Venice
May 1625, 1-10

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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25-38

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'Venice: May 1625, 1-10', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 25-38. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89036 Date accessed: 01 October 2014.


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May 1625

May 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
35. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Madame went last week to the Madrid, a pleasure resort two leagues from Paris, to take the waters and medicines to recruit herself. She is to be in Paris on Sunday week for the marriage ceremony appointed for that day, for which their Majesties, the ministers and the whole court will also return to that city.
Ruel, the 1st May, 1625.
[Italian.]
May 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
36. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The French ambassador in England, at the request, they say, of the new king, has received a brevet of Knight of the Holy Spirit. He will have powers to come to this court to negotiate in the name of the English king, by whom and by Buckingham he is greatly loved and esteemed.
Ruel, the 1st May, 1625.
[Italian.]
May 2.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
37. The English Ambassador came into the Collegio and said:
Some letters have reached me from the lords of Berne which I must impart to your Serenity, at their request. He then took up a letter and read as follows:
The confidence of our republic in your Serenity moves me to inform you that several captains, subjects and foreigners, have come here to try and enrol soldiers for the most serene republic, notably a Captain Murato, who was allowed to enlist 200, but as he afterwards wished to exceed the number he ran the risk of being stopped. Chivalischi also sent three captains for permission with two other citizens, without producing any patents from the republic. This taking away of our subjects is an important matter and we have therefore decreed that no one shall enlist men upon pain of death. If the republic needs any, let her ask and we shall try to satisfy her, but it is not right to act in such a manner, especially as we do not know whether it is by your Serenity's order. I asked the lords, supposing the republic asked for a levy if they would grant it, and they said, Yes. When he had finished reading, the ambassador added, I hinted to them about my going thither to tell them of the late king's death and his Majesty's accession, his desire to maintain cordial relations and to offer congratulations about the Grisons, urging them to defend and preserve their recovered liberty. They replied that the embassy would be welcome. I said nothing about the matter of which I spoke to your Serenity, because as I am to leave in a month there is time to arrange, and there are various important considerations in the matter. The Helvetian nation does not usually raise levies unless they are paid by others, so those who want to employ them must consider who will pay. My king cannot undertake this, as he is paying more than 30,000 foot in various places, but it would not be a great matter for the league, and possibly it may not be necessary. Moreover, the Catholic cantons granted a passage to France and they will claim that the Protestants must do the same for Spain, and would take arms if they meant to stop the passage of the Catholics. Tilly's force might attack them. The Duke of Savoy, who will send someone with me, and M. de Miron should favour this. To the above particulars one may reply that the Catholic cantons were bound by their alliance with France, whereas the Protestant cantons have no alliance with the Spaniards, but only an hereditary peace with the house of Austria, concerning trade more than anything else. The two towns have a league with your Serenity, and as they are thereby bound to supply troops the others are bound to give them passage. Savoy has a league with Berne and the Catholics, and if it is resolved that the league shall raise levies in those countries they can say, we give troops to the league in virtue of alliances, and therefore they can forbid the passage of other troops, so that they may not come to attack their own. I hope that Tilly's troops will not remain in that neighbourhood, as Denmark will soon have a large force ready, so that Tilly is alarmed and has sent to Cæsar for help. Once the business of Breda is over, upon which next week's letters should say something, Mansfeld will be free to turn towards Germany, and that will give them something to think about. I submit all this to your consideration.
The doge replied, We thank your Excellency warmly and we are deeply indebted to his Majesty. These Signors will deliberate upon the matter. We can say no more at present, except to express our appreciation of your friendly offices.
The ambassador said afterwards, I was charged with another matter when I left Turin, by the request of the Infanta and all the ladies of that court. I put off, hoping that an ambassador would soon come from his Highness to take the task upon himself. He has not come, so I prefer this request in favour of two gentlemen, brothers of the Scota family, of Piacenza, I believe. The case is one for favour, I am informed. They are prisoners upon condition that one must not speak about it for a year; nine months have already passed. I beg your Serenity for grace, to show that my offices have some influence with you, which will serve me at that court.
The doge replied that the matter belonged to the Council of Ten, to which they would send the request, asking them to do everything possible to gratify him. The ambassador left a memorial, took leave and departed.
The memorial and a copy of the aforesaid article were sent to the Chiefs of the Council.
[Italian.]
May 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
38. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king's reputation increases day by day. He professes constancy in religion, sincerity in action and that he will not have recourse to subterfuges in his dealings. His attention to those things renders him more popular, and he conducts himself with every propriety. He keeps a book in which he reads many hours a day, and no one is allowed to know the contents. It is thought to consist of maxims in manuscript. He is accustomed to observe for himself the chief points in the discussion of the most important affairs and the deliberations made, while previously he desires them to be discussed in the Council in his presence and know the bases of the arguments and opinions of the councillors, upon which he ordains his pleasure. Every morning he shows himself in the privy chamber in the presence of all the lords and officials of that apartment. He detains some in conversation and salutes the others and leaves them all happy and devoted (sempre più cresce la riputatione del Re e la dispositione facendo professione di costanza di Religione di sincerità d'operationi et di non valersi di sutterfuggii nelle maneggi: l'applicatione nei quali delle popoli verso la Maesta Sua lo rende più grato e si regge con buoni termini. Custodisce un libro, sopra il quale legge molte hore del giorno ne ad alcuno è lecito di sapere il contenuto, giudicandosi che siano avertimenti manuscritti. Usa di notar da se stesso li capi delle consulte delli maneggi più importanti, le deliberationi fatte, prima nel Consiglio vol che siano discorse in sua presenza, sapere li fondamenti delle ragioni e le opinioni de Consiglieri, sopra quali ordina il suo volere. Ogni mattina si lascia vedere nella camera privata in faccia a tutti li Milord et officiali di quella stanza; si trattiene con li discorsi con alcuno e salutando gl'altri, parte con consolatione et obligatione di tutti).
The commissioners for the regulation of the household are the most confidential in affairs, and it does not seem that the duke will be alone, but his Majesty will communicate as much with the others, and they are already generally described as Cabinet Councillors, although there has been no further announcement.
Nevertheless the duke maintains his position, but the old domestic servants of his Majesty oppose him constantly and without respect.
His Majesty is trying to keep the Scots satisfied and has confirmed many in their charges, almost in greater numbers than the English. The Mayor of London has offered the king a loan of 20,000l. in the name of the city, the treasury being exhausted and laden with heavy expenses. As it will never be repaid it amounts to a gift. The subsidy in course of payment has been expended and pledged, so that will be no use. The king has private debts of which he has ordered the payment. He desires the revenues of the Principality of Wales to remain separate from those of the crown until these debts are cancelled. A short time will suffice, as the debts amount to 50,000l., and the revenues to about 60,000l. The expenses upon necessities are very heavy, the subsidy paid being already exhausted and pledged so that it is of no service, some imagine that the king left treasure, arguing from the rich sums that he received, that he did not spend publicly and because of his timid and mistrustful nature which would never have allowed him to grow poor. But of this there is no certainty whatsoever.
The king's feeling towards the Spaniards becomes more and more plain. The Flemish and Spanish agents went to audience to pay the fitting respects and offered him satisfaction for the recent reprisals, although they claim the captures were justified by the terms of the peace. The king received their offices graciously, but said he had made sure of satisfaction already by granting letters of marque for those concerned to recoup themselves.
They have appointed an agent to go to Spain. (fn. 1) The Ambassador Aston will not now proceed to that court, but has orders to recall his wife and children, the dispatch being already executed. They are also sending an agent to Poland, for compliments, but I have not yet made sure of the real objects of this mission. The secretary of the king and queen (fn. 2) has come from Holland to offer condolences and to adjust the negotiations taking place with Denmark and for a league in Germany. He found the king determined to contribute and strongly inclined to the opinions of the King of Denmark, but he will try to reconcile the interests of all. I gather from those who conduct these affairs that the said king is resolved to operate by himself with the circle of Saxony, having an understanding with and help from the States and the king here. The Palatine does not favour communicating all his plans to the princes of Germany, in his own interests, and Sweden seems to want a league of all with this country, to be negotiated at the Hague itself, for the equilibrium aud liberty of Germany, with a declaration that they do not mean to go any further in offence or harm any princes, no matter what faith they profess. But that Demark shall arm first, so that under cover of his forces the others may make the declarations. He, however, would like help without much thought of other arrangements. This arouses the suspicion that he wants selfish advantages and not the common cause. However, he has arranged to send to the Hague also to facilitate an agreement with those princes; in this way they will try to reconcile the different views, so that Denmark may not suffer hindrance and that the league may take effect.
Anstruther will leave with these views and with sufficient instructions, and effective promises from the king here, agreeing to pay the 6,000 foot and 1,000 horse, to provide the money and arrange with the merchants to provide 30,000l. for the expense, the king making the most liberal promises to do his share and keep it up.
When people have spoken to me on the subject I have urged despatch, and that they should help each other without interfering with individual plans. I know this has done good and hope things will turn out well.
From the Hague they are expecting the gentleman sent with proposals for a defensive and offensive league, though confined to a junction of their fleets and apparently dependent upon the treaty they propose to conclude with France, because for the renewal of Mansfelt's commissions they would like the consent of France anew, if considered necessary.
La Riviera has come from France with news of the prompt despatch of the nuptials and that Madame is well, everything being ready. The Duke of Chevreuse has made some complaint about the honour of acting as proxy in this ceremony being taken from him. Accordingly they have sent fresh commissions from here to the king's ambassadors, pointing out that as the duke was mentioned first his Majesty would like him preferred before all, but that his Most Christian Majesty must dispose of the proxy as he pleases. This is in order not to offend Chevreuse, but also in order not to designate the business more for one prince than another, as the commissions may arrive too late. The Most Christian king has sent the blue riband (fn. 3) to the Ambassador Fiat here, with extraordinary promotion performed publicly in the church of the Augustines, Paris, the usual one for such functions.
The ships for France are ready, but all the difficulties are not removed apparently, and are kept up wilfully on this side. They are hastening on the fleet. His Majesty had the pleasure of visiting Blackwall with the duke to see a good number of the ships.
They have already sent 800 foot to strengthen the garrisons in Ireland, enlisted in the parts adjoining that sea. We hear that 300 of them perished in a storm with all the munitions. (fn. 4)
The Chiaus from Algiers has not had his business despatched and the satisfaction about his mission does not seem to be quite reciprocated. He brought forty-two English slaves of the three hundred in Algiers. This small number does not satisfy the agreement for the release of all according to the tax for ransom. He claims fifteen slaves of his own people, but they are in Spain and their recovery no easy matter, indeed impossible. There are complaints of the behaviour of the merchants concerned. We shall learn the final results of his mission. He brought two lions and two leopards for the king by commission of the English consul, and he has two fine barbary horses.
He has asserted that ten ships are being prepared to go against the Venetian merchantmen in our waters.
The ambassador of Persia will not accomplish the object of his mission; the merchants have given up the idea of farming that silk per pubblico for the reason that they cannot trust that king, and they cannot place their capital at his disposition, but the trade must remain free as before.
They have held a council upon the affairs of Virginia and finding that the arrangement about tobacco is prejudicial to the inhabitants there, they have dissolved it and asked for fresh proposals.
The king will not suffer private venality, because one of his servants, having sold a minor office which was not paid for, the king confirmed the buyer in his post without any obligation to pay, excluding the old servant.
It is a custom at the funerals of kings for his Majesty to dispense cloth for mourning to all the titled nobility. They have decided to exclude the Catholics. This is to make a mark of them and one may call it an injury. They will show rigour about religion, to the satisfaction of the general.
His Majesty's agent at Brussels has informed me of the imprisonment of Giovanni Battista Pasini, the republic's servant, by order of the Infanta. I am very sorry, as Pasini is a faithful servant who has helped all the ambassadors. The Secretary Conouel has shown me a paragraph from a letter in praise of the prisoner, pitying his plight and that of his family. I hope means may be found to relieve him. I asked for his Majesty's offices. The secretary has written warmly because the resident reports that they contemned some patents and your Serenity's name, of which Pasini availed himself.
In speaking of the progress of the Duke of Savoy, Conouel remarked that your Excellencies did not like it, as you did not approve of harm to another republic. I replied it was not that, but you wished for the punctual fulfilment of the arrangements of our league and the common service.
Your Serenity's subjects interested in the currant trade urge upon me the confirmation of the Council's decree, believing that everything is ended by the king's death. I do not believe this to be the case, but your Excellencies will send me your commands about currants and muscatels, and will judge what advantages may be obtained.
London, the 2nd May, 1625.
[Italian.]
May 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
39. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
For four months I have suffered from sickness of body and disquiet of mind. I reported my condition and the opinion of the physicians and asked for my release from this charge. With rest I would undoubtedly have recovered, but I sacrificed myself and decided not to leave London and profit by the country air. I again press the urgency of my suit, as if I cannot recover my health in this season I never shall recover it. The plague grows worse in this city. All the best inhabitants are leaving it, and the court will go if the king does. Accordingly by remaining I shall lose the advantage of news while incurring double danger. If my recall is not decided, I would represent my desperate condition and recall my seven years of service in three embassies. One breach of strictness does not necessarily involve the same for all. On account of the plague the king may go away, and for the same reason and owing to my ills I ought to provide myself with a country dwelling, though the public service and the London house will not be abandoned for this reason. Thus I shall incur further obligations and need more servants and provisions, involving unbearable expenditure. Furthermore, the king will go to the seaside, followed by every one, to receive his royal bride. They then think of going either to Winchester, Salisbury or Oxford, many miles away, to hold parliament. The coronation will take place, for which the original liveries will not suffice. One must add the festivities, illuminations and the dispensation of wine, beer and bread, following the custom of the country. They also talk of going to Scotland to arrange matters and have a second coronation. I have spent a great deal on mourning for the late king, and to get rid of this charge I lose the 1,000 crowns for the return journey, though I may have it some day. Your Excellencies will judge if I can support all this after my heavy expenses in Piedmont and France. A noble war horse receives an honoured rest as a reward; I ask consideration for my sacrifices in my service.
London, the 2nd May, 1625.
[Italian.]
May 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
40. To the Ambassador in England and the like to the Ambassador at the Hague.
Our subject Pasini served us in Brussels without giving any cause of offence, receiving a special stipend from us since 1620. On the 11th ult. he was suddenly cast into prison by the Infanta there, without any reason, severely guarded and deprived of all his papers and properties. We do not think we can perform any office in our own name, but we direct you to unite with the French ambassador so that strong intercession on Pasini's behalf may be made through the French resident at Brussels, which we feel sure will prove successful, affording us great satisfaction. You will tell us what you have done and what people say and expect, as well as the real reason for the imprisonment, so that we may decide what else to do.
That 300 ducats, mint value, be paid to the proper representatives of the Ambassador Pesaro in England, and 300 ducats of the same value to the Ambassador Contarini at the Hague, for which both shall render account.
Ayes, 145.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
May 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
41. To the Proveditore of Cephalonia.
You will have heard what happened to the foreign vessels lading wheat for the west on the Turkish coasts. Two of them, one English and the other Ragusan, being separated from the rest, were attacked and stopped by Moresini, captain of the great galleys, and his consort Navagera, and taken to Zante, where the corn was landed for the use of the town, while they reloaded with currants. This will serve to stop such proceedings in the future. We have ordered our commanders at sea, if they find such ships, to stop them and take them to Corfu to unlade their grain, to be converted into biscuits, putting them to the inconvenience of coming to this city to receive the value. All this will serve for information.
Ayes, 133.Noes, 0.Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
May 3.
Senato.
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
42. To the Ambassador at Rome.
The Spaniards continue to fortify Riva, showing their determination to hold it, although the Spanish court ostensibly condemns Feria's persistence about the Valtelline, and as usual their ministers try to open negotiations on the subject. They give every assistance to the Genoese, who have admitted Spanish troops into their city; the viceroy has sent troops from Naples, and they say a million in cash has arrived from Barcelona. On the other hand, Gavi surrendered to the forces of France and Savoy on the 23rd. The duke has fortified the banks of the Tanaro against Feria's move towards Alessandria. He proposes reprisals against Milanese subjects for the ill treatment of his own subjects, especially in Alessandria. The pope continues his preparations, especially in providing money. So far he has helped the Genoese more by his offices than otherwise. Besides the German troops in the Milanese, Feria is arranging for 6,000 more, making 20,000 of that nation; there are also the Swiss and the levies for the Grand Duke. They have sent to Naples for 2,000 horses. Genoa has supplied a loan for their expenses. They are contemplating by means of the emperor, though in the Catholic's name, some enterprise against us in Friuli and Istria, for which they are providing a large quantity of food in Styria and Carinthia. Two companies, one Ultramontane, the other Italian, quartered at Rigoletto, near Morbegno, having broken into a church for robbery, our Ambassador Valaresso went to that place from Traona and caused summary justice to be done.
We send all this for your information to use as the service of the state may require.
The like, mutatis mutandis, to all the other courts and to the Proveditori General.
Ayes, 125.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
May 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
43. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Sanleger has left for England with his despatch. Their High Mightinesses have selected twenty of their ships to reinforce the English fleet, ten large ones, the others smaller. They ordered separate towns to equip them, not the admiralties as usual. The States will bear the expense, but owing to the lack of ordnance the ambassador has undertaken to write to England for some. These ships will not be ready very soon, that being impossible after the commission of so many vessels. They reckon to have armed 260 in all. I hear that the English fleet will not wait for this reinforcement, but will join them when ready, as may be arranged. They have also granted to Sanleger ten English companies, which the king will select from the old and new troops, to strengthen the fleet.
Mansfelt was provided with 200,000 florins; the English ambassador will promise 200,000 more, but does not wish for the payment before the fleet has started. Meanwhile he has sent his nephew to inform Mansfelt that the English are satisfied with this money. At present they do not number more than from 3 to 4,000, the rest being sick or dead from their sufferings. The same person has orders to see how the money is spent, and if they do not satisfy the troops and produce better order he will protest that the king will not continue his contribution.
Following the example of the Most Christian and British ambassadors I have been to the Assembly to offer condolences upon the prince's death, with the object of urging steadfastness and union.
The Hague, the 5th May, 1625.
[Italian.]
May 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
44. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The court is full of rumours and alarms; the Council of plans and irresolution; couriers who arrive hourly from all directions only bring fresh fuel. Two arrived from England, one after the other. It is announced that they bring news of a fleet which is to set out, but they say nothing is certain except provision of victuals therefor. However, these frequent expeditions merely serve to show the trend of the new king's intentions. Here they merely auger ill, as the Marquis of Inoiosa has gone towards Portugal, and they write from Lisbon that the English consul has left. The embassy is also leaving; they say a secretary will come until they send another ambassador upon Gondomar's arrival.
Madrid, the 7th May, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
45. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king has commanded me to attend the funeral and the sea journey. This has prevented me from leaving the city so that they might not accuse me of running away from the expense and service. I have decided to prepare everything necessary for these functions, and by medical advice have taken a purge, which only renders me weaker. A fever has just overtaken my secretary, so I beg your Excellencies to excuse a complete despatch. I have made two attempts, but two fainting fits compel me to put down the pen and rest. I will send the minutes from which I meant to make my letter.
London, the 9th May, 1625.
[Italian.]
May 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
46. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The celebrations of the funeral and the marriage are near at hand. The funeral will take place earlier, on the 15th inst.
The betrothal will have taken place in France on the 8th, and the nuptials will be celebrated on the 11th. The dispensation is reported to be free. The pope is satisfied with the terms arranged. Chevreuse will act as proxy, the French having declared for this. The royal bride will leave four days later. The Most Christian will accompany her to Amiens, two days from Paris. They have already remitted 400,000 crowns of the dowry. M. de Tremes performs his embassy and he is now at Boulogne. They are sending ships to transport him and coaches to meet him. The king will leave for Dover the day after the funeral. Eight ships will be sent to Boulogne to fetch the queen. Buckingham will cross the sea to receive her. A number of lords and ladies are appointed to receive the bride at Dover. The ambassadors of princes are commanded to make the journey.
The ships for France are ready. M. de Raisigli has come to take them to Dieppe. There they will order the fleet and distribute the commands. They reckon that the Most Christian will have forty-eight ships, eight English, twenty Dutch, twenty French. The agreements with the owners and the treaty between the two kings are concluded. Some difficulties remain about starting. The sailors are hindered by the prohibition issued in order to collect all the seamen of the realm for the royal fleet. They are hunting for pretexts for delay without refusing. They desire the peace of France with satisfaction for the Huguenots, and do not want to grant forces against those of the religion. They might grant them to prevent Soubise from doing mischief at sea. The king will lend without payment the royal ship previously granted to the Most Christian on hire.
The advantages for the Catholics proceed slowly and with certainty, and so do the provisions for Madame's church. The new chapel of St. James's is being built with scant solicitude. Only one room is arranged for the queen at Whitehall for ecclesiastical purposes. M. de la Roche has returned to France with the despatch of the agreements. He has obtained three lilies of diamonds of great value.
The secretary of the King of Bohemia is going to France. To congratulations about the marriage he will add requests for help and perhaps the payment of old debts from that crown. The last person from Mansfelt is leaving. He has promises of renewed commissions and support for six months to come. They want the count to take his orders from the Palatine. This will not altogether please Mansfelt because he has no men and his interests are different. The six months' agreement with him has expired. They must find out whether France means to continue.
Anstruther has not left for Denmark. He will take remittances from the money of the queen and dowry. Alberstadt has sent a gentleman to pay his respects. The agent for Poland is not despatched. In any case he will not pay compliments but make remonstrance against the employment of Cossacks against the Palatine.
The fleet should be ready this month; there are various opinions about its objects. Those of the Palatine would like it to go in his name, if the king would openly declare war, but so far there is no appearance of this. People surmise an expedition to the Indies. Owing to the nature of the repairs of some of the ships, which have to be different for the two seas, some imagine that a part may enter the Mediterranean.
The Palatine asks for the title of king, following the example of the republic and Denmark in particular. They adopt a middle way, calling him simply "my brother," without a title.
The parliament is expected to be brief; to offer congratulations to the king; to confirm the announcement of his succession; to carry out the coronation; to demand the observance of the laws in general; to grant free subsidies to his Majesty; postponing the more important discussions to another time, possibly the autumn. The confidence in the king's religion removes the pretext for guarantees on that score.
Besides the 20,000l. the city has lent another 60,000l.; they are pledging the old revenues of the crown, to wit, the duchy of Lancaster. To raise the money the aldermen and leading burgesses bind themselves in particular.
The legate a latere, (fn. 5) keeps them in suspense, whether he may not upset the good designs of France. He may have a large sum of money to corrupt them and carry his purpose. They will keep a close watch.
Even if they cannot obtain from France the fruits of a closer union after the marriage, it will act as a stimulus to unite thoroughly with some Protestant league.
The king after wearing black for a month has begun to dress in violet. All are commanded to wear coloured garments at Dover. This is the subject of action and conversation. The ambassador of the republic incurs insupportable expenses to obey the king about the funeral and his journey; he is doing his utmost but begs leave to return home.
London, the 9th May, 1625.
[Italian.]
May 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
47. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The whole court has returned to this city to celebrate the marriage of the new Queen of England. Yesterday they performed the betrothal and solemnly signed the contract, and on Sunday they will celebrate the nuptials with royal pomp in the church of Notre Dame, where the Duke of Chevreuse will act the part of bridegroom up to the point of getting into the bed. The king will give a state banquet at which the princes will serve. The Count of Soissons and his mother have left the court in order not to be present at the ceremony, because Madame had been promised to him. The Duke of Nevers has also withdrawn to be out of the way, the king having decided, at the request of the English ambassadors, that the princes of the House of Lorraine, for this occasion, should have precedence of the other as princes of the blood royal of England, and for this reason Nemours will feign sickness and will not leave his house.
A quarrel has arisen between the princesses of the blood and the others owing to the claim of the former to have a place apart in the church of greater eminence. A dispute has also arisen between the Cardinal Rochefoucauld and the Archbishop of Paris, which is not settled yet, the archbishop claiming to celebrate the marriage and sing the mass, since it is in his diocese and his own cathedral church, while the other, as the king's chief almoner, says that his jurisdiction extends wherever the king may be.
Paris, the 9th May, 1625.
[Italian.]
May 9.
Cinque Savii
alla
Mercanzia.
Risposte.
Venetian
Archives.
48. Thomas Transfilt, captain of the ship William Ralph, having brought in a composite cargo 15 bales of calf skins contrary to the laws, has besought the doge to allow him to take them away to foreign lands upon payment of the transport duty, as he did not know he was infringing the laws, because he had not been in this city before.
We think this may be granted for this occasion only, as he confessed of his own accord. He must find pledges for the duty, and as there is no special custom for these skins he need only pay the export duty.
Ottavian FalierSavii.
Filippo Bon
Nicolo Erizzo
[Italian.]
May 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
49. To the Ambassador at Rome, and the like to the other Courts and to the Proveditori General.
The mission of the cardinal legate to France becomes more clearly intended for a truce; the nuncio there and at Turin having already proposed as much. They have sent the legate to Asti to be near the princes. The Duke of Savoy has recovered from his catarrh. He sent his eldest son to recover Oneglia from the Genoese. The Spaniards profit from slowness of decision. In the Milanese and Genoese they now have quite 40,000 combatants; they consider Genoa safe and hope to recover what it has lost so far. Bickering has taken place between Alessandria and Asti to afford an opportunity. Every prince should be on his guard against them. The galleys of Naples and Sicily have arrived and with them those of the pope and Tuscany. The Marquis Santa Croce stopped these last when they wanted to return. The Florentine ships brought 12,000 foot; a great help for the Genoese if the Duke of Alcala arrives with the Spanish fleet, as expected, especially if he is not counterpoised by Guise's fleet and the armed ships of Holland and England levied by the Most Christian. Our several auxiliary forces for the Valtelline prove excellent troops; the boats built by us on the lake and manned by Albanians cause great inconvenience to the enemy.
We enclose a sheet shewing the number of troops levied by the Spaniards. This and the rest will serve for information.
Ayes, 107.Noes, 2.Neutral, 46.
[Italian.]
May 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
50. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
Owing to the progress of the Spanish arms in Italy, we have ordered large levies in Switzerland, Germany, France and Albania and increased the infantry on our ships. We have urged our allies to play their part. The crux of the matter rests at present at the Most Christian court, and as our enemies are weaving their usual devices of negotiations we have decided to send an extraordinary courier to our Ambassador Moresini, to represent to that monarch our constancy and the very serious state of affairs. We direct you to impart this decision at your court, showing our object to be to maintain the public cause against oppression, and we believe that other princes will concur in this admirable object, because our interests are so interwoven that one cannot suffer without the others feeling the effects. Accordingly every one should make preparations on his own account. You will endeavour in this way to help our affairs and stir them up as far as possible.
We send you a copy of what we have written to Constantinople about the movements of Prince Gabor for your information and in order that you may conduct yourself with proper tact and caution if the subject is broached.
The like to England and also to Zurich, without the last paragraph.
To England add:
We are sure you will have performed the complimentary offices upon the late king's death and the accession of his Majesty, and as we have instructed you sending special letters. We have done the same with the Ambassador Wake so soon as we had the news, two Savii of our Collegio, Correr and Lando, calling upon him subsequently. This will serve you for information; and as we rejoice at the worthy resolutions with which his Majesty has entered upon his reign, especially in going forward with his fleet, we direct you to foment this zealously as an excellent idea.
Ayes, 85.Noes, 5.Neutral, 65.
[Italian.]
May 10.
Misc
Cod. 64.
Venetian
Archives.
51. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The visit of the Count of Collalto to the Prince of Ecchembergh at Gratz was to inform his Excellency about the levies raised for Caesar and Spain and ask his opinion; and to tell him about the ideas of Denmark, the suspicions of the new King of England, the sailing of a powerful fleet, no one knows whither; the uncertainty of peace with the Turks, and many other things.
The King of Denmark has been chosen chief of the Circle of Lower Saxony. This has caused grave dissatisfaction here. The Duke of Lunemburg, who resigned the post, has sent hither to explain his reasons for the step, namely, his great unpopularity with practically the whole Circle as too dependent upon the House of Austria. The appointment of Denmark increases their suspicions of the princes of that province and makes them fear some understanding between Denmark and Sweden for the purpose of making worse confusion in the empire. They feel the more sure of this because of the death of the King of England brought by the courier of Flanders, the ill disposition of the new king and Buckingham towards Spain, and as the latter is no longer going to France; but with the fleet they fear a landing in Spain or that it will enter the Mediterranean, and they have not yet got rid of the fear that it may go to Hamburg to send troops into the empire or to these provinces.
Vienna, the 10th May, 1625.
[Italian; copy.]

Footnotes

1 Peter Wyche.
2 Sir Francis Nethersole.
3 The order of the Holy Ghost; Effiat received it in England at the hands of the Duke of Chevreuse, on the 28th June. Salvietti, news letter of the 4th July. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962D.
4 Five ships were wrecked and only 194 men out of 550 were saved. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1625, 1626, pages 5, 8.
5 Cardinal Francesco Barberini, nephew of Pope Urban VIII.