Venice
April 1625, 16-29

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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9-24

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'Venice: April 1625, 16-29', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 9-24. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89035 Date accessed: 20 October 2014.


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April 1625

April 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
12. LUNARDO MONO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Gondomar asked me how your Serenity's ambassador in England would treat him. He said he had orders to make no change, which means he will not treat as equals. He expressed his friendly feeling. Probably a way out can be found, but such ceremonies do not matter so much at this time when more essential things require attention. Your Excellencies can possibly get your instructions to England before Gondomar arrives. He says he will stop a very short time, and I do not think he has much to do. He will merely try to lull the king while Pesaro thinks of nothing but keeping him roused.
Madrid, the 16th April, 1625.
[Italian: the fart in italics deciphered.]
April 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
13. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The turn (volta) given in England by that monarch's ambassador resident at this court proves to have been what I wrote at his departure, because no sooner had he reached London than the Spanish secretary there sent a courier to hasten the Count of Gondomar, representing that the way was prepared for his return and the king was disposed to see and hear him gladly. He also writes that for some days strained relations have been observed between the king and the prince, his Majesty remaining in his former disposition towards this crown, while the son, since the exclusion of the marriage, has become utterly estranged, and has turned his affections to France. This courier arrived four days ago. At his arrival they published advices of the departure from that kingdom of 80 ships with 10,000 foot for Italy for the Genoa enterprise in particular, and they also proposed to land at Corunna; but it is not certain whether the English fleet is in a condition to move at present or whether the king has any decided plan.
There is some rumour of a hitch over the French marriage, and Gondomar, who was waiting for this courier, has already arranged everything for his departure, having taken leave of the king, the council and the Count of Olivares, with whom he spent three days at Aranjuez. There they drew up long and secret instructions. He is now on the road and will go by Barcelona, Genoa and Milan to Germany, and then to England in order to take with him something about the Palatinate which may satisfy the king, or encourage his hopes while preventing him from taking any resolution. The count, however, says he has a hopeless task; four or six months earlier he might haveupset the French marriage and arranged something about the Palatinate, but now there is no help and that king will make war. He foretells great changes in the world, but perhaps he only wants to magnify his services.
Madrid, the 16th April, 1625.
[Italian: the part in italics deciphered.]
April 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
14. That the English ambassador be summoned to the Collegio and the following be read to him:
Our islands of the Levant and other marine places habitually profit greatly by the provision of wheat for their needs from the shores of Dragomestre and Candele and other places in the Turkish dominions, and only ships of the republic used to go there; but for some little time since it seems that some English ships, in the interests of other princes, have gone to lade wheat on those coasts, where our galleys have tried to prevent an operation calculated to deprive our towns of food, raise the price and do other harm. We feel sure that his Majesty would not wish his subjects to inflict any harm on ours for the benefit of others. We beg your Excellency to represent our desire to his Majesty and express our confidence that he will forbid English ships to go to those coasts to lade wheat, which his Majesty does not need, but which is highly necessary for us. We will also write to our ambassador, Pesaro, to perform the same office in our name.
Your Excellency will have heard of the progress of the arms of France and Savoy in the Genoese, and the duke's recent capture of Ottagio after a long action, many of the troops of Spain and Genoa being slain and captured, and their leading commander taken prisoner. We have sent 2,000 more foot to the Marquis of Coure in the Valtelline and two companies of horse, so that the republic is doing more than could be desired. We tell you this so that you may impart it to his Majesty, who will appreciate, we know, the testimony of our habitual confidence.
Ayes, 152.Noes, 1.Neutral 5.
[Italian.];
April 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
15. To the Ambassador in England.
Enclose copy of the office to be performed with the English ambassador here; he will perform the same office with his Majesty in their name.
Ayes, 152.Noes, 1.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
April 17.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
16. To the Ambassador in England.
Recognise the urgency of the needs and the gravity of the ills which would make it just to grant him the leave to return home which he solicits. However, the public service requires his able services for the present; to remain on will increase the merit of his labours.
Ayes, 152.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
April 18.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
17. ZUANE PESAEO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king changed his mind about staying at St. James's and has transferred himself and his household to the royal dwelling of Whitehall. The body of the late king, after being disembowelled, embalmed and enclosed in cloth, lead, wood and velvet, was removed from Theobalds on the 14th and brought to this city by night, accompanied by guards on foot and horseback and followed by many lords in their coaches. The mayor and citizens met the procession, and by the light of numerous torches the body was laid at Denmark House, the residence of the late queen, where it will remain until the funeral, apparently fixed for the 8th May, old style.
His Majesty has announced his grief at the loss of his father, but he does not neglect his functions as ruler, and especially his attendance at church. He shows signs of being temperate, moderate and of exchanging all the prodigality of the past for order and profit.
In arranging matters he has issued three proclamations in particular: one, about confirming the old officials to secure obedience to them. The second, enjoining obedience on his subjects and promising kindness and good government. The third is connected with old orders, forbidding the departure or hiring of ships without the permission of his Majesty or the Lord High Admiral, commanding all the officers and sailors to hold themselves in readiness to serve in the fleet, and as this is a very important step, exhorting his subjects to contribute what they ought promptly, declaring that he will continue the design begun by the late king. His Majesty seems most eager to dispatch the fleet, having expressed his wish that all shall be ready for the day that parliament is to meet, fixed for the 17th May, and he adheres to his idea of making no new plans, but continuing the old decisions.
They think, however, that parliament will be postponed again, owing to the usual considerations about the marriage, but everything is made ready to assemble it, with a good disposition about contributions, and the fleet being ready at that time will supply the principal argument.
The lords of the government and Buckingham all swear that the late king recommended three things to his son, the hastening of the French marriage, the preparation of the fleet, and not to involve himself in negotiations with the Spaniards. Whether these are exhortations of the dead or resolutions of the living king, they are at all events useful inclinations.
After the council had all taken the customary oath to the king, they met again without his Majesty's presence. The Duke of Buckingham reported the state of affairs of the crown so that by their advice the king might ordain better governance. They spoke about the marriage, about which there were various opinions. Some desired moderation in the conditions of the Catholics, others that the French marriage should be broken off to marry the king in Germany to a princess of the same faith. But they decided that in the present state of affairs it was better to expedite the French marriage and petition his Majesty to effect it as soon as possible. This corresponded with the king's desire and he sent word by the duke that he granted their petition, and accordingly he had decided to send orders for despatch to France, with proxies for the nuptials to the Duke of Chevreuse, as the nearest kinsman to this crown, it being decided that the Duke of Buckingham should not make the journey. This decision was opposed by the Earl of Arundel in favour of sending the proxies, for the sake of the crown's dignity, to the greatest prince in France; but the king has put an unfavourable interpretation upon this advice. Others desired that some prince or lord of the religion should have the task, from fear that things may happen at the ceremony, without warning, which they do not desire in such a sacrament. But they straightway sent a person to France to express their unaltered desire for the marriage, and confirming the proxy to the Duke of Chevreuse, to be approved at that court before the definite orders for conclusion are sent back.
The Duke of Buckingham excused himself from making this journey on the ground that he could not bring himself to take part in rejoicings in France at a time when his master's remains lay still unburied in England, but the real reason is that the duke does not want to abandon his fortunes with the king at the outset, and his Majesty is glad to have a chance of seeing whether the French mean to end delay and carry out the marriage. Yet things seem more and more favourable, as Gori has arrived, who left before the king's death was known. He brought word that everything was ready to welcome Buckingham, and for fulfilment, and they proposed or had decided to stay the cardinal legate at Lyons, in order to effect the nuptials before his arrival at court. He reported that the last difficulties had been overcome about Madame's household. This will continue, because as queen it will undergo no change except the addition of one person as vice chamberlain.
Among the numerous affairs dealt with by the council the treasurer showed the poverty of the crown; that the late king had spent 100,000,000l. sterling; that he had left 1,000,000l. debts; two-thirds of the revenue for the coming year had been expended. It would be necessary not to pay the pensions for a year; they equal one-third of the royal income. This advice was unanimously adopted. However, the king, to the general satisfaction, said that he meant to pay his father's debts, but these offices are preparatory to fortify their demands for greater claims upon parliament.
The Earl of Arundel, in his capacity as earl marshal, proposed in consequence of the stopped pensions, that it would be honourable and necessary to limit honours; that titles should not be distributed broadcast as in the past, but only to persons of quality and of noble birth. Buckingham condemned the advice as bad, saying warmly that they ought not to asperse the memory of the deceased king, of such incomparable prudence and wisdom, or limit his Majesty's powers of recognising merit. No one said any more and the earl was somewhat dashed. Some also must have been mortified who were excluded from the council, being originally forbidden and not being present or summoned to take the customary oath; these include the late Secretary Calvert, the deposed treasurer, the Earl of Middlesex, the Earl of Suffolk, Bristol and Lord Wotton; but his Majesty added to the council Sir Offredo May, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, because the late king had already selected him.
In the general lapse of appointments Bristol is excluded from the office of vice chamberlain. The king has conferred it provisionally upon Lord Cheri, (fn. 1) who acted as his chamberlain when prince. They talk of making the Chamberlain Pembroke High Steward and of granting his post to the Earl of Montgomery, his brother. The Secretary Conway is arranging to act as Viceroy of Ireland, the most noble office of the state, and Sir [Francis] Cottington, the king's secretary as prince, may have his place, a man who has no disguise, who keeps his master's favour, is a covert Catholic and is considered an open Spaniard.
The Duke of Buckingham first and alone of all the officials took the oath as first gentleman of his Majesty's chamber, receiving the golden keys and the pass everywhere, whereby he can have access to the king at all hours, even though shut in by triple keys, a confidence he enjoyed with the deceased, and his credit is almost greater. The common people speak differently, that parliament will want to enquire into the rumours about poisonous applications to the disease of the defunct, but all depends upon the absolute will of his Majesty.
M. de la Roche, lieutenant of the guards (fn. 2) of the queen mother, has come from France to offer condolences upon the late king's illness, whose death makes this office void.
M. Riviere has been sent to Paris to request leave for the French ambassador here to go to that court as the duke had certain secrets to communicate through him to his Most Christian Majesty in the king's name, which were too important to be confided to subordinates. They are expecting the answer from France. They have repeated their requests to the Dutch to advance money to Mansfelt upon security for repayment. The general has already obtained 200,000 florins, but the payment must be made here, though they will not alter the old commissions from what I learn, as the king does not wish at the outset to appear to want war with the Spaniards, but he will shut his eyes to what is being done.
A gentleman (fn. 3) is ready to go and inform the Palatine of the king's death, taking mourning vestments in his Majesty's name for their persons and households, with very ample offers of friendship and assistance. The agent of their Majesties is already uplifted with many hopes.
The French ambassador has told me about the affairs of his country. The Rochellese are not absolutely allied with Soubise, but one procures advantages for the other, with a mutual understanding. Negotiations are progressing; they may give appointments to the leaders and promise to rase the fort St. Louis within six months. He also told me that the peace proceeded safely and they only had formalities to arrange, the Rochellese contending for a promise to rase the fort within six months, but the king will make the promise to la Tremouille, Châtillon and la Force while the Rochellese want it made to themselves, Bouillon and Soubise.
The ships for the Most Christian are hurried on and will be ready by next week. The ambassador told me that he thought the need for it would cease with a settlement with the Huguenots.
My troubles have given me some respite this last week, but my usual fever has returned, preventing me from seeing the duke, to my great regret, because at the present time many offices may be performed and many things discovered. My goodwill never fails, and I hope the Senate will relieve me, as to delay my leave will merely render me useless for ever or lead to my burial.
The plague has appeared in this city. I am sending the particulars to the Board of Health.
I have no letters or information about current affairs. People ask me especially about the affairs of Italy and Piedmont, but I can only shrug my shoulders, and say that I have received no news from that court since Paruta's death. Nevertheless, I send frequent accounts of the events here to the Ambassador Priuli.
London, the 18th April, 1625.
Postscript.—A Chiaus has arrived from the Pasha, Viceroy of Algiers, who has handed me letters of the dragoman, Salvago, with some directed to the Secretary Dolce for your Serenity, which I enclose. The Chiaus is here for the conclusion or execution of the treaty with the pirates. I will observe his proceedings, and I will treat him well, as the dragoman writes that he is a favourite of the Pasha, who himself deserves to be propitiated.
[Italian: the part in italics deciphered.]
April 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
18. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Before Belgioso left he greatly desired letters from all the ambassadors of princes allied to this crown to Soubise to facilitate a settlement, and this was arranged. The English ambassadors have written strongly to Soubise on the subject, exhorting him to accept, and Savoy and Holland have done the same.
The king returned from hunting yesterday evening and they report that on the road he decided to make some change in the government. They declare that the blow will fall upon the chancellor, from whom the seals may be taken, but these are only court rumours, that is to say uncertain and fallacious. The cardinal's party and influence advance daily and he is unlikely to fall, since the support of the queen mother, his own worth and subtlety of mind make strong foundations to support him. These last days he has made a masterstroke. The favourite Barrada was a dependent of Schomberg, and his house had anciently always recognised the count as lord. Schomberg therefore counted upon strengthening himself greatly by this support. Accordingly, in order to win this youth, and put him at loggerheads with Schomberg, the cardinal impressed him with the idea that he could have no more important post, so well befitting his requirements and condition, than that of first esquire, held by Lioncourt, Schomberg's son-in-law. The youth readily allowed himself to be persuaded, and asked for it from the king, the queen mother also speaking to his Majesty for him, who granted the favour, and Lioncourt had to give up the post, though he received money compensation, to the disgust of Schomberg, Barrada being under particular obligation to the queen mother and the cardinal, whose party he has joined.
They say that a proxy has arrived from the new King of England to the Duke of Chevreuse, to espouse Madame, that the nuptials will be celebrated in a fortnight and she will leave straightway for London. Meanwhile the court has gone into mourning for the late king, and the foreign ambassadors also. I remained doubtful for a long while, but an intimation from the Master of the Ceremonies decided me, and so I also incurred this expense.
Paris, the 18th April, 1625.
[Italian: the part in italics deciphered.]
April 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
19. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They recently arrested a man whose portrait was sent from Naples many months ago, as I reported. They find that he drew a pension from Spain of 400 franks a month, which were paid him by the Jesuits. This news has caused a great commotion, and they have sent to Rouen the two Jesuits who were taken at Dieppe and by favour of their superiors were brought here to be tried by the council; they have charged the parliament of Rouen to pronounce sentence. It was not true that one of them was executed previously, as I was told.
Paris, the 18th April, 1625.
[Italian.]
April 19.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
20. The deliberation of the Senate of the 17th inst. was read to the English ambassador; he said: I cannot venture to reply on the spur of the moment, as I have no information upon the matter. However, I will report it to his Majesty, and you may rest assured that he will not approve of his subjects coming to take the food out of the mouths of those of your Serenity. Nevertheless, in matters of trade one must be cautious, as commerce varies notably in the course of years, and what is now insignificant may become an important trade. I beg your Serenity to proceed so as to avoid all offence, and wait until I can receive a reply, in order that no English ship, through ignorance of the public will, may incur disaster without its fault.
The doge replied: We wish you to represent to his Majesty our desire that he will forbid English ships to go to those shores to lade wheat, which they do not need, and which is most necessary to our subjects. We feel sure that he will grant us this favour. With respect to the ambassador's objection, Councillor Soranzo remarked that some English ships found lading wheat on those shores had been well treated by their galleys, owing to their friendship with the king. They had been conducted to Venetian ports, where the wheat was unladed and they received a very good price for it, and in its stead they laded currants. This wheat went to the Spaniards or their dependants; wherefore they felt sure that his Majesty would not wish his ships to persist in so prejudicial an action.
The ambassador promised to represent the matter to his Majesty in the best possible light. He thanked the doge for the news communicated to him. His Majesty's ambassador in Denmark wrote that the king there was arming strongly and by the 15th May he would have 30,000 fighting men, of whom the King of England would pay 4,000 foot and 2,000 horse. On the 15th March a diet was to meet, which they hoped Saxony would attend. Prince Maurice is so much worse that his brother Count Henry has taken his place. As the troops of Mansfelt have greatly diminished, my master has decided to send him reinforcements of 7,000 foot, and they mean to try and relieve Breda at all costs, either by direct attack or a diversion.
After the doge had thanked the ambassador for this news, he took leave, asking for permission to take a note of what had been read to him. Accordingly he took notes in the next room of the communication about lading wheat. On leaving he remarked that this must be due to the Genoese, who have hired some of our ships to lade wheat, paying double rates, so that the masters, who were going empty, seized upon the advantage.
[Italian.]
April 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
21. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Mansfelt presses for money. The English ambassador has power to answer to the States for 200,000 florins a month until parliament meets, but the States do not seem inclined to make promises to merchants on the strength of repayment by England.
The lack of payment causes great disorder in the force.
St. Leger is daily expecting the settlement of his proposals. He does not insist upon letting the English go to Denmark because he sees they are wanted too much here. He asks for forty ships to join the fleet and some naval officers. The States propose to satisfy him, but not with so much. He may accept less. These forces must be intended to attack the Spaniards, as the States have no other enemy, and perhaps they will descend upon the coasts of Portugal.
Spens left for Sweden this morning. The negotiations for the league progress, but one can say nothing for certain before Anstruther arrives from England. He was driven back to Flushing by the weather.
The death of the King of England has made no difference whatever here so far. All the old ministers have their commissions confirmed. I paid my respects to the Princess Palatine, who was much gratified, and she counts upon her brother's affection to afford her greater relief in her fallen fortunes. She is sending her secretary, (fn. 4) who has called upon me and is leaving to-morrow. The Palatine has taken this pretext to announce his intention not to take the field again, but really because they told him that it prejudiced his honour to be present in the army, not obeyed and without a command.
The Hague, the 21st April, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
22. To the PROVEDITORE GENERAL in Terra Ferma.
We send you a copy of what we are writing to our ambassador in Spain about what has taken place in the house of the Spanish secretary here, (fn. 5) to serve you for information and that you may know the truth.
The like to:
Rome, Germany, France, England, Savoy, the Hague, the Ambassador Valaresso, Florence, Zurich.
Ayes, 147.Noes, 0.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
April 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
23. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
As I write, towards nightfall, a courier has arrived from Flanders bringing the news of the death of the King of England, and that the new king has sent other commissions to France for the establishment of the marriage. This news will create great excitement here and may give rise to some bold decision to which they might be disposed.
Madrid, the 24th April, 1625.
[Italian.]
April 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
24. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king summoned me to audience three days ago, when I was not too ill, though far from well. I embraced the opportunity of this first favour. The French ambassador had seen his Majesty secretly the night before, and the king wanted to see me without delay, so I am the first ambassador to be publicly visited. I spoke of the king's death and the happy auspices of his Majesty's accession. I expressed a proper grief at the loss and enlarged upon your satisfaction at his accession, amid universal rejoicings and expectations. I expressed esteem and our assurance of his remarkable qualities, adding that your Excellencies were among the most sincere and cordial friends of this Crown, as you would prove to him.
The king heard me most graciously and said that Christendom had lost much by his father's death. He would try to resemble him in good works. He hoped to take up the cause of Christendom. He said, I thank you for your friendship and offices; assure the Signory of Venice of my affection. He spoke in French and expressed himself much more with his heart than his voice, having some difficulty in his speech which prevents him talking easily (si esprimeva, essendo difficile di lingua e di non facile espressione nel Francese assai più con il cuore che con la voce).
From this first part I can promise that the king is marvellously disposed to the good and is well inclined to the republic.
I proceeded to discourse on the state of affairs, the preparations of the Spaniards, the advantage of encouraging the Swiss and distracting and dividing the Spanish forces; the chance of employing the forces of the realm for the glory of his name, the balance of Christendom and the advancement of the plans which would become him.
The king approved by nodding and said that the Swiss of the Protestant Cantons should be encouraged. He would do what was proper, and he knew the operations of the Spaniards. I seized the opportunity to speak of the peace of France, the preservation of which forms the basis of the common liberty. Civil dissension there would stop progress and was the only remedy the Spaniards could apply to their ills. I spoke of these intrigues and said how glorious it would be for his Majesty to use his influence to draw off Soubise and his party and encourage the Most Christian's inclination for peace.
These offices pleased the king highly, though I spoke tactfully, as he has already announced his intention not to do anything against his own religion. He said he hoped for peace and that France would continue to act well as it had begun. He would never cease his efforts for Soubise to surrender or he will perish, abandoned by all.
The king would have heard me longer if I had had more to tell. I told him of the choice of my successor, and he spoke highly of the Ambassador Contarini, while expressing sympathy for me. He afterwards received my gentlemen, including Francesco Grimani, son of Pietro, whom his Majesty received very graciously.
From what his Majesty said I gathered that he had merely ordered offices for the Swiss. But the Secretary Conway stated that the Ambassador Wake had orders by the last courier to go in person to the Swiss and Grisons. I do not know if they have drawn back, but perhaps they have left it to his prudence. Your Excellencies will have learned from him ere this.
The English ambassadors in France write that they have made representations in favour of peace, and in a private capacity they have appealed to Soubise and Rohan to accept the accommodation. Their reserve is in order to please France, which does not like interference from this side in that matter. Apparently the only difficulty consists in the manner of the king's promises.
The ships destined to serve his Most Christian Majesty have experienced some delay, because the owners have not provided ships of the burthen agreed upon and they do not want the king's ship to serve more than six months, but that it shall withdraw on the expiry of that time, and it shall serve as flagship for the fleet. (fn. 6) Owing to the remonstrances of the French ambassador these difficulties have been overcome, but the owners want security for payment month by month, about which they have sent to France for instructions. But it is reported that the king will not consent absolutely to the continuation of the grant without a declaration that they shall not serve against the Huguenots. I hear on good authority that his Majesty, without raising the difficulty, has begun to ask the ambassador against whom they will be employed, as the king wishes to win credit with his party in every way.
After the king I saw the duke, who was purging himself and was strictly confined to a room, but we only exchanged compliments, as he was ill and I was very tired.
London, the 25th April, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
25. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On the news of the king's death the Count of Mansfelt sent letters to the king and the duke. The bearer gave me the enclosed, to which I sent the enclosed reply. The count asks that his instructions may not be restricted as under the late king. His Majesty listened, but has not announced his consent. However, he sent a courier to the Ambassador Carleton at the Hague to order all the officers and soldiers to obey the general. His commissions are not renewed, and this depends upon the decision taken by the States about the proposal for a defensive and offensive league made from this quarter. If the league is made the king will agree to Mansfelt remaining in those parts, but otherwise he means him to push forward, possibly by arrangement with the German league.
I am assured they decided this before the late king's death, of whom they say that his inclinations always were against the Spaniards, but fear combated his hatred. They have ratified the orders for paying Mansfelt money, and if he wanted new levies I do not think he would have any difficulty.
The Ambassador Anstruther has come from Denmark to learn their final decision here. I have not found out everything about his negotiations, but he reports Denmark's decision to send help and go in person. With the Kings of Denmark and Sweden, the circle of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg and the princes will be ready to complete the number of 30,000 foot and 6,000 horse if the 6,000 foot and 2,000 horse are paid here. I have not yet discovered the several contributions or the complete terms of the league. But Denmark offers to provide men if the king will supply his portion in money. The chief interests will be the liberty of Germany, the restitution of the Palatine and that the parties shall lay down their arms together. They have not settled on their answer, but it is thought that the king will agree readily. Since the king's death the King of Denmark has urged a decision and Anstruther's return, promising that he shall find everything ready when he arrives. The lack of money here alone delays their resolutions, but his Majesty has so much credit in the opinion of all, that with the universal inclinations they will have no trouble in finding a sum, either by loans or by selling crown lands, and there is the subsidy, the last of the three granted, all being ready to pay promptly in advance, and this with the subsidy from the clergy will be worth 150,000l.
Meanwhile they are hastening on the parliament, and it is remarkable to observe the devices adopted to be chosen as members, and the inclination and emulation to please the king. As the meeting of parliament affects the interests of the marriage they are using as much despatch as possible. In France it was arranged that everything should be done in a month after the coming of Sir [George] Goring; owing to the events which occurred they added another month for the convenience and pleasure of the king here. As replies have come approving the form of the proxies, they sent the original proxies instantly, but in duplicate, some for the Duke of Chevreuse and the others for Monsieur, the king's brother, who will decide who shall act as proxy, that being the desire in France, after much disputing at the Court. They propose to perform the nuptials in France at the earliest opportunity, before the funerals in this city, after which the bride will cross the sea and at the same time they will open parliament, thus cutting short all delays and making sure of the marriage against which the Catholics and Hispanophiles with the Puritans never cease to announce that the French no longer care about advantages for the faith, and that the King of Great Britain does not desire the conditions passed, and will no more swear to them or set the great seal. They want a new treaty and for Rome to make fresh demands. But the things arranged are not changed, and the king has re-issued the orders in favour of the Catholics, though they will have to appear more moderate, as his Majesty seems devoted to his own faith and has declared that he will give them protection, but not liberty.
News has come that Madame is somewhat indisposed. The king immediately sent Sir [George] Goring to wish her good health with compliments of love.
The Ambassador Fiat has received permission to proceed to the Most Christian Court with the secret desires of this quarter, but he either does not care for the journey or the king has changed his mind, for his departure is suspended. The secret merely consists in the proposal of a defensive and offensive alliance, a touchy subject with the French and the principal object of the English. Apparently the Most Christian would like to send M. de Termes (fn. 7) on a complimentary mission to prevent the return of the Marquis Fiat. This might be occasioned by jealousy, and here they gladly avoid occasions of expense, so they would rather the mission were averted and that Fiat should receive the letters and commissions instead.
From this news I will pass to the special events at court. Everyone observes the duke, and there are various opinions about him and divers inclinations. The king, however, favours him completely, and during his indisposition he frequently visited him in his own apartments, staying a long while and showing great confidence. The duke did not take the oath as first gentleman of the Bedchamber, as I wrote, but was only received by his Majesty therein, and so were the little Duke of Lennox and the young Marquis of Hamilton.
The chief dispute among the courtiers is whether the household of the dead king or that of the prince shall be the household of the present king, but his Majesty does not wish to exclude his father's old servants or abandon his own. He has appointed the duke, the Chamberlain, the Lord Treasurer, Lord Bruch and the Secretary Conway as Commissioners to form a noble household of both for his satisfaction.
A quarrel broke out between the duke and Viscount Andover about the office of master of the horse. His Majesty was thought to have encouraged the latter, as a great favourite, and owing to his beautiful wife, (fn. 8) whom his Majesty admires, he might gain the advantage, but the king declared that he would not take from the duke anything granted by his father.
The king observes a rule of great decorum. The nobles do not enter his apartments in confusion as heretofore, but each rank has its appointed place, and he has declared that he desires the observance of the rules and maxims of the late Queen Elizabeth, whose rule was so popular and is so vastly famous. The king has also drawn up rules for himself, dividing the day from his very early rising, for prayers, exercises, audiences, business, eating and sleeping. It is said that he will set apart a day for public audience, and he does not wish anyone to be introduced to him unless sent for.
His Majesty confirms the appointments arranged by his father but not fixed; among them are the Secretary Murton and Sir Barat as ordinary ambassador to France. The gentleman sent to the queen, his sister, was not acceptable to the duke, but through his Majesty's intervention these became friends. Besides his offices he takes 2,000l sterling in cash for presents, instead of the clothes I reported.
The Earl of Arundel has not profited by the proposals he laid before the Council, which I find were under three heads, to wit, to maintain the ancient nobility, not to put up offices for sale and that the king should let his Council share the things which he wishes to announce, publishing them as having been discussed with the councillors. His Majesty may take care that offices are not sold, as hitherto he has shown great respect for justice and the merit of individuals, but the limitation suggested by Arundel did not please him.
Bristol has written to his Majesty and the duke, probably a submission, but it is not become public nor are the results known.
After arranging the house where the remains of the late king are laid, they put life-like figures there, and they observe the customary vigil, thirty to forty noblemen and cavaliers being always present day and night.
An account of the successes of the Duke of Savoy has appeared. All the Court rejoices. The king would like more particulars, as business and news do not displease him.
London, the 25th April, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
26. Copy of Letter from the Ambassador Pesaro to the Count of Mansfelt.
Always glad of an opportunity of showing his esteem for the Count. Has asked for the patents and expects them by return. The serious loss of the late king is alleviated by the prudence and generosity of his Majesty, who has sent resolute orders to his ambassador at the Hague about the count's wishes. Hopes the count may be satisfied.
London, the 25th April, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
27. Copy of Letter from the Count of Mansfelt to the Ambassador Pesaro.
Thanks for the news that his patent is settled by Venice and placed in the ambassador's hands: begs to have it. The King of England being dead who placed such severe restrictions upon his commissions, begs the ambassador to use his influence that the commissions may be renewed otherwise, and the restrictions removed, for he will never transgress the limits of what is right and proper.
The camp of Preac, the 14th April, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
28. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have paid my respects to the English ambassadors upon the death of their king, expressing the esteem of the republic for their late and present sovereign. The office pleased them, and the Earl of Carlisle assured me of the affection and esteem of the present king for your Serenity.
Paris, the 25th April, 1625.
[Italian.]
April 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
29. To the Ambassador in England.
On the 17th we sent you a copy of the office to be read to the English ambassador about lading wheat on the coasts of Dragomestre, Candele and elsewhere, with orders to perform the same office with his Majesty. We now send you a copy of the ambassador's reply and the remarks made to him in the Collegio. We also send copies of what Moresini, captain of the galeasses, and Thiepolo, Proveditore of Zante, wrote to us on the subject, so that with full information you may use them as occasion requires. You will make representations on the subject to the new king, after performing the proper offices upon his accession, about which we will give you special instructions after the ambassador here has been to inform us.
This present will be brought by Francesco Iseppi, who came with yours of the 6th inst., having shown devoted diligence, as on other occasions, despite various impediments. We pay him 150 crowns for the return journey.
We hear from Spain that owing to the difficulty at present of sending ready money to Italy, the Genoese merchants have begun to have it carried in boats from Biscaya to Flanders. This will serve for information.
That 150 crowns be paid to Francesco Iseppi for his return journey to England.
Ayes, 143.Noes, 0.Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
April 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
30. SIMON CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador, and ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Bailo at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The man sent by the ambassadors of France, England and the States to Gabor has now returned with the answer. England has been to tell us about it. He says it is in general terms and tells them to treat with the ambassadors whom he has already sent to the Porte with special commissions on the subject. Two days after the ambassador of the States came on the same subject and showed us two letters, one the same as that to England, with an additional postscript in the prince's hand, by which it appears that he depends upon what one of his captains writes, and the other from this captain, showing what he wants. Gabor apparently desires to break the last peace with the emperor and to induce the Turks to help him, but he does not expect much from them and hopes for the support of the allied Christian powers and those interested.
The Vigne of Pera, the 27th April, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
31. SIMON CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador, and ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Owing to fresh losses from the pirates, and the impossibility of presenting a joint arz to the Sultan because of the dispute about precedence between the ambassadors of England and France, we pressed the ambassador of the States to try and devise some way of bringing the true state of the business to the Sultan's knowledge in the common name of the ambassadors, urging him to see that his orders against the pirates are enforced, the best way, in the present weakness of the Turks at sea, being to refuse the pirates their ports, putting to death those ministers who disobey. The ambassadors have found the Captain Pasha ready to agree to this; he told them that as he is going to the White Sea this year he proposed to take his fleet to Barbary and carry off some of the leading men with him. If they refused, the Sultan would declare them rebels and take strong measures against them. France offered some sailing ships, which the Pasha declined. The States admitted that his masters had suffered worse since their agreement with the pirates, but England declared that by virtue of the capitulation with them signed by him here, those of Algiers have released over 500 English slaves, but they probably did so because the English are bound to release a good number of their own slaves.
The Vigne of Pera, the 27th April, 1625.
[Italian.]
April 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
32. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Owing to the prince's death, (fn. 9) St. Leger's business remains undispatched, though he expects they will grant him 24 ships. The admiralties here are exhausted by these naval provisions, but they require all the principal towns to contribute a ship each, in which case they will not be ready very soon.
They have granted 200,000 florins for Mansfelt with the hope of more still. The States have promised the merchants upon the word of the English ambassador, but they would not agree before it was arranged to pay the money out through some minister and not consign it to Mansfelt alone as before. The English ambassador will probably appoint his nephew or someone else for the purpose, though I do not know if it will please Mansfelt.
The Hague, the 28th April, 1625.
[Italian.]
April 29.
Senato,
Terra.
Venetian
Archives.
33. To the Proveditore General in Terra Ferma.
We have resolved to accept the offer of Captain Thomas Lathum, an Englishman who served in the regiment of Colonel Peyton, to raise levies, but we shall postpone carrying it out to another time. Meanwhile you will pay him 25 ducats a month for his wages.
Ayes, 150.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
April 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
34. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They keep the king at Aranjuez, so that he may hear as little as possible of what is taking place. They have sent thither the mourning that his Majesty wishes to wear for the death of the King of England. They have sent after the Count of Gondomar, directing him to stop where he is until further order. I do not think he has gone far, but on reflection they have apparently decided to let him proceed.
Madrid, the 29th April, 1625.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Robert, Lord Cary of Leppington.
2 In his letters of credence he is styled the Baron de Roches. S.P. Foreign, France.
3 Sir Henry Fane.
4 Sir Francis Nethersole.
5 Sheltering convicts and robbers.
6 The royal ship was the Vanguard commanded by John Pennington, and there were seven merchantmen. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1625, 1626, page 20.
7 Rene Potier, Count of Tresmes, who arrived in England in the following month.
8 Elizabeth, eldest daughter of William Cecil, second Earl of Exeter.
9 Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, died on the 23rd April.