Venice
November 1624, 1-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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473-486

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'Venice: November 1624, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 18: 1623-1625 (1912), pp. 473-486. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88922 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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November 1624

Nov. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
639. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Dualbier arrived from the French Court with the replies to the proposals and desires of the Count of Mansfelt about the state of the affairs of this Court. He brings word that France does not want to bind herself by writing to employ him, for her own interests and many other reasons. He has letters for the Ambassador Fias with renewed and copious promises from the Most Christian to his Majesty that he will continue to further the plan. For the passage of the English troops through that kingdom, he explains that the French do not wish to be bound publicly, but they promise Mansfeld all facilities for leading his forces and a safe retreat in case of need. With this he has proceeded to the Court to hasten and strengthen their resolutions, but what with the delay of the latter and the return of those who are acting, it is not my part to guess, but the delays are an argument either of no conclusion or of great difficulty.
The ambassador of the Most Christian also continues at Court, one may say, under the same auspices, having tarried at Royston two days waiting to see the king, being put off on the pretext of his Majesty's indisposition, and because before receiving his congé Beotru wished to see Cambridge, famous for its University of fifteen colleges.
The popular rumours of the marriage are confused in the doubt of a rupture and in the desire for some deliberation. Amid these doubts the Puritans and the Spaniards may be heard in agreement about breaking off the French alliance, although with different professions. Other jealous ones interested in the preservation of the Crown boldly state that they clearly perceive that the king through pleasing himself too much is determined upon the ruin of the kingdom and not to have any offspring, but that this care belongs to them, and with slight grounds they threaten to change matters and make risings. All these matters will be decided at the return of Mansfeld's agents and the ambassador of the Most Christian. Nothing can be hoped for meanwhile, although they have announced six colonels for the 2,000 foot, namely, the Earl of Warwick, Lord Cromwell, Sir Charles Rich, the Earl of Carlisle's son (for whom, on account of his youth, they have made a Lieutenant Colonel, Gray), the Cavalier Borouues. But this does not increase the hope of employment because they were arranged with Mansfelt himself before the replies from France.
Very contrary to these operations is the growing rumour of Gondomar's return. On the one side are his evil operations, the disgust which the king has frequently expressed with him in public, the offended feelings of the prince and the hatred of Buckingham; on the other side are the bold arts of the Spaniards and the weakness of this king, and possibly worse, while the loves and hates of princes are not constant. The agent of Flanders adds that Gondomar will come to satisfy all the promises and will proceed to Germany to make arrangements for the Palatinate to the satisfaction of the king here. However, the expectation of this arrival is not borne out by the king's refusal to see the Spanish secretary, who returned without negotiating. I cannot unravel all this without the prudence of your Serenity.
I may add that the States, in their desire to satisfy his Majesty, propose to do justice in the matter of the events in the Indies in every particular, sending a ship on purpose with commissioners to conduct the trial, asking his Majesty to send subjects to see the order and sincerity of their conduct. They cannot punish before the judges have gone, as the people out there justify their action, saying that otherwise the English would have risen and taken the place.
In the interests of the Indies and in favour of the merchants and dominions of this Crown, the king has prohibited all tobacco, which is used too heartily by this nation, that comes from Spanish subjects, reserving this benefit for Virginia and the Bermudas only. The merchants here expect a great advantage and to damage the Spaniards not a little. Moreover, they are approaching the introduction of some new important trade.
The Persian ambassador is trying to secure all the Persian silk for this island. The king, the prince and Buckingham, with other noblemen, are disposed to venture six of their own ships, that being the number asked for by the ambassador to send to lade the silk, which he promises to have transferred to this kingdom at the risk of the King of Persia, to be sent hence to all parts, and deprive the Turk of the advantage of this trade. But it would damage all the trade of the Mediterranean and of those who have marts in Syria. It is a long voyage from the Persian Sea to English waters; perhaps they will not find it so easy as they say. I will observe what they do in this and also in response to the request from Flanders for the recovery of the guns of the wrecked Dunkirk ship, whose remains may be seen in the Downs. Such things belong to the king, but there may be a difference between merchant ships and those of princes. Confiscation might hold against traders, but not against men-of-war of his Catholic Majesty.
They also hear from his Majesty's ambassador, sent to Denmark, of his return from Saxony, after having visited many princes and towns in Germany. All responded with expressions of their favourable disposition towards his Majesty's intentions, though in general terms. The elector there treated the ambassador courteously, but said he could not embrace the part of the King of Great Britain to abandon that of his emperor. The ambassador only had instructions to persuade them to side with his king to restore the Palatine to his dominions and dignities.
London, the 1st November, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
640. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The agent of Bavaria continues to assure his Majesty and the Council that Tilly will do nothing against the Grisons or Coure, provided they do not employ Mansfelt against his master and the Catholic League.
The English business remains in the balance; they are awaiting that king's answer to his ambassador's letters. Here they stoutly declare that they do not want a league and deny having made any promise on the subject. So the English ambassadors have lowered their claims somewhat, and would accept the fact without a promise, considering it sufficient to avenge their private injuries and punish the Austrians with foreign blood. Accordingly they have written to their king representing the state of affairs here and the steadfastness of the Council here in a determination to do everything possible for the common cause and the interests of the Palatine, though they will not hear anything about a league.
A favourable reply is expected, bringing the matter to a satisfactory conclusion. The cardinal especially asked me to persuade the Earl of Carlisle, and I did my best, without committing your Serenity. The ambassador of Savoy also showed great zeal, using his master's name. These efforts were necessary as with the marriage the union of the two crowns was imperilled and the common advantage. It also delayed Mansfelt's moving, as the King of England would not allow his levies to leave the realm or despatch the count before a declaration arrived from here.
The siege and peril of Breda undoubtedly helped the affair. Without fresh succour it will certainly fall, and the two kings will feel the consequences, especially England; so they hope that Mansfelt will be sent immediately to its relief.
St. Germains, the 2nd November, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
641. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Thursday the French ambassadors went to the chapel an hour before the others to see the pope and ask him that the congregation might meet for the dispensation for the English match, and still more to ask him to say something about the Grisons.
Rome, the 2nd November, 1624.
[Italian.]
Nov. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
642. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The members of the Spanish party are trying to raise difficulties so that the decision about the dispensation for the English marriage may take a long time. They say that the negotiations for the Spanish one will be resumed, and the Catholic will restore the Palatinate and will try and induce the emperor to do the same. However, it is thought that the whole business will be settled to the entire satisfaction of the French in two or three meetings.
Rome, the 2nd November, 1624.
[Italian.]
Nov. 2.
Misc.
Cod. No. 63.
Venetian
Archives.
643. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The regiment of Collalto has received orders to march towards Alsace, and the Spanish ambassador has sent a courier to the Infanta to ask if they shall send her cavalry or no. She reports that the King of England demands the restitution of Franchentale with a passage for 1,500 foot, 300 horse, munitions and such things, an assurance that the place shall not be attacked, and that the fairs shall be held as usual. The Infanta asks for advice. They seem inclined to advise her to allow a passage through Flanders, and for the rest to say that she cannot ordain anything in the empire, but she will give up the fortress in the same state as she received it. If she agrees to this they will tell Tilly to be ready to take possession.
Vienna, the 2nd November, 1624.
[Italian; copy.]
Nov. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
644. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Scottish gentleman, (fn. 1) who has been ill here a long while, left for Rome three days ago, though not quite well and very weak, in order to complete the negotiations for a dispensation for the French match, so that the news of the pope's consent may pass to the two Courts at the pre-arranged moment.
Florence, the 2nd November, 1624.
[Italian.]
Nov. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
645. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador has been in the Assembly about the Amboyna affair, asking for a decision and satisfaction. The States General are willing, but the members of the Company, which is a great body, continue their opposition and try to gain time. The ambassador told me that orders would be issued forthwith to make reprisals upon the ships of the Company. He remarked that his king might stop that trade in great measure merely by forbidding the ships engaged upon it from entering the ports of his realm, as they always do, to provide themselves with men and with other things which give out on the long voyage and which are necessary for their further progress, and also on the way out, when they supply many things of which they only recognise the need after some days' voyage. I hope that matters will not come to this pass, as I hear they are inclined to submit to rigorous censure both the lives and goods of those judges who condemned the English.
The Hague, the 4th November, 1624.
[Italian.]
Nov. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
646. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On returning from the pleasures of the chase, the King of Bohemia called upon me. He spoke of Mansfelt and his wish that all the ambassadors, especially your Serenity's, should forward the count's plans. I replied as I have done before. There have been frequent meetings between the king's ministers and Mansfelt of late, but nothing definite has been settled.
Some ill-feeling has arisen between the count and the French ambassador about the relief of Breda, which I have tried to assuage. The same ambassador told me that the English match is at a standstill because among the conditions the English demand an offensive and defensive alliance, whereupon they had sent back to England. Some ill offices had also been performed by those Capuchins to cool matters. I said that no one should listen to them.
The Count of Mansfelt left for the camp last Friday with letters from the King of Great Britain to the Prince of Orange, of which I enclose a copy, together with another from the same to the States and to Emden, which deserve attention. The Count della Torre and Alberstat accompanied Mansfelt, the latter declared General of the Cavalry at the instance of the King of England, his uncle.
The Hague, the 4th November, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
647. Letter of KING JAMES to the STATES.
Recommendation of Mansfelt, who has served his children, with a request to grant what he asks, receiving him and those with him, allowing him to enter and leave the country freely and helping him to recover guns, munitions and other things which he claims, especially at Emden, exhorting them not to injure the common cause by a refusal; finally to permit him to have a place of arms or other places where he may easily land his troops.
Roesital, the 2nd October, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
648. Letter of KING JAMES to the PRINCE of ORANGE.
Recommendation of Mansfelt with request to help him in all he may do and require and by sending letters to Emden.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosure.649. Letter of KING JAMES to EMDEN.
Request to give up without delay to the Count of Mansfelt his guns, munition, baggage and other things detained by them in their city, for the sake of the interests of the king's children, treating well those sent to fetch the said things, of which a list will be sent, so that the king may have cause to recompense them for their good-will.
Roesital, the 2nd October, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
650. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
As regards fresh information about commanders, I see no opening. The two princes of Nassau alone have the leading commands. No one else has an important command except Vere. Among the subordinates, the Frenchman Altariva is at present out of the question, as he is shut up in Breda, and so is Morgan, of the English, the best of them all.
I have fulfilled your Excellencies' commands with the English ambassador, who imparted the good disposition of your Serenity to the king and queen here; and the king called at the embassy on the subject late yesterday evening.
The English ambassador told me that the queen wanted to give the name of Edward to her little son, (fn. 2) reviving the memory of former kings of England, and she wishes to know if your Serenity will consent. I have gathered particulars of what is customary upon such occasions and find that the King of England assigned 20,000 florins a year to the son to whom he acted as godfather. The King of Sweden presented the mother and son with jewels worth 25,000 to 30,000 florins; the States assigned 3,000 florins a year. The King of France gave nothing, but they hope for a pension from him also.
The Hague, the 4th November, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
651. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Beotru took leave of his Majesty at Royston. The prince gave him a collar of diamonds with a pendant jewel, to the value of 3,000 crowns. He returned to France with his negotiations and the resolutions. The king seemed disinclined for the marriage without a joint agreement about the affairs of the Palatinate, but moved by arguments of too great prejudice and the general feeling at seeing his Highness without issue, and by the necessity of either allying with France or making her his enemy, with the double harm of the enmity and the scorn of another refusal of marriage when solemnly asked, he has accepted the nuptials, but not the employment of Mansfeld, because the Most Christian would not give a written undertaking. But the offices of the French ambassador, or the incitements of the prince and Buckingham or the hopes of his Majesty are that they may promise but postpone the fulfilment. He has announced his consent to signing the marriage articles separately, and to fulfil the agreement with Mansfeld upon the promise of the French ambassador that Mansfeld shall have support for six months, a passage for his English troops through France and a safe retreat in that kingdom in case of need, with the addition that the Most Christian will promise all those conditions if his Majesty signs the marriage negotiations in France. The Secretary Vileocler will come to this Court for the ratification. But since this arrangement they have shown no hurry and men whisper that the king has sent fresh proposals to France for the payment of the letters of exchange at Amsterdam, yet they are not ordering the levies, signing the patents for the colonels or giving orders for the provision of arms, although they say a Council will be held for the despatch of these affairs, and that three large ships will be given to transport the men, and the delay is intentional to act more secretly, that the levies will be made in a few days and all difficulties overcome, in taking advantage of the readiness of the first parliament to give men and money, whereby the people injured their own privileges; but with his Majesty's nature it is thought that they are now temporising so that the marriage may first be ratified as the foundation of an unalterable understanding, or that France may be more deeply involved, or rather the king encourages delay because the season may swallow up the remaining opportunities and Mansfeld, compelled by necessity, may advise delay to those interested.
Already the Dutch seem disposed to grant facilities for the levies and ships for the men, but they represent the harm that delay and the season may cause, taking away the advantage and making all the difference between good and ill.
It is also whispered that in Flanders they are beginning to prepare their coasts against such suspicions, but only with feeble forces of peasants and not with paid troops.
The Archbishop of Ambrum (fn. 3) has come from France with letters of his Most Christian Majesty, that his journey is the result of curiosity. He has seen the king, the prince and Buckingham, and was most graciously received. The better to impress the pretext for his journey he is going about the country observing things, with the purpose, so he asserts, of adding to a work he is writing of many governments. There may be something in this, but his curiosity to know the condition of the Catholics excites the belief that he is making enquiries about the religion, perhaps at the request of Rome and with the consent of the Most Christian. That monarch has informed his Holiness of his representations and of the advantages obtained for the Catholics, with pretensions which correspond better with France and her interests. They promise good inclination in this particular, but employ all malignity in the general, although they begin to enjoy the results of the countermanding of persecution in this realm; as they behave differently in Scotland, and apparently the orders are not certain to be continued. The king cannot comport himself otherwise in this government, as he is bound to satisfy the generality of his people. Upon matters of religion, which are the basis of the obstacle of the marriage dispensation at Rome, Fiat confided to me that his Holiness continues to speak fair, but does nothing.
London, the 8th November, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
652. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They do not consider the Dutch proposals about the Indies satisfactory here, but the merchants interested foment ideas of revenge and reprisals all they can, with hatred and malice. The States have recently written to their ambassador to express how much they regret his Majesty's wrath and how they desire to give him satisfaction within the limits of justice. They promise no longer to send to the Indies, but to execute justice in Holland in a reasonable manner, not indeed by sending the culprits to this kingdom, as is now demanded, but according to the laws and liberty of the country. The ambassador came on purpose to see me, and informed me of his letters and instructions and his desires. He asked me to add to the many offices I had performed in France for their High Mightinesses to interpose the influence of your Serenity to get this satisfaction accepted so as to obtain some delay, that the king may not push matters to extremities. I expressed my readiness to act for the common service and gave him complete satisfaction. I will look for a good opportunity to give matters a favourable turn, if I can do so without offending the king. The cause deserves a remedy because with the certainty that the States, in the public interests, must suffer the detriment of individuals, those interested and the malignant call for reprisals, which must necessarily risk bloodshed, upon the ships which will shortly arrive in this realm. On this account the Dutch are disposed to go round Scotland to avoid the danger of becoming prisoners in England or suffering shipwreck in the few and difficult ports of France. They would willingly give the king here a share in the spoils of the Indies to make sure of the extermination of the Spaniards in the New World. All the people and councillors embrace the proposal, not only as useful but necessary to the greatness and preservation of this realm. The king alone resists the decision and the Dutch, in order not to offend his Majesty, only ask for it superficially. They indeed call for some measures against the English, who desert from their fleet in great numbers without the excuse of ill treatment or lack of pay. We shall see if the English will provide a remedy, as they do not know what to decide, owing to the interests of Franchendal, about which, amid many rumours, the claim is confirmed that the king has lost his rights under the treaty through not having recovered the place at the proper time.
The king has thought of sending all the nobility away from himself by a fresh proclamation, conformable to many old ones, that no nobleman shall venture to live in London or its neighbourhood, except to come there at the four usual terms.
The merchants, up to the present, offer 20,000l. sterling yearly for the profit of the tobacco of his Indies. The office of Lord Treasurer seems destined for the Lord Chief Justice, an old man but entirely and servilely dependent upon Buckingham.
Your Serenity's commands of the 28th September and the 11th October have reached me. They will serve as an answer to those who suggest with malignant purpose that the actions of the most serene republic are delayed, with little inclination to act or to keep its promises. The others console me as I have already anticipated the state's desire not to interest myself in the affairs of Mansfeld. I will obey punctually and concern myself no further. I will say nothing about decisions with the French, as that is outside my province. If proper I will offer congratulations about the marriage, but with the king's uncertain nature the time is not yet ripe. But the moment I hear that the impediments have been removed, I will see that I am among the first and the most hearty.
London, the 8th November, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
653. To the AMBASSADOR VALARESSO at Zurich.
We hear with satisfaction of your arrival at Zurich. The closing of your embassy to England by bringing away the order for the carriage of currants, previously practised to the notable advantage of our subjects and our trade and in conformity with the instructions of the Five Sages at the Mercanzia, has confirmed the worthy operations of your predecessors in that legation, and we express our commendation.
Ayes, 88.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Nov. 9.
Misc.
Cod. No. 63.
Venetian
Archives.
654. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
As regards the restitution of Franchentale, Cologne has suggested that they shall let the English army enter the place, and afterwards make a truce with the arrangement that no munitions shall be introduced or fortifications made during the truce. Here they do not know what to decide or possibly they do not wish to, in order to gain time. They have referred the matter to the three ecclesiastical electors and Bavaria, so that every one may give his opinion at Mayence.
Vienna, the 9th November, 1624.
[Italian; copy.]
Nov. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
655. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Upon the dispensation for the marriage between France and England, an English gentleman told me that the pope had enjoined the cardinals upon pain of excommunication not to speak of their negotiations upon the subject outside the Congregation. They may take time to decide and act together mysteriously, but the pope will announce his consent.
Florence, the 7th November, 1624.
[Italian.]
Nov. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
656. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The courier has returned from England with definite instructions to the ambassadors to conclude the affair of the marriage and other matters, with authority to sign. It is indeed difficult to discover the exact particulars, as the ambassadors are very reserved and secret. They told the king and Council that the King of Great Britain wished to see the marriage arranged and accomplished in any event, upon the conditions arranged, without the slightest alteration, but beforehand he wanted three things about the promises, especially for the general welfare and that of the two crowns in particular. First, that they should promise in writing to help Mansfelt for six months, giving security for keeping up the payment for that time; second, that the count should fight for the Palatinate for that time, and if the affair of the Valtelline is settled first they must not take away their assistance until the other matter is settled also; third, that the king shall bind himself to work jointly with the King of Great Britain for the complete reinstatement of the Palatine.
Here they consider these proposals exorbitant, although they were not far from embracing them, but they object to the form, which looks like an offensive league and no one here will listen to that. But the wish to see the affair settled and their desire to unite with England, together with the offices of interested parties, almost succeeded in arranging the matter, especially as the English ambassadors agreed that everything should be declared orally by his Majesty except the first article. But then the Earl of Carlisle produced a written formula of what the king was to say upon the third article, asserting that if his Majesty did not utter this he could not conclude anything; indeed, he had express instructions not to sign any treaty.
This caused great displeasure here and the cardinal spoke high, saying they did not mean to buy this match at such a high price sacrificing the king's honour, and the more they concede the more is claimed. They grant six months' help to Mansfelt, they are willing to help the Palatine, but it is neither reasonable nor befitting a great prince that they should want to keep a minute upon this, and it certainly would not be granted, whatever they might do.
Sciombergh, the chancellor, and everyone else spoke to the same effect, so that the ambassadors are very cast down, and personally I think that Carlisle repents having spoken so resolutely, though he tries to excuse his action by saying that they are so used to say and unsay things at this Court that he had been compelled to present the matter in this way as a security for his master.
The Queen Mother has interposed, and the ambassadors have sent back to England for fresh orders. In the meantime everything remains in suspense. Mansfelt's force is not collected, the marriage is not concluded, Breda remains without relief and the Spaniards have ample time for the prosecution of their designs. All well disposed persons lament this state of affairs and lay the blame of all this delay and friction upon the subtlety and too great prevision of the Earl of Carlisle.
Paris, the 10th November, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
657. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I hear on good authority that some of the leading men here say it is their intention to stand on the defensive, hoping that the allies will soon grow tired, and proposing, if Bavaria can stand up against the English and others in that concern, that the emperor and Archduke Leopold shall attack the republic from several quarters simultaneously,
Three days ago an extraordinary courier arrived from France and the ambassador sent him back to-night. He announces publicly that it was about the queen's condition, but I fancy this may be a blind to cover some business he may have in hand, of which I cannot yet get an inkling.
Madrid, the 11th November, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
658. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
As reports of scarcity at Breda may do harm, they have ordered a complete inventory of all the provisions there. I have seen letters from the English Colonel Morgan stating that with more care the provisions can easily last through the whole of April and even longer.
Dalbier has left France and gone straight to England to meet Mansfelt. There is a general rumour that he takes word of the excellent disposition of the Most Christian and his inclination to employ the count. I asked the Ambassador Carleton if his king would accept this without the paper which the English ask for. He shrugged his shoulders and said he could form no opinion; such matters required great caution. This much is certain, the king and queen here base great hopes upon the count and make strong representations to the Prince of Wales and Buckingham, as they fear the intentions of the king after the apparent satisfaction afforded by the arrest of Inoiosa and the orders against Columa, as well as Gondomar's expected return.
Mansfelt has left the camp to take ship for England, where he considers his presence more necessary.
The Hague, the 11th November, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
659. Extract from a letter of the 25th October, 1624, from a member of the Council of War to the Queen of Bohemia.
Yesterday we received letters from his Majesty from Royston authorising us to prosecute the levies with all diligence. The Council met to-day and made all arrangements for levying 12,000 men. We have drafted a letter in his Majesty's name and another to be sent by the Council to all the lords lieutenant of the counties and mayors, so that the men may be ready at Dover on the last day of November, before which time everything should be done. Such is the present state of affairs and I hope that nothing will happen to change it.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
660. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king's sending other proposals to his ambassadors by express courier at the same time as the negotiations despatched to France by Beotru is confirmed. The ambassadors have asked for a verbal promise, no longer a written one, to make war and not facilitate peace except jointly, and with the restitution of the Palatinate, as they understand that the league, the most serene republic and the Duke of Savoy are bound to the same conditions. Before signing the marriage articles the ambassadors are to receive this promise from the king's lips, with the assurance that Vileocler will bring letters of credit for himself and for the Ambassador Fiat, upon which they may specially promise the aforesaid considerations, upon which the ambassadors have received a refusal from his Most Christian Majesty, who sent an express courier to his ambassador expressing surprise at this change, and that he had not foreseen and prevented the request, with orders to speak out, asking for a final decision in the matter and to say that they cannot go beyond the first conditions promised for Mansfeld, and that he would rather break off all negotiations, the Most Christian offering excuses for not being able to do more himself, and that it is not his duty to try and involve his friends in what does not concern them. The ambassador punctually set out for the Court, but half way he met the Duke of Buckingham and they returned together in the hope of settling the matter satisfactorily, as the duke feels sure he has full power to do; but at the same time a courier has arrived from the king's ambassadors from the French Court with a judgment upon the same emergencies, and as Buckingham has been summoned by his Majesty by express courier, everything remains in suspense and incomplete, many opinions being expressed about such behaviour. Buckingham promised to return soon, and we shall see the nature of the decision. The king has always been accustomed to return to London at the beginning of this month for the appointment of sheriffs, a popular magistracy, but in order to render the more important negotiations more difficult, he proposes, on the contrary, to go further away and proceed to Newmarket. They have, however, held the Council about Mansfeld's affairs and have arranged the levies, by order of the Council, according to the practice of the country, the king issuing commissions beforehand, and have settled what number each county shall provide. They must be sent at the expense of the counties to Dover at the end of this month, or the beginning of December by our reckoning, declaring that 12,000 foot will be furnished to the Count of Mansfeld for the service of the king's son-in-law, and 2,500 for the garrisons of Ireland, with sound judgment preparing their defences whilst ordering the offensive. The king has reserved giving his orders for the day of embarcation, and the other provisions are not yet established, although the delay deprives them of the opportunities of the time and the event of the siege of Breda might deprive Mansfeld of all success, and they might lose all the troops by excessive cold, without considering the interests of other princes, but reason has no effect upon the king, who makes delay an object in itself.
The king is very hot against the Dutch, and the Duke of Buckingham has orders, not however executed, to arrest all the ships of that nation in this kingdom. As the king will not see or deal with anyone who has authority, I have not been able to employ the offices considered reasonable with some of the lords of the Council, to show how much profit the common enemies will make of these differences and what a bad impression it will make on friends of his Majesty's intentions. I will do my best to ensure justice and prevent anything untoward, but feeling runs high, and there is an impression that the people of the Netherlands need a lesson, and that perhaps the States General may not be sorry for a pretext to control those merchant companies better.
They have decided to ask for Franchental, to be consigned to a governor sent by the king, as they consider it impossible to garrison it, which would involve great expense without any security that the enemy would not retake it. By this way it will remain in the same discretion, but without expense, and they will see whether the Infanta or the Spaniards mean to break the peace first. They contend that as the king asked for restitution in good time he has not lost his rights under the treaty. I hope to learn what his Majesty's agent reports.
In Flanders, owing to their fears of Mansfelt, they are sending to the coast towns guns from the ships returned to Dunkirk, and besides other provisions they have ordered the arrière ban, that is that all feodataries shall hold themselves in readiness. This will constitute the nucleus of a force without expense, though it will cause great inconvenience and irritation to those concerned.
The lords of the Council here tell me that Spain has offered great allurements to keep the king in a good humour, showing extraordinary favour in Spain to the English nation and the interests of its merchants. As regards the coming of Gondomar, I fancy they professed that it depended upon his Majesty's good pleasure, and it is not considered certain whether he will consent.
On the 2nd, or rather the 12th, of this month the members of parliament present in this city assembled in the parliament house to authorise its prorogation until February, with the customary ceremony. It appears that his Majesty has shut out the nobles from London and its suburbs, both in order to disperse the crowd about him (fn. 4) and to break the monopoly of the members of parliament (quanto per rompir li monopolli alli medesimi Parlamentarii).
We hear of a proposed congregation of the cardinals about the marriage dispensation, but some of the Catholics here say that it will not come before they have seen the cessation of the persecution; others assert that the sacraments solemnized over the Spanish marriage will hinder its effectuation. The Archbishop of Ambru is gathering his information about the Catholics. He has a house in a place apart, for greater freedom of commerce with them. He performs many ecclesiastical sacramental functions in the house of the ambassador, and if the marriage is arranged he will be charged to arrange with him for the carrying out of matters concerning the Catholic faith.
Your Excellencies' instructions are of the 19th October. I will use them for the public service.
London, the 15th November, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Robert Maxwell, Earl of Nithsdale.
2 Elizabeth's sixth son and eighth child, born on the 5th October preceding.
3 Guillaume d'Hugues, Archbishop of Embrun. He came over disguised as a councillor of the parliament of Grenoble, in the interests of the English Catholics, and to promise them the favour of the French king. Buckingham found out about him and had him brought to Court. James made him liberal promises, and gave the archbishop the impression that he intended himself to become a Catholic. Le Vassor: Hist. du Regne de Louis XIII (Amsterdam, 1706), vol. vi, pages 717–20.
4 Proclamation of the 19th October, that persons of quality shall reside in their countries. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1623–5, page 357.