, to wit, France for the Valtelline and England for the Palatinate. They did not require the promises of the Ambassador Fiat or the assurances of the Most Christian king, because the king, the prince, Buckingham, and all have declared that offers will crowd upon Mansfeld when once the promises of his Most Christian Majesty become apparent. They say here that the promises of France in this matter are not well assured, and it is not at all likely that they will allow an English army to pass through France. Some exceptions made by the king in the marriage negotiations require more caution, especially the question of proceeding jointly and acting separately. The promise and decision will certainly work in the safety of companionship at the same time. Mansfeld has obtained some advantages, notably the permission to take away 300 guns, as these are well made here and pay a heavy export duty, so that the count, through his agents, with this exemption, can provide himself with many arms without interest. They have paid him 12,000 florins to relieve his necessities, and after being entertained and received he left on the 16th for Holland, accompanied by a lord as far as Gravesend, and defrayed until his embarcation, for which they have assigned to him two men of war, one large and the other small. But the most considerable provision and the substance of his hopes is the letter of exchange which he takes with him for Amsterdam for 200,000 francs, which will not be paid, they assure me, except by fresh orders, and with the guarantees required from France, of which Mansfeld advised as well as the Ambassador Fiat, to give satisfaction here and that it may afterwards be returned by Mansfeld, a secret worthy of consideration and attention. I find that this business was subsequently discussed by the ministers in France, approved by the Cardinal Richelieu, but opposed by the Count of Schomberg because the Earl of Carlisle had assured him that everything would be carried out by the King of Great Britain upon the simple promise of his Most Christian Majesty.
Before leaving, Mansfeld saw his Majesty, who received him graciously. He put various questions and promised his countenance, but showed clearly that he meant to threaten rather than to break and in such fashion that I cannot feel sure whether it was simplicity, duplicity, or playing with him. With the king's dislike of war, Buckingham, to encourage Mansfeld and the others, promises to lead him on step by step. That nobleman, though he does nothing unless by the command of his sovereign, yet in matters of consequence he is not satisfied unless he has the orders of the Council. He leans for support on the favour and affection of the prince and he aims in every direction at securing his supreme influence against the changes of fortune.
The prince's reception of Mansfeld was most satisfactory, and he expressed wise and sound opinions, but I must state that it is not clear whether this worthy prince dominates his father or the latter rules his son when they differ in opinion.
In seconding the compliments of the Court and maintaining the honour of this embassy, I entertained Mansfeld and all his noble company, and as many leading English nobles favoured me that day, I was able to maintain in splendour the dignity of the most serene republic.
London, the 18th October, 1624.
[Italian.]
Oct. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
621. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The decision to postpone the parliament has been published by printed edict, until the 16th February or the 26th, by our style, on the grounds of the mortal sickness now prevalent; but discussions on the subject turn upon the impropriety of the season and the days being two short for the business to be transacted. The most important considerations besides what I have reported are that the present moment would not be a favourable one to ask for fresh subsidies, when those granted are not matured, while in February, and nearer to active operations, they can ask on better grounds with more likelihood of success. But above all, I am told that Bristol's case is not yet thoroughly ripe for his ruin, a question which concerns the favourite supremely, who proceeds with his plan to beat down the opposing party and to raise those who may act as his allies.
They have deprived the deposed treasurer of his office of Master of the Wards, a noble and wealthy office of this crown, and granted it to Naunton, a worthy man, sometime Secretary of State, and ejected through the offices of Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador. They think of appointing a treasurer, but I do not think they will do it soon. The same Gondomar also succeeded by his representations in securing the punishment of some English gentlemen (fn. 1) who, some years before, had a venture in the Amazons in the Indies, and plundered some Spanish ships beyond the equinoctial line, that is to say, without infringing the conditions of the mutual understanding. The prince has now expressed his intention of recognising that case as wrongfully decided, and to permit the persons interested to go that voyage again. This would be a good beginning and may serve to stir the hopes of those who would like to see the naval forces of the realm take the sea, the mighty ships of this king which might be ready in a fortnight, instead of perishing uselessly off their coasts. This happened on the 13th instant in a great storm to quite twenty ships in the neighbourhood of the Downs off Kent, a part facing France and Flanders, including notably a ship called the Dolphin, belonging to the Duke of Buckingham, the admiral. This storm served the cause of the Dunkirk ships, which seized the opportunity, took the risks and set sail, under the pretence of drying them, and the first got safe away to Dunkirk after some trouble, another perished in the gale, the remaining two are being chased, the result not being known. In the midst of this pother, one of the king's ships interposed against both parties, and sent word that they had imposed peace, but I fancy it served to make the Dutch withdraw and let the Spaniards escape. They complain of the Dutch venturing to begin a fight off these shores, but as the Spaniards got the advantage by escaping from the blockade, nothing more will be said, except that neither party will be beholden to the king here, who, by wishing to stand well with all, has pleased none.
The Ambassador Colonna left as I announced, accompanied by the Master of the Ceremonies, a man of Spanish sympathies, to prevent the disorders which might arise on the journey and at his embarcation. News has come that Inoiosa has been arrested in Spain and that this one will be detained in Flanders, a circumstance that pleases or the reverse, according to the value put upon appearances and personal sympathies.
Beotru (fn. 2) has arrived in the name of his Most Christian Majesty to condole with the prince on his accident. They expect the news of the signing of the marriage articles and the arrival of the Secretary Villeocler for whom the ambassador is beginning to prepare apartments.
I am told that Mansfeld sent Nicolas to Turin from the coast when on his way, on the pretence of asking for his money, but I have some indication that it is in order to be able to land his men in the duke's dominions. That prince has some intrigues here about the designs on Geneva, but I do not find that there is entire application or desperate resolution.
The prince is well at Hampton Court. The king has gone off alone to Royston, a small place fifty miles away, whither his Highness will follow him, and they will return together after some days. This separation is unusual, especially as Buckingham also is apart, shut up in a room with an indisposition which he brought from Spain.
The Secretary of the Council has brought me the enclosed decree which in addition to the permission about the raisins, contains the like for muscat wine. I thanked him, saying we had petitioned about the raisins, and I would write about the wine to your Serenity, who desired an increase in our mutual trade. As I have no farther information upon this affair, I shall await the public commands.
The Secretary Conway told me that the king had been assured that Venice sought the freedom of the trade to favour the trade and interests of the Dutch. In order to remove every trace of this idea, I assured him that the business concerned your Serenity exclusively, and you conducted it sincerely for the advantage of yourself and your subjects, for reasonable and mutual benefits.
London, the 18th October, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
622. At Hampton Court, the 27th September, 1624.
The following present.
The Archbishop of Canterbury.Lord Chichester.
The Lord Keeper.The Lord Treasurer.
The Lord President.The Comptroller.
The Lord Steward.The Secretary Conway.
The Lord Chamberlain.The Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Viscount Grandison.The Master of the Rolls.
At the request of Sig. Alvise Valaresso, ambassador of the Republic of Venice, his Majesty has announced at the Council table that notwithstanding any prohibition or proclamation of his Majesty, any act of the Council or privilege of any company, Venetian subjects may bring raisins and muscat wines, the produce of their own country, to the kingdom of England or other of his Majesty's dominions, in English ships, upon payment of the duties, customs etc. at present paid for the same, or which shall be payable by foreigners. Resolved that Venetian subjects may, in future, bring raisins and muscat wine as above, and that this be registered in the decrees of the Council, a copy being given to the ambassador.
WILLIAM BEECHER.
[Italian.]
Oct. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
623. To the Ambassador in Spain.
We hear from Milan that the Duke of Feria is most anxious to introduce garrisons of the Catholic's troops into the Valtelline. The papal ministers declare that the pope will object, but the last letters from Milan state that Mons. Sachetti has received orders to receive such help from the governor, but only in case of absolute necessity. Cardinal Lodovisio has gone to Milan, where he is expected to negotiate about the Valtelline, but his departure is apparently against the pope's wish. The Duke of Pastrana has gone to Florence, meeting the Archduke Charles and Bravo, they say in order to persuade the Grand Duke to join the Catholic against the League. Pastrana has since come to Venice incognito. The reason is unknown; it is said that Feria wishes to confer with him before he returns to Rome. Letters from France of the 3rd inst. state that the Most Christian and his ministers are making active preparations for war; Bethune has written that the pope does not want war in Italy, from fear that if the Duke of Urbino dies, the Spanish may prevent him from taking possession of the duchy. They have instructed Bethune to try and induce the pope to side with the League, promising that the French will put the Church in possession of Urbino. The duke has gone to Susa in Piedmont to confer with the Constable of France, and he also wished to see our Ambassador Paruta. Troops are reaching the Governor of Milan from Naples and Sardinia, and he is placing them so that he can readily throw them into the Valtelline in case of need.
The like to England, to serve for information.
Ayes, 100.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Oct. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
624. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Monday Cardinals Barberino and Megalotti should return from Frascati, to take part in the congregation upon the marriage dispensation for France and England, as the French ambassador urged this strongly before the pope left.
Rome, the 19th October, 1624.
[Italian.]
Oct. 19.
Misc.
Cod. No. 62.
Venetian
Archives.
625. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Upon the sending of ambassadors by France and England to Denmark and Sweden, the Spaniards do not believe that it is to settle their differences, but are convinced that they mean to negotiate a league in favour of the Palatine after the marriage has taken place. Accordingly, in order to lull England, they have sent the Secretary Bruneo from London to Brussels, to assure them that in the Assembly they will act for the advantage of the Palatine, restoring what they have and giving him even more, especially as they understand that the king there is sending for the restoration of Franchendale. In the midst of these efforts with France and England, they are inducing the electors to urge the emperor to attend the Assembly in person.
Vienna, the 19th October, 1624.
[Italian; copy.]
Oct. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Svizzeri.
Venetian
Archives.
626. GIROLAMO CAVAZZA, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Marquis of Coure, in speaking of Tilly's movements near Metz, said his king would send him reinforcements of 6,000 men, bringing up his strength to 20,000 men. This had nothing to do with Mansfelt, who expected to get 6,000 men from England. He asked me if your Serenity had anything to do with Mansfelt's diversion; I said I did not know, but hitherto the republic had shown a reluctance to take up anything except in the name of the League. I know that, he said, but they may have brought in the Palatine, in order to interest the King of England, who otherwise would not bear half the expense of the force.
Zurich, the 19th October, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Oct. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
627. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Hope of relieving Breda grows ever fainter. The Dutch have held several discussions on the subject and have decided to ask the princes, their allies, for more help, granting fresh levies and undertaking some diversion, especially as they hear that the Spaniards are increasing their forces in Germany.
It is said that the Dunkirk ships blockaded off England made great efforts to get away in the strong winds and storms of late. The Vice Admiral got away to Dunkirk, a second sank, a third blew up with the Dutch who had boarded it, only the Dutch captain and a Portuguese soldier escaping, the fourth escaped, but pursued by three others who will certainly capture it. The news is not yet confirmed, but it seems authentic.
I enclose a copy of the Infanta's reply to Trumbull about the restitution of Franchendal. You will note his proposal that the merchants of that mart shall trade freely with those of the emperor, also that the Infanta shall induce the neighbouring princes to allow the troops sent from England to pass without hindrance. She excuses herself upon these two requests, which is a bad sign. They probably want to keep the King of Great Britain undecided and prevent him from making up his mind, but this time the Spaniards may be too late.
The Hague, the 21st October, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
628. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Count of Mansfeld left a part of his following at Dover in order not to burden himself with numbers beyond his requirements, in the hope of returning to this kingdom. This, however, will not be allowed unless they are certain of acting in conjunction with France. His Chancellor, Veis, stayed at Court to look after his affairs, which are in their original condition of doubtfulness. The reply from France is that the king there will not give his promise in writing for many reasons, in order not to offend Rome and prevent the dispensation of the marriage, so here they say they cannot employ Mansfeld, as the king here cannot make a declaration different from that of France, so that he may not be left alone in the war, and it might not appear that a young king was driving hard this one who is old in years, experience and prudence. Thus Buckingham expressed himself to me and spoke to the same effect to the Ambassador Fiat. However, this has not prevented the king from writing to all the lord lieutenants or sheriffs of the counties to have 12,000 foot in readiness, declaring specifically that after having tried every means to recover the Palatinate in a friendly way, and meeting with nothing but delays and fraud, he could no longer put off the attempt at recovery and therefore his Majesty had decided to support his cause by arms. On the one hand they want to work covertly in concert, on the other they publish rumours of open war. The advantages of such an announcement are the appearance of an independent decision, showing France and the world that they will not be wanting here, but above all in consoling and soothing their own people and the parliament.
The members of the Council of War say that by the end of next month all the men will be at the sea coast ready to co-operate with the designs of the French. But those who know the customs and laws of the country declare that even without opposition from the king months will be required for maturing the levies, as if the men are collected by the press, that is by forced levies, they must make a selection throughout the kingdom, well arranged and regulated, and above all it was necessary to decide whether this was a legitimate occasion for sending men out of the kingdom, since they claim that they are only obliged to the defence of this kingdom itself and to cross to attack France. These delays might be avoided by making levies of volunteers, such as went to Holland, but under the pretext of getting better men. It is not clear whether they do not wish for delay. In this state of affairs Veis urges on the expedition. The French ambassador contends that the promises of his king even unsigned are quite sufficient considering what he is doing.
The agent of the Palatine, while seemingly suspicious of Mansfeld because the princes of Germany do not make arrangements with him, recognises the advantages for his master of interesting several princes in his person, and acts as if he wished Mansfeld's employment, though leaving the entire control of the forces and expenditure to the Palatine. With such ideas and the hope of finding the king better disposed he is beginning to negotiate that they pay down the money without raising the men, as Mansfeld will have no trouble in finding troops, and if it is certain that the money will be spent under the guidance of his master, the States and other princes, many will supply powerful assistance. In this way the King of Great Britain will satisfy his children and will not involve himself in their movements which he detests so much.
Some think that if they do not make the arrangement with France his Majesty will find it easier to follow this course; time will show.
While uncertainty reigns here there begins to be some doubt about the stipulations of the marriage, although it was arranged in every detail, but at the signing, the English ambassadors at the Most Christian Court claimed to unite the marriage with the recovery of the Palatinate, declaring this had been promised. The French denied the promise and the treaty remained unsigned after two distinct meetings which left ill feeling. Special expresses have come from the Most Christian Court and now they are labouring about separating the two affairs or joining them. It is not very clear what the king will decide upon, especially as his intentions become more and more obscure. Some think that being too jealous of his authority, caring little for France and doubtful whether the marriage may not force on war, and that when his son has offspring he will become possessed of too much power, the king will use his arts deliberately to obstruct and would prefer never to conclude.
Buckingham shows every affection and confidence for France and hastens everything on. But it is understood that Spanish intrigues continue, that it is necessary to force the king's hand by decisive action; that Gondomar is about to cross to this kingdom (so the Spaniards told his Majesty's ambassador at the Catholic Court); but this announcement is considered a trick of the Spaniards, as probably Gondomar is intended to proceed to Germany.
Amid these circumstances the prince has gone to join his Majesty, followed by Buckingham. His Highness was summoned by his father who cannot bear to have his son far from his sight, and the duke went to follow the lode star of his fortunes.
The French ambassador will leave to-morrow to dismiss Beotru and to complete these arrangements, to which I may add that as the term of the deposit of Franchendal expired on the 13th inst. many consultations were held here previously to decide what should be done. They resolved to ask for restitution, and his Majesty's agent preferred the request to the Infanta. As a serious matter she referred it to her council who considered that she should promptly make restitution at the proper time with all the munitions and provisions of war and in accordance with the treaty allow his Majesty's forces to proceed to garrison that fortress. But as the king has no one ready to receive the place, men to garrison it or means to use that passage, as the Infanta is only bound to permit it through her own dominions, while they are forbidden to attack territories consigned to other princes, including Bavaria, or Tilly's forces, the whole thing is illusory, and they wonder what to do. The king has asked the opinion of the agent of the Palatine who said that as his Majesty caused the deposit against the wishes of his son-in-law, he felt sure he would have certain methods to recover it. News has come, however, that at the time of the promise of restitution they increased the garrison of Franchendal by two companies, and it is known that they aim at changing their title into one of absolute ownership, instead of a deposit.
The ambassador of the Most Christian has reported the negotiations of Father Hyacinth at that Court with assurances that his Majesty had broken off everything. Accordingly they have thanked France here for the communication and the decision. Upon this the ambassador informed me that the ministers had allowed themselves to be persuaded at first by the friar, but afterwards they found clear deceit, less advantageous conditions for the Palatine than those proposed by the friar, his colleague at that Court and his Most Christian Majesty saw no advantage to himself in arranging the affairs of the Palatinate while leaving all those of the Grisons in a worse condition than ever.
They continue their grievances against the Dutch about the events which take place in the Indies. The English complain that the States do not give satisfaction except in words, that the guilty parties have arrived in Holland and there is no appearance of their being punished. They declare that they will make reprisals, no longer upon the fishermen but upon the ships coming from the Indies, unless the king receives hostages as security for reparation for the act. The Dutch openly refuse reparation while promising justice, which requires time and which must be executed by the governor there, who is subject to the popular authority and to that of the Admiralty, and subject to the power which the India Companies themselves wield.
In the matter of the Dunkirk ships they say that three escaped and one sank, although the Dutch ambassador gives a different version, that only one got away, one was sunk, one was burned fighting, and one foundered in the storm with the loss of all hands. One of the Dutch ships also sank, but all hands were saved.
Such are the events at this Court. Your Excellencies must know that I am asked about the public resolutions upon arming or not arming and about the concert with France, but I answer little to avoid making mistakes, though I tell them that the league will be thoroughly carried out on our side. I shall keep dumb about the rest, unless your Serenity tells me what to say.
The master of the posts at Antwerp writes to me that the despatch of the 27th ult. was intercepted between Trent and Venice, an important accident. My private letters of that date reach me one by one, and letters have reached me from France with some public ones directed to the Most Excellent Valaresso. I judged it best to send them back after him with all speed, so that he may know your instructions as early as possible. I acknowledge the generosity of confirming to me the present given me by his Most Christian Majesty; my efforts shall be directed solely to the service of my country.
London, the 25th October, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
629. LORENZO PARUTA, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Shortly after my last despatch the duke sent for me. I found him with the Constable and the ambassadors of France and England. He told us that he had summoned the last because his king was interested in the eighth article about a diversion in Germany under Mansfelt, in the belief that we should welcome him not only as the minister of a great king and for his own qualities, but for the sake of our common interests. The others assented rather by silence than speech. The duke told me that he wished to know your Serenity's opinions upon the articles drawn up in France. I pointed out that it was not fair to lay fresh expense upon the republic, because being surrounded by the forces of the House of Austria she had to incur greater expenses than the other allies for the defence of her own state. The English ambassador supported me in this, showing himself in this very favourable to your Serenity. The duke, however, maintained that the republic should share with France and himself. The conference closed with my undertaking to send the articles to your Serenity.
Turin, the 25th October, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Oct. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
630. To the Ambassador in Spain.
At the congress at Susa on the 19th inst. there took part the Constable of France, M. de Crichi, and the President Buglion with the title of Ambassadors of the Most Christian, as well as the Ambassador Marini, the Duke of Savoy, the princes and our ambassador, who tells us of their proposals for war. Letters from Milan of the 23rd tell of the decision to arm immediately the frontiers next Venice. Count Giovanni Serbellone has a fresh command. They propose to levy 500 more musketeers on horse and to complete all the terzi of infantry. The Spaniards are strengthening their forces towards Como and the lake to have them ready to enter the Valtelline.
This will serve you for information only.
The like to England.
Ayes, 125.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Oct. 26.
Misc.
Cod. No. 63.
Venetian
Archives.
631. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The report that the Spaniards caused to reach the ears of the King of England that they proposed to hand over Franchendal absolutely stripped of munitions and arms with danger that Bavaria might take it, has produced the effect intended as it now seems that the king is asking the Infanta to retain it in deposit as before, so they write from Brussels.
Vienna, the 26th October, 1624.
[Italian; copy.]
Oct. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
632. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Sultan answered my arz about the pirates immediately, a sign of his displeasure at their excesses and a desire to satisfy the republic. I was told to go on the following day to see Abdi, appointed Pasha of Tunis, to repress the pirates. When I went I found the ambassadors of England and Flanders with the Caimecam, disputing with Abdi about some money taken by him from an English ship when he was sanzaco in the Morea. Accordingly I stood aside, but the ambassadors sent to say that as we were all three together the opportunity was a good one to perform a joint office with the Caimecam about the pirates. I replied that I would do so willingly, but as I had more particular matters on the same subject to negotiate with the Caimecam, I should have to stay with him after they had gone. I told the Caimecam the same. We all three went and spoke in general terms about the pirates, urging him to take some effective steps. Time was short and the ambassadors knew that I wanted to stay afterwards, but as they were going, the Caimecam said, Stay, I want you to see how much these excesses grieve the Sultan, especially those recently committed against the republic. He then sent for the caticumaium, and remarked on the promptness of the Sultan's reply and the commissions to Abdi, who was to leave at once. The ambassadors were much edified by this unaccustomed action of the Sultan, which I observed the Caimecam wished to impart to them in my presence in order to show the world how much the Porte values the republic's friendship.
The Vigne of Pera, the 27th October, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Oct. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
633. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Prince Gabor's gentleman only brought letters for the Caimecam, not for the Sultan. He states that he has not made a peace with the emperor, but only an arrangement which can be broken whenever the Sultan gives the sign. The Caimecam said they would be satisfied if Gabor remained armed, causing uneasiness to the emperor.
As the gentleman has not been seen treating with the ambassadors of England and Flanders, as was customary before, Gabor has apparently given up all thought of helping the Palatine against the emperor.
The Vigne of Pera, the 28th October, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Oct. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
634. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
M. de la Haiie has not yet left for Denmark. He is waiting for the complete settlement of the marriage and of the negotiations with England.
Poissy, the 28th October, 1624.
[Italian.]
Oct. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
635. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I hear on good authority that the affair of the Palatinate causes them more anxiety than that of the Valtelline. They consider it more difficult and almost impossible to accommodate. It will be almost hopeless to reconcile the interests and opinions of the emperor and the Catholic in this. The ambassador of Germany now takes a high tone, asking them to make up their minds about the marriage between the Infanta and the Emperor's son, who would promptly be declared King of Bohemia and Hungary, while they would uphold Bavaria's title as elector, excluding the Palatine for ever. But here they do not want to commit themselves to keep an army perpetually in Germany or plunge more deeply against the interests of England and the promises they have made, as they are very anxious about England's decisions, especially if the French marriage takes place. Despite all this and to the utter disgust of the English ambassador here, the influence of the Marquis of Inoiosa has prevailed so far that a few days after the intimation telling him to constitute himself a prisoner, they gave him permission to come to Court and present himself to the king and take his place in the Council. This amounts to an open declaration of approval of his action. The Ambassador Columa has also been released. Inoiosa went to the Escurial to kiss the king's hands. I visited him afterwards. He speaks variously about the prince. They say he may go as viceroy to Sicily or once more to Milan as governor. They would like to send the Count of Gondomar again to England, but he is reluctant, saying that he has lost all hope of doing any more good in that kingdom.
Madrid, the 28th October, 1624.
[Italian.]
Oct. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
636. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Count of Mansfelt arrived here two days ago. He presented a letter from the King of England and asked for his speedy expedition and various provisions for his ships. He also asked for a loan of 100,000 florins out of the English payments. I wanted to see the English ambassador who has been confined for some days by the stone. He told me that his king was very determined, and he had closed the mouths of those who stated that all the good and all the ill of the Palatinate business depended upon him. It now depended upon France, where the count did not anticipate any difficulties. Once this point is settled the levy promised by his king will soon be ready. Their efforts here tend in the first place to the recovery of the Palatinate, but I am glad to observe that Mansfelt does not lose sight of the interests of your Serenity.
The Hague, the 28th October, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Oct. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Napoli.
Venetian
Archives.
637. PIERO VICO, Venetian Secretary at Naples, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ship which was arrested and subsequently given back to its master has been confiscated again. Accordingly, he has lost all hope of ever having it back. This event is considered to be owing to some fresh instructions arrived from the Court.
Naples, the 29th October, 1624.
[Italian.]
Oct. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
638. To the Ambassador in Spain.
At the congress of Susa they decided to accelerate the movement of the League's forces without further delay, the Duke of Savoy filling up his regiments with French troops and the French increasing theirs, while we are doing the like, in order to attack together. News of a move in the Grisons is expected daily. Our Proveditore General for Terra Ferma has already left and should by now be on the frontiers. We have also chosen Alvise Donato as Proveditore of Croatian and Albanian horse and Marc' Antonio de Canal as Proveditore in Valcamonica; with instructions to hasten the dispatch of our forces to the necessary points, since they are arming in the state of Milan.
We desire this to serve solely for your information.
The like to the following:—
The ambassador in England.
The ambassador at the Hague.
To England add:—
You will continue to direct your attention to the understanding at present taking place between that king and the Most Christian, in order to advise us as you have done hitherto.
Ayes, 92.Noes, 1.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Presumably Sir Roger North, imprisoned in February, 1621. See vol. xvi of the Calendar, page 553.
2 Kensington in his despatch of the 3rd October, says "not he that is in so much favour with the king, but his brother, and much esteemed by the Queen Mother" (State Papers, Foreign, France), while Conway says he was the eldest brother.