Venice
December 1624, 2-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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502-513

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'Venice: December 1624, 2-15', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 18: 1623-1625 (1912), pp. 502-513. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88924 Date accessed: 23 August 2014.


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December 1624

Dec. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
684. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Soldiers keep deserting on both sides. The Dutch send the Italians to France with passports and presents; Spinola sends the English away with presents, but at the request of the English ambassador they cannot embark here without a passport from their colonels or the Prince of Orange. The States of Holland have met as usual, and make the same proposals for raising money, but I think everything will remain in suspense for Mansfelt's movement. Meanwhile, owing to the English desertions they have asked the ambassador to urge the colonels to fill up their companies, many of which, I understand, do not muster twenty-five men, though they draw their pay and the commander profits considerably.
The Hague, the 2nd December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
685. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Advices from France of the conclusion of the marriage and of Mansfelt's affairs were brought to the Prince and Princess Palatine by a gentleman sent by the English ambassadors at that Court. They were exceedingly delighted and it has revived their hopes.
The States have ordered forty of the ships engaged in the herring fishery to prepare themselves to transport Mansfelt's troops from England to France. The cost of this will amount to some 40,000 florins. The English ambassador says that this concerns Mansfelt, because 150,000 florins have been assigned to him for such expenses, but the Prince of Orange said that the States would take it on their shoulders. One of the articles provides that Mansfelt's force shall not invade states legitimately held by the King of Spain or the Infanta, but no mention is made of the emperor, the archdukes or other princes and they have now discovered that the countries of Artois and Anonia are not legitimately possessed, since they belong to France. The French levies are also progressing and it really looks as if everything concerned with this force was going well.
The Hague, the 2nd December, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
686. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have gathered from one better qualified to know than anybody else that they do not believe the marriage between England and France to be completely established and that the prince is more than ever inclined to the Infanta and very averse from the French princess. They think they can encourage these hopes and Gondomar is going with this idea. I have reported this because it is very different from what one hears everywhere else.
Madrid, the 5th December, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
687. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On the 23rd ult. the marriage articles were signed in France, amid bonfires and rejoicings, which your Excellencies will have heard of already. On the first day of the present month all the houses of this city, by the king's orders, showed the same rejoicing, making London glow in every part; the Tower fired many guns and I also, for the dignity of your Serenity and to celebrate publicly the alliance of the two crowns, lighted several bonfires and glutted the people here with an abundance of beer and wine.
The French ambassador went post to the Court to perform the proper offices, to establish the declarations and more certain promises for the advantage of the Catholics, when the treaty has been ratified by his Majesty and the prince with the coming of Villeocler. The ambassador reached Newmarket in time to dine with his Majesty. For the Catholics he brought away a promise that the persecution should cease, that all the imprisoned Catholics should go free and that the money of these Catholics or the promises which some have made to his Majesty over this same persecution should be remitted.
The prince has evinced great joyfulness and has sent a gentleman (fn. 1) with a love-letter to his bride. With the approach of Villeocler to Calais they have sent royal ships to bring him across, and have arranged that he shall be received at Dover with every show of honour, firing the castle guns. The king's coaches will go as far as that port and the Ambassador Fiat has already started to meet him. The nuptials are already so far advanced that it would seem nothing could hinder them more. Yet the dispensation remains, and the king and parliament could alone urge this pretext for breaking off. But the Archbishop of Ambrun has already written to Rome a letter giving abundant reasons for granting it, and it seems that Bethune has prevailed upon the English Catholic delegates in that city to make the same request, though much to the disgust of the Hispanophiles who object to such offices. To remove all doubts they propose to make sure of the dispensation and the marriage by a fresh prorogation of parliament, but while this may avail to overcome Spanish artifices at Rome it will also deprive the king of the power of laying out money upon armaments, for without fresh subsidies it will be difficult if not impossible for him to spend.
The Ambassador Fiat told me that owing to this marriage contract they have renewed their verbal contract to maintain Mansfeld for six months, and have secured the provision through the merchants Lumaga. The king has decided to advance the payment of your Excellencies, which is not ready, out of his own pocket. He would have done the same with the States, but they preferred to wait. I could not say much, as I did not know what had been arranged. Mansfelt has received letters from the English ambassadors upon the same negotiations. He said he had obtained a promise that his troops landing near Calais and Boulogne shall be well received: no small concession on the part of France.
Mansfeld's business at this Court is really gaining ground, although slowly. He has obtained 25,000l. sterling, which he has already remitted to Holland, to buy arms and enlist cavalry. The rest will progress, the difficulty is to find security for loans. Mansfeld has raised other claims for a large sum for munitions; payment for the cost of transporting troops; that this pay is much in arrear, and that all the troops shall be clothed. These claims, made since the arrangement with him, have upset his Majesty and afforded the Council but slight satisfaction; however, Buckingham will be in the city to-day to arrange everything. Mansfeld will obtain some advantage, and in particular will obtain a present from this most wealthy city, because the king has commanded the Mayor to make a purse to present to Mansfeld for his expenses and his losses by the shipwreck, to be worthy of him. So they are trying to raise support in several ways with much ingenuity. He cannot be absolutely ready for a long time, as the troops have not yet a certain rendezvous for landing, and he will not hurry before he has obtained the remainder ordained in Holland and Germany. The difficulty consists more in the cavalry than in the infantry, and they report from France that his levies will be raised quickly and promptly.
A good deal is said about the machinations of the enemy. They report the raising of the siege of Breda, to the scorn of the Spanish arms; confirmation is awaited. It would injure Mansfeld's plans as much as it would relieve the Dutch, as instead of an open field he would have Spinola to face, and the other forces would be free to prevent the successes of the Grisons, of which they have learned here with great satisfaction.
The agents of Spain and Flanders have remonstrated to the king against the engagement of Mansfeld, a sworn enemy of the House of Austria, apparently aiming more at discrediting Mansfeld and diverting his employment than at complaining of the levies. It seems his Majesty replied that he wished to continue the treaty of peace, and Mansfeld had such orders that their masters would have no cause of complaint. The agents profess themselves satisfied, although their audience was long delayed, and pretend to despise these steps, though provision in Flanders against this danger never ceases. Encloses a copy of the instructions to Mansfelt and his orders to the colonels.
These same agents preferred requests for the recovery of the guns of the sunk Dunkirk ship. His Majesty excused himself, as the matter belonged to the jurisdiction of the admiral Buckingham, but on a repetition of the request to raise the guns from the water and take them to the Tower to be at his Majesty's disposition, he granted leave to recover, though the exact conditions do not appear.
A gentleman has been appointed to assist Mansfeld in the king's name, with a salary of 500 crowns a month.
The agent of the Palatine has written to Sweden and other princes to tell them of the present levies and encourage them, reminding them of the necessity of forestalling the offices of the emperor with the German princes to make sure that the plans of England and France are directed towards the restitution of the Palatinate and the Grisons; otherwise craft and suspicion will benefit the House of Austria.
I can add nothing about the gentlemen who came from Denmark and Piedmont before they return from Court.
The survivors of Mansfeld's household have arrived from the shipwreck, including Captain Rota, who is in indifferent health and very poor, though rich in hopes of your Excellencies' favour. Count Galeazzo Gualdo has also arrived, son of Count Nicola, a youth of noble bearing, who serves in the wars to gain experience to devote to the republic. He lost his rich trappings in the shipwreck to his great inconvenience.
I sent to Court to ask an audience at his Majesty's convenience to fulfil your Serenity's commands and offer congratulations upon the marriage. My discretion will please the king, who hates to be taken unawares.
London, the 6th December, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
688. Commissions of the King of England to the Count of Mansfelt.
At the request of the Palatine and his wife has granted levies for the recovery of their states, appointing the count to command them. These troops must not attack the possessions of any friend or ally. more particularly those of the King of Spain or the Infanta Isabella, as in such case all payments will be revoked and the commission annulled. Desires all success for anything done for the recovery of the Palatinate and the restoration of peace in Germany and to bring the Emperor and Duke of Bavaria to reason as well as the bishops and others who disturb the peace.
Dated at Newmarket, the 7th November, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosure.689. Undertaking by Ernest Prince and Count of Mansfelt, in consideration of the levies granted by the King of Great Britain under his command, that he will do nothing to harm the king's friends and allies and in particular to undertake no enterprise against the dominions of the King of Spain and the Infanta Isabella, or any places in their legitimate possession, but will employ the troops for the recovery of the states of the Prince Palatine and the establishment of peace in Germany. If he does otherwise he will justly incur his Majesty's disfavour and forfeit his position and pay.
Dated the 10th November, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosure.690. Letters patent of the Count of Mansfelt, appointing ... colonel of a regiment of 1,000 English foot, upon condition that he obey orders punctually, not allowing his subordinates to disobey, and always to be ready to serve. He must see that no violence is done to churches. All those under his command shall render him exact obedience.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 7.
Misc.
Cod. No. 63.
Venetian
Archives.
691. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Brandenburg has at length told Saxony that he will not recognise Bavaria as elector. He thinks that the Palatine should renounce all his claims to Bohemia and the emperor should restore what has been taken from him.
The news of Mansfelt's death has died away, though he was in great peril. They say he is appointed general of the Palatine to return to the empire with 10,000 men. This has depressed them as much as the first news elated them.
The conclusion of the marriage between France and England remains uncertain. They have written here, and Ecchembergh told me that proposals have been made for a daughter of Saxony. This would not please them owing to the fear that it might alienate that prince from the House of Austria, not to speak of the question of religion.
Vienna, the 7th December, 1624.
[Italian; copy.]
Dec. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenzi.
Venetian
Archives.
692. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English gentlemen here are advised that the dispensation for the match between France and England has been granted, Cardinal Magaletti having already received instructions from the pope to draw it up in conjunction with the divine sent by the King of France to Rome on purpose for this business, (fn. 2) wherein Spanish opposition proved powerless even to procure delay.
Florence, the 7th December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
693. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Some slight differences have arisen about the formation of Madame's household. They have asked the nuncio's opinion and they want to satisfy the English ambassadors. The Queen Mother, who wished to arrange these differences, took the decision upon herself. However, it cannot be declared directly, as they are expecting Villocler, bringing word of the satisfaction of the bridegroom and the king his father. They have agreed upon twenty-eight priests, whom Madame will take with her to celebrate the offices in her church, and a bishop. They have four in consideration, but it is thought that Montpellier or Nantes will be selected. Disputes arose about the confessor, but the nuncio ultimately overcame opposition, the Queen Mother so wishing, and they chose a Jesuit. (fn. 3) Four ladies of honour and one demoiselle (figlia) are to help the bride, in choosing whom favour has prevailed over merit and worth. The Count of Tillières, sometime ambassador, will act as superintendent of Madame's household and gentleman of honour.
The ambassadors have pledged their sovereign's word that nothing shall be said upon religion to the bride, yet here they give her instruction and reading in the subject three times a week.
The Queen Regnant has decided to give a ball in honour of the occasion. She is now choosing the ladies to take part, and this also has caused some heartburning. She has a very tenacious memory for offences, and she excluded from this ball all those of the party of Mademoiselle de Montpensier owing to an old grudge. The king, however, insisted that a certain Mademoiselle de St. Luc, (fn. 4) especially banned by the Queen, should be chosen. It is not known how the matter will end, as the Queen absolutely refused.
The English ambassadors have shown me letters telling them that the King of Denmark will help the common cause and Mansfelt's force with 6,000 combatants, and the Duke Regnant of Brunswick will supply 4,000. The men are ready, and will gather at Berghen op Zoom, joining the count so soon as they hear that he has crossed the sea. In alarm at this, Spinola proposes to raise the siege of Breda so soon as he hears of Mansfelt's landing, for fear of being caught between two powerful armies and a hostile town. The 2,000 French horse recently levied for Mansfelt are quartered near Calais and Boulogne, where they will await the count's arrival with his 12,000 English and the Germans, who should land near Calais and Gravelines in a few days.
Paris, the 9th December, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
694. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The States have conceded to the English ambassador that they will fetch from Amboyna all those concerned in the punishment of the English, the heads of the East India Company being bound to afford this satisfaction. The ambassador has received this as an instalment of his claims, and in addition he seems to want disinterested persons to be sent to bring back an account of the matter and also the re-establishment of the English in that trade. The question is a difficult one, because public interests clash with private ones of great strength.
The Hague, the 9th December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
695. To the ambassador at the Hague.
The troops of the league advanced to Tirano, the country having surrendered on terms. The castle, however, offered a vigorous resistance. In this state of affairs, at the solicitations of Sachetti, the pope's minister at Milan, the governor gave orders for 1,000 foot to enter the valley immediately, to be followed by the rest of the Spanish forces at that opening. At this news we decided to send reinforcements to the league of 2,000 foot and four companies of horse, ordering our Proveditore General to supply the Marquis of Coure with all the provisions and munitions that he might ask for. Constant skirmishes take place under the castle and both sides are expecting the Spaniards.
The like to England to serve for information.
Ayes, 150.Noes, 1.Neutral, 9.
[Italian.]
Dec. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
696. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Buckingham came to this city and only stayed a few hours, being engaged for the most part with Mansfeld. The duke could not succeed in abating the count's claims, but he gave him fair words and promised him more alacrity in this quarter and to undertake the cost. The Council of War has granted him provision for his house that is for the soldiers and the city presented him with a purse of 500 Jacobus in gold pieces, which the count only values slightly, as his expectations were higher; but the city thought it wise not to spend much in order not to encourage the king by such an example. The count decided to leave before the time and has gone to Dover, as that place offers facilities for his correspondence with Holland and France, as well as the English Court, and he intended in particular to prevent all disorders when the ships arrive with the troops that he expects, as some have already suggested to the king that it is unsafe to allow armed troops to reach these ports with so much freedom, and the count wishes to remove all cause of uneasiness from one so prone to anxiety.
It is arranged that the English troops shall be ready to embark by the 24th of this month, old style, as the count is not hurrying, so that he may first assemble the remainder and have all the arms ready, to reduce the cost of transport, with the things agreed upon, which may cause further delay. The number of ships for this purpose is not yet fixed; but the Duke of Buckingham has consulted the Council of the Admiralty and ordered twelve royal ships to be ready with twenty merchantmen to proceed to France in due course, to receive Madame. He also ordered all merchantmen in general not to leave but to remain ready to receive his Majesty's commands. Although all this is done on the pretext of the marriage, there are signs that they will afterwards engage in some greater operation hostile to the Spaniards. It is said that they pressed exceptional persons for Mansfeld's levies, reserving the ordinary press, which is of picked men, to employ 10,000 of them upon some worthy enterprise. It is added that they are inducing the king by giving the task to private individuals, to get the State served with private liberty. These things originate from healthy sources; but the desire of feeding the people and the parliament with hopes makes one both believe and doubt their fulfilment, and they make one more doubtful than ever of the marriage, with one's knowledge of the king's nature and arts. It is, however, very clear that a more speedy completion of the nuptials may provide a basis for other and greater designs, as the king always offers the uncertainty of France as an excuse (tengono queste cose la sua origine di buona et confrontata parte, ma il desiderio di consolar li popoli et il parlamento di speranze e per far credere e dubitare l'essecutione come pur dubbio vogliono che sia più che mai il matrimonio nella cognitione della natura el dell' arte del Re. Ma è chiarissimo che la più pronta essecutione delle nozze può esseri il fondamento di altre maggiori deliberationi, perche il Re si escusa sempre con l'incertezza della Francia).
The example of the forces of others and the representations of those interested made opportunely may obtain these galleys. The uncertainty about the marriage is increased by the general announcement that the bonfires were only lighted in answer to those in France, and Buckingham remarked that they made the rejoicings merely because they had drawn together bonds more important than the peace with Spain, sufficient for the peace and for the war, an expression employed for the purpose of dashing those who do not want the marriage, and those who desire recourse to arms more than the nuptials (et Bochinghem la proferito che si sono fatte allegrezze, non per altro che per haversi stretto maggior corrispondenza de legami puè importanti che la pace con Spagna sufficienti per la pace et per la guerra, concetti che hanno la mira di guastare quelli che non vorriano il matrimonio et quelli che vorriano l'impiego dell'armi più che quello delli sponsali).
Villeocler will enter this city to-day. The Earl of Dorset went to meet him and he was delayed on the road by the bad weather. With his coming they are expected to arrange the apparatus, the journeys, the missions, the oaths and the ceremonies required with the ratification of the articles.
The gentleman sent by the prince to France was detained to carry richer pledges, as besides other letters for Madame in his Highness's own hand, the prince has also written to the Most Christian and the Queen Mother and has sent his bride his own portrait and jewels worth 200,000 francs.
The gentleman who arrived from Denmark has been sent back with letters about negotiations which have not fully transpired, but the effect is to obtain help in money from that sovereign and to conduct with a zest the negotiations apparently opened by Saxony and the Princes of the Lower Circle for peace in the Empire and that the emperor may have an impulse to give satisfaction in that quarter. I am not absolutely certain whether the king here is satisfied with this much.
The Agent of Bohemia has written to the King of Denmark to assure him about the levies here and to urge him to make some contribution towards Mansfelt's plans. The count wants to issue a manifesto with his Majesty's consent; they are discussing the formula at Court. The agent claims that it will prove useful for their own ideas and takes credit to himself as the author.
I have ascertained that the gentleman of the Marshal de Crichi came here chiefly about the Genoa enterprise. He asked for men and ships and wants them at once. He says that the Most Christian agrees, but his ambassador complains of this affair being carried on without the constable informing him. He does not consider that there is any difficulty, the chief obstacle being alertness. Your Excellencies are probably aware that an old standing arrangement exists between the Duke of Savoy and the constable for this design. They propose to share the profits and devote them to maintaining a large force for many months with which to attempt other enterprises and that the Most Christian will gain by having that town on his own side. They speak constantly of the glory of his Majesty, the common advantages and that the Spaniards could not receive a more mortal blow in the heart.
The Duke of Buckingham has quenched envy by resigning the new honours assigned to him in Ireland, either in order not to advance others, who wish to be come dukes—Hamilton, Arundel and Pembroke—or because he would have to contend with the Earls of Ormonde, of very high nobility in Ireland, who possess a part of those jurisdictions. He has also recognised that to reach the top merely makes the precipice deeper, while he recognises that it is safest to withdraw from employment those who are suspect. Accordingly he has represented to the king that it does not become his dignity to keep an ambassador in Spain when the Catholic king only has an agent here.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has sent to prison a priest, whom he first rescued from the people, for having scandalised the populace by his performances. The Protestants complain that the French are introducing too many novelties.
The octogenarian, Caron, Ambassador of the States, has died after having acted as ambassador at thi Courts uninterruptedly for forty-four years. (fn. 5)
The king has sent to thank me for my consideration in asking an audience, adding that as he will approach this city for Christmas, he thinks it better to spare me inconvenience until that time.
London, the 13th December, 1624.
Postscript: Your Serenity's commands of the 22nd ult. have just reached me.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
697. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Although I understand that the dispensation for the marriage between France and England has been arranged in all essential points and all difficulties overcome, yet some doubts appear to have arisen in drawing it up, though I do not think that they will greatly delay the complete execution of the affair.
The Earl of Angutio, (fn. 6) a Scot, would like to serve your Serenity in some honourable command. He gave me the enclosed note, which he asked me to forward.
Rome, the 14th December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
698. Offer made in the name of the Earl of Angusio by Robert Douglas.
The earl is chief of the Douglas family, the oldest in Scotland, from which the Italian family of Scotti has sprung. No other family in Scotland is so renowned, especially for the last 350 years; they are the first earls of Scotland, and they enjoy many privileges for their loyalty and deserts. They served the Most Christian various times with 3, 7, and 10,000 men and were made marshals and dukes of France. The earl, if his king permits, proposes to bring 2, 3, 4, or 5,000 men from Scotland to serve the republic under experienced officers.
Robert Douglas, Scottish knight, the earl's cousin german, makes this proposal in his name, the earl being at present in Italy.
[Italian.]
Dec. 14.
Misc.
Cod. No. 63.
Venetian
Archives.
699. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Thursday Baron d'Essi arrived, sent by the Infanta of Flanders to urge the departure of the troops. This haste arises because, as she writes, Spinola wants to take Breda before Mansfelt brings help. They say the count will leave England very soon with a strong force to relieve Breda, which is hard pressed by the Spaniards.
This news about Mansfelt disturbs them greatly here because it upsets their plans for restoring peace in the Empire. If it be true we shall hear no more about the Electoral Assembly, and they will have to provide for their defence instead. Cologne reports signs of union among the Protestants. Tilly has received orders to take his force to the Lower Palatinate and enter Franchentale, if the Infanta approves. But I hear that numerous deserters leave his force, which is largely composed of Frenchmen.
A report of marriage negotiations between a daughter of Saxony and the King of Denmark's son, (fn. 7) now that they know of the signing of the articles of the match between France and England, disturbs them as much as this second item of information.
Vienna, the 14th December, 1624.
[Italian; copy.]
Dec. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
700. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The squadron of Portuguese galleons for Brazil waited at Cape Verde for the Castile contingent. Meanwhile the opinion grows that this force is intended for some other design. When leaving the church of the Scalzi on the feast of the Conception the Count of Gondomar accosted me, and when I asked him when he was leaving for his embassy he put his mouth to my ear and laughingly said: I am going to England to beg the king there to agree to our sending to Ireland the fleet we are preparing here for Brazil, and your Excellency may write to Venice asking them not to object if we send it to the Adriatic. I replied in the same spirit, that a fleet prepared for the Ocean could not get to the Adriatic, especially as there was another there which did not want company. He went on to say that his embassy would not be a happy one, inferring that his mission was inopportune at a time when they spoke publicly of open war between that king and this crown. He remarked that he would go willingly if there was any hope of success, but he did not want to risk his reputation in a hopeless mission. A few days ago he thought about that marriage what I reported in my last despatch, but a courier has arrived with news of the complete settlement of the marriage with the Most Christian's sister and a levy of 12,000 foot, ostensibly for the Palatine, but really to relieve Breda, and so his hopes vanished. It seems, nevertheless, that he will go, though the day is uncertain.
The truth is, as I find more and more, that they wait upon events here, without any fixed policy in anything. I think they have irons in the fire everywhere, and some minister of the opposition to support their interests. Thus they hope to wear down their enemies and gain their ends, without risking anything of their own. Many, however, do not approve of this course and would like to see a definite decision for peace or war. They do not approve of this way of professing friendship with all, and then everyone doing his worst. Gondomar is one of these.
Madrid, the 14th December, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
701. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They write me from Genoa that ships are expected at Villafranca from Holland, England and Provence, so that they may drive the Spaniards from the sea.
Florence, the 14th December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 15.
Collegio,
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
702. To the Proveditore in Terra Firma.
Order to consign 20,000 ducats in 14,588 crowns, 2 lire, brought by the Courier Antonio Bartoli, to the Ambassador Valaresso, to use in accordance with the decision of the Senate.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Thomas Carey, younger son of Robert, Baron Carey of Leppington. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1623–5, page 400.
2 Pierre de Berulle.
3 Père Jacquinot. See the account written by the Bishop of Embrun, dated the 21st March, 1625. Paris Transcripts, Public Record Office.
4 Renée d'Espinay, daughter of Thimoleon d'Espinay, seigneur of Saint Luc. Her mother, daughter of Christopher de Bassompierre, was sister of the Countess of Tillières. Pere Anselme: Hist. Genealogique de la Maison Royal de France, vol. vii, page 467. Mlle. de St. Luc had been in England shortly before with her aunt when she won all hearts. See Birch: Court and Times of James I vol. ii, page 363.
5 Caron died on the 1/11 December. He was not appointed ambassador until 1604, but he had been agent in England for some years before, though not from 1580.
6 William Douglas, Earl of Angus.
7 Christian, eldest son of Christian IV of Denmark, did actually marry Magdalen Sibyl, third daughter of John George, Elector of Saxony, but not until the 5th October, 1634. She was not quite seven years old at this time; her elder sisters Sophia Eleonora and Maria Elizabeth were fifteen and fourteen respectively, while Christian was twenty-one. Hüubner, Genealogische Tabellen, Tables 86, 167.