Venice
May 1625, 12 - 20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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38-48

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'Venice: May 1625, 12 - 20', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 38-48. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89037 Date accessed: 16 September 2014.


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Contents

May 1625

May 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
52. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The gentleman (fn. 1) sent by the King of England to the Princes Palatine here informing them of his father's death and his own accession, brings over letters several weeks old. Among these are express orders to the English and Mansfelt to obey the Palatine, who has declared that they shall help to relieve Breda, in the hope of assistance from the States if an opportunity occurs to enter the empire. This first step of the new king fills every one with hope of better progress, although the event is the best thing to judge by.
Suspicion has been aroused by an interview between the Bishop of Verdun and Mansfelt. With the last orders from England the count has promised not to be behindhand, but he has disgusted every one by his over subtlety.
The armies move slowly to the relief of Breda; certainly the task is no easy one. Under the pretext of making a good impression upon the new king, the English ambassador has obtained that one of the judges who condemned the English in the Amboyna affair and was sent home with the particulars, shall remain a prisoner in his own house, and one Cuch, who was to go to those islands, has been recalled as very distasteful to the English. These satisfactions are not despicable because the king greatly desired them and their High Mightinesses have resolutely removed every obstacle in order to please him.
The King of Denmark has conferred with the Margrave of Brandenburg and also sent to Sweden. Before ministers come here from both kings to push on negotiations, they will await Sweden's reply. Meanwhile Anstruther will return from England, whence we hear money has been sent to Denmark owing to the king's obligations in the movements of that Circle.
The Hague, the 12th May, 1625.
[Italian.]
May 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
53. That a Savio of the Council and one of Terra Ferma be sent in the name of the state to the English ambassador, to express regret at the death of the King of England.
Ayes, 120.Noes, 4.Neutral, 25.
[Italian.]
May 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Milano.
Venetian
Archives.
54. GIOVANNI FRANCISCO TRIVISANO, Venetian Secretary in Milan, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Duke of Guise's fleet, numbering sixteen galleys and as many galleons, is not considered here a sufficient one to counterpoise the Spanish fleet defending the Genoese and the one they are expecting under the Duke of Alcala unless the Duke receives further reinforcements of English and Dutch ships.
Milan, the 14th May, 1625.
[Italian.]
May 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
55. To the Ambassador in England.
The day before yesterday we sent you by extraordinary courier through France the current news and the offices performed with the English ambassador, first by a member of our chamber and then by the Savii Correr and Lando upon the late king's death. The ambassador has since been to audience to inform us and present his Majesty's letters. We send a copy of our reply. You will go to the king and say that the republic is always deeply interested in the concerns of those most noble realms, thank him for the confidence shown and for the promise of his continued goodwill, which will compensate us for the loss of his father. This is the time above all others for princes who love the common welfare to maintain their friendly relations, and the republic certainly will not fail to show its friendship and esteem for his Majesty, rejoicing at and approving his decisions, especially in pushing on the royal fleet and trying to quiet the disturbances in France, and by uniting his interests with those of the Most Christian monarchy he has entered upon a path that will lead to the advantage of events which are now fluttering about in every direction.
You will also perform an office with the Duke of Buckingham full of friendship for him personally and expressing our satisfaction at his worthily established fortunes. We are sure that you will always look after the state's advantage and honour at that court as well as his Majesty's glory.
Ayes, 141.Noes, 4.Neutral, 32.
[Italian.]
May 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
56. To the King of England.
Our grief at your father's death is increased by the cordial friendship which has existed between us all his life, and we shall always remember him. At this moment your Majesty will have the more reason to rely upon your own gifts in which the world has abundant confidence, as a compensation for the loss, than to devote yourself to mourning. God seems to have meant to confer the crown upon you at this moment to make your great qualities the more conspicuous, your glory more brilliant and your actions more renowned. We thank your Majesty for your confidence upon this occasion and assure you of our esteem, which has always been hereditary between the republic and your predecessors and is increased towards your person because of your great qualities. Your Majesty will hear this more fully from our Ambassador Pesaro and afterwards from our ambassadors extraordinary, sent on purpose to your Majesty. We wish you long and happy years with an ample stage upon which to enjoy them to the public advantage.
Ayes, 141.Noes, 4.Neutral, 31.
[Italian.]
May 15.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
57. That two ambassadors extraordinary be chosen to go to the King of England to offer condolences upon the death of his father and offer congratulations on his accession. They shall not refuse under the penalties provided by the laws, and they shall leave when and with the commissions this Council decides. They shall receive 600 gold ducats a month each for their expenses, for which they need not render account, and 1,500 gold ducats each as a gift, to set themselves in order. They shall take twenty-five horses each, including those of their secretary, coadjutor and servants. They shall have 300 ducats each of 6 lire, 4 grossi, for horses, trappings, chests, and 300 ducats besides between them to spend in gratuities, rendering account as usual. They may take silver to the value of 500 ducats each at the state's risk, to be valued at the office of the Rason Nove as usual. The secretary shall receive 100 ducats to put himself in order and the coadjutor 50. Two couriers accompanying them shall have 30 ducats each.
Ayes, 141.Noes, 4.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
May 15.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
58. The English ambassador came into the Cabinet and said:
The first time I came here to audience I brought a letter from a live king to a dead prince, your Serenity's predecessor; now I bring one from a dead king, my master, to a living prince. He then presented the letter, which was read. He explained that the signature was printed because the king was too ill to sign. He grew steadily worse and expired on the 6th April amid universal lamentation. He had the greatest affection for this republic, with which he had so many sentiments in common. I am sure the republic is much grieved at his loss. Historians and cosmographers write that in summer there is usually no night in our northern parts. In this case night has not followed twilight, for a sun now reigns in the person of Prince Charles. His father died at midday and before night he was greeted as king by everyone. He desires to maintain the same friendly relations with this republic as his father did. He wrote this letter the day after his father's death and sent it to me to present to your Serenity.
After it was read the ambassador said: I do not know what I can add to it, as his Majesty expresses all his ideas. Now is the time for your Serenity to impress the seal of St. Mark upon the virgin wax of the young king's heart. I need not indicate the manner to your prudence. The ambassador then spoke of the affection of the dead king for the republic and read a letter written to him before the king's death. It said that the king was seriously ill but desired to congratulate the doge on his accession and urged the ambassador to cherish the friendship of the republic. He was to tell the doge of the marriage arranged between the Prince of Wales and the sister of the Most Christian king, making excuses for not having done so before, as they had been waiting for a dispensation from Rome. This was now arranged, and the marriage would take place on the 21st April in the presence of Buckingham or others. He hoped the union would prove beneficial to Christendom.
After the letter was read the ambassador said that the new king wished to maintain the same friendly relations. The rest of the letter, written by the secretary, contained news which he would read. It said that the king had news of the successes of the league and hoped to hear of those of the Duke of Savoy and the constable, the Most Christian having ordered the latter to invade Milan. In the Indies the Spaniards have received a mortal blow from the Dutch, who had burned 14 ships. They had hanged 26 prisoners, but this was reprehensible. Denmark, Sweden and other princes of Germany are in good relations and a diet will take place on the 20th April. The Most Christian has joined the confederacy and the Dutch have promised help to recover the Palatinate. Gondomar proposed to return as ambassador, and would have to pass through Italy and Germany. His Majesty, when he recovered, would punish Carlo Caimo in an exemplary manner.
The ambassador then read the agreement made between Denmark and Sweden. Sweden would provide 12,000 foot and 2,000 horse, with 66 pieces of ordnance and other munitions. The princes of Germany offer the same. The levies will be made in the name of the King of Denmark. With his forces and those of England the army will consist of 30,000 foot and 6,000 horse, ready to take the field at the beginning of May, and the parties would only make peace simultaneously. The ambassador was to go to the Swiss and Grisons if the republic advised. The new king and queen will be crowned within seven weeks of the late king's death. The Duke of Sevru is to act as proxy. They are doing their utmost to accommodate Soubise and to reduce la Rochelle, but it is necessary for the king to trust them.
The ambassador further related the news he had received in a letter from Turin of the 8th inst. The duke had taken Savion, near Genoa, and did not think that place could hold out. The constable was quartered at Gavi and was clearing the road. The Governor of Gavi feared punishment for surrendering the place. He had not gone to Genoa, but stayed with the constable. A doctor who had published a report of dissensions between the duke and constable was to be put to death. The Marquis of Lanz said that they would invade the Milanese soon. The Spaniards had attacked Prince Thomas near Asti and cut his force to pieces. This is expected to cause the breach. The ambassador said his king had commanded him to impart their advices.
The doge replied that they were much grieved by the king's death. They would always cherish his memory. They rejoiced at the accession of the present king. Their ambassador would have performed all proper offices, but they begged his Excellency to offer their condolences and congratulations. They also rejoiced at the happy conclusion of the marriage. They knew that his Majesty's thoughts would always be directed towards the general welfare. They returned thanks for the news given, which required careful deliberation. They thanked the ambassador for his willingness to go to the Swiss and Grisons. He would always be welcome when he came and they would hear him with attention.
The ambassador said that he would wait to hear their pleasure. The doge promised to let him know, and so he took leave and departed.
[Italian.]
May 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
59. Ambassador, and ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador of Prince Gabor had audience of the Caimecam two days after his arrival. He afterwards kissed the king's hands. On the following day he visited the ambassadors. He visited us, presenting a letter from his prince. He said he had instructions to treat with us and the other ambassadors upon the movements in Christendom, and asked if we had power to treat with the prince thereupon; he had a favourable reply from the others about being included in the league and that they would write to their princes. He said it would be a good thing to gather all the ambassadors to discuss the matter.
The ambassadors of England and the States afterwards sent to tell us what the ambassador had said to them, since they and France also, by order of their princes, were interested in Gabor's affairs. They told us that the ambassador had asked them the same question about their powers, and they had made a similar reply. Entering into further particulars he had asked for their offices with the Caimecam and other ministers of the Porte for two things, first, an order to the Pasha of Buda to go no further in the treaty of peace with the emperor, the other, a letter from the Grand Turk to the prince, giving him leave to enter the league of the Most Christian and his other allies against the Spaniards and the House of Austria. These obtained the prince would carry out his intentions for the common service. The ambassadors agreed to these requests, but in order not to cause the Porte suspicion by asking leave for the prince to enter a league of such great princes, they thought it better to ask permission to renew the league with the Palatine and his old allies, as already granted by the Porte. Gabor's ambassador seemed satisfied and the ambassadors of England, the States and France forthwith went severally to the Caimecam, and finding him well disposed to both requests they also sent to the Mufti and Callil Pasha, asking for our help. We thanked them for the information and promised to do our utmost.
Subsequently the Bailo met the English and Dutch ambassadors and learned that the Caimecam had sent orders to the Pasha of Buda that the imperial commissioners must send their proposals to the Porte; he imparted this to suspend the negotiations. This greatly pleased the English ambassador, who thought the Pashas of Bosnia and Agria should be sent to join their forces with those of Buda. He said the Caimecam also favoured the second request, but after the letter of the prince had been translated and the Grand Turk informed the matter would rest on a safer foundation. The ambassador of the States said practically the same.
Subsequently when I saw the Caimecam he told me that he had decided not to renew the truces with the emperor, but would put off until their expiry in about two years' time. He asked me why the imperialists were so anxious for this renewal. I answered that the reasons were evident enough, pointed out the advantages for the Turks and the need for supporting Gabor. We informed the ambassadors of England and the States of what we had done.
The Vigne of Pera, the 15th May, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
60. SIMON CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador, and ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I, the Bailo, thanked the English ambassador, as instructed, for the communication made to me by order of his king in the matter of the truces of the Turks with Spain, assuring him of your Serenity's satisfaction and urging him to continue his labours in the common interests, with some words of commendation and esteem for his king. He returned copious thanks, promised assiduity and said that three days ago the Granatini had confirmed the expedition of a special person hither from Spain, whom he called ambassador, to treat of this very matter. The ambassador told me he had spoken again to the Caimecam about it, who assured him that he knew nothing. Nevertheless, the rumour of this mission of a Spanish ambassador has spread among the Jews, Granatini and Franks. Everyone thinks such a mission would prove most prejudicial to the other ambassadors, and they seem inclined to stop it.
The Vigne of Pera, the 15th May, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
May 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
61. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The marriage of the king's sister was celebrated last Sunday with truly royal magnificence and pomp. The church of Notre Dame was furnished with rich tapestries of cloth of gold and silk. They erected a gallery eight feet from the ground, beginning from the way into the archiepiscopal palace and extending to the choir of the church. This was supported by numerous pilasters covered with violet satin embroidered all over with golden lilies. The bride passed through these from the archiepiscopal palace to the stage appointed for the marriage ceremony. She was supported on the right by the king and on the left by Monsieur, followed by the Queen Mother and the Queen Regnant; the princesses of the blood carried her long train and the other princesses and court ladies followed, and the knights of the Holy Spirit, the princes, marshals, dukes and peers of France preceded her, their clothes strewn with diamonds, and wearing robes of inestimable value. When the bride arrived at the door of the church with this company the king and Monsieur handed her over to the Duke of Chevreuse and then the Cardinal Rochefoucauld performed the marriage with the customary ceremonial. At its termination she took her way through the same gallery in the church, and the king and Monsieur again took her arms and followed by the queens and all the company she was led to the choir where they chanted the solemn mass in the presence of the foreign ambassadors, the cardinals, the Council of State, the Parliament, the clergy and all the court.
The Duke of Chevreuse did not enter the church, as representing the King of England and being a Huguenot, it was arranged that he should go away on the completion of the ceremony without, accompanied by the English and Dutch ambassadors, who were also present at the ceremony without, very richly dressed. In the church were the ambassadors of Spain, your Serenity and Savoy. The nuncio did not take part because he had gone to meet the legate, (fn. 2) but the residents of the emperor and Mantua were there, seated upon a bench behind the ambassadors. The ceremony lasted a long while, and by the time the mass was finished it was quite dark. They returned with the same pomp and ceremony to the archiepiscopal palace where the banquet was spread, reported to have been of unmeasured splendour. The princes, marquises and dukes served at table as carvers and gentlemen sewers. At the same time they lighted countless bonfires throughout the city, and the people with their plaudits and pleasure displayed the rejoicing of their hearts. On the day preceding the ceremony Bonogli came to invite me. I asked him what ambassadors would attend.
Paris, the 16th May, 1625.
[Italian]
May 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Venetian
Archives.
62. That the English ambassador be summoned to the Collegio and the following be read to him:
Your Excellency could not alleviate our grief at the death of the late king better than by announcing the accession of his present Majesty, whose accession to the throne has raised the hopes of all good men. His Majesty will have an ample stage for the display of his qualities and secure his glory for ever. We have made a fitting reply to the courteous letters of his Majesty and charged our ambassador to accompany our letter with hearty thanks for the king's goodwill to the republic, to which our own sentiments fully correspond. We ask your Excellency to write to the same effect in our name, until Francesco Erizzo and Marc' Antonio Correr, whom we have appointed ambassadors extraordinary to his Majesty for this special occasion, can tell him more precisely the sentiments of our hearts, and how we are more determined than ever to make our interests and objects the same and to increase mutual confidence, as the circumstances demand. We thank your Excellency for your advices and for your zeal. We have nothing to add about the Swiss. You see the Spaniards increasing their forces by land and sea, and know the necessity of some counterbalance in every quarter and how necessary are strong and speedy decisions from his Majesty.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian]
May 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
63. To the Ambassador in Spain and the like to the other Courts and Proveditori General.
The correspondence between the Duke of Feria and the Archduke Leopold is being renewed. The Spaniards consider themselves sufficiently strong in the Milanese and propose to use the new levies in Germany for diversions. Apparently they want a camp from Caesar in his dominions for these men, who number quite 20,000. Feria has moved towards Alessandria with the bulk of his force. Apparently he intends to go first to Nizza, in Montferrat, and drive the French out of that state. He has tried to stop provisions reaching them and the recent capture of Oneglia by the Genoese will help this. The Duke of Savoy seemed inclined to go in person to recover that place, the fleet of the Duke of Guise having arrived opportunely off those coasts with 10,000 veteran troops, and money having reached the constable. In the Valtelline the deputies of the three leagues offer to do their best to guard the principal positions. They object strongly to the grants of a passage and troops made by the Catholic Cantons to other princes to their detriment. Our two large guns reached them safely. Nevertheless the Spaniards and Austrians have kept making stronger preparations against that Valley, throughout the negotiations. They keep a strong force near Riva, and Leopold is raising levies for a concerted attack upon it.
We direct you to use these advices as you consider best for our service. We have ordered our Ambassador Priuli to go and confer with the Duke of Savoy, as we are bound by our alliance with him.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian]
May 17.
Misc.
Cod.64
Venetian
Archives.
64. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Councillor of the Duke of Wittembergh, sent to represent the ideas of that prince and the Duke of Lorraine about an accommodation with the Palatine, pointed out to Cæsar the imminent dangers to the empire and how strong the Palatine will be, hoping thereby to induce his Majesty to accept an accommodation more readily. The emperor replied that he hoped to be in a position not only to defend himself but to take vengeance on his enemies.
Vienna, the 17th May, 1625.
[Italian; copy.]
May 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
65. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ill success of the last attempt to relieve Breda has created a bad impression of the new commander. Before they began they all set to quarrelling. The French objected because the Earl of Oxford signed first in the oath of fealty to the new general.
Mansfelt tells everyone that he wants to take his army to Germany. It would not be easy for him to do this alone, because he has no money, waggons or other apparatus. He would have no lack of men owing to the hopes of booty. 800 Germans joined him recently and he has re-formed three English regiments, the colonels offering to raise fresh troops in Scotland if he wishes.
Dee, the French ambassador in Denmark, passed this way to France. (fn. 3) Here orders met him to go back, but he went on to Paris, saying that the King of Denmark had engaged him to this. I fancy they want the Most Christian to enter the league, contributing a million a year, the King of England another million and the princes of the circle a third, while the Dutch undertake to make a diversion.
The Hague, the 19th May, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
66. Extract from letters from the Camp of the 12th, 15th and 16th inst.
On the night of the 15th inst. about 8,000 foot, the English under Vere and Oxford, the Flemings under Count William of Nassau, the Walloons and Burgundians under Colonel Fama advanced towards the Tereidem quarter, defended by Baglioni, where spies reported careless watch. The English formed the vanguard and attacked bravely, capturing two redoubts, but were repulsed from a demi-lune owing to the damage done by a well-placed gun commanding the only line of attack. Our side lost some 200 killed and as many wounded, including about 14 officers. The Prince of Orange took part as a private. Count Ernest and Mansfelt had all their forces ready to give help in the event of success, although many wanted them to attack on the other side. A prisoner stated that the demi-lune was the strongest of their works and impossible to take. The troops returned to their original positions.
[Italian]
May 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
67. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
His Majesty is still in bed, though his indisposition is quite slight, but troublesome as his throat is slightly swollen by a cold which has settled there. This makes speaking difficult and he has to take nourishment slowly. However, he is getting better every day, and they hope he will be able to leave his bed to-morrow. This accident has prevented the legate from receiving the honour which he claimed of a visit from his Majesty, such as the last legate, de Medici, received from Henry the Great, of glorious memory.
The Jesuits are not going to England after all, but Father Berulle is going with other priests of his order. The requests of the English have ultimately prevailed, greatly assisted by the quarrel between the favourite Barrada with them and St. Giran, his Majesty's confessor, in particular, because Barrada asked the king for a bishopric for a brother of his who is in the church, and the confessor opposed, appealing to the king's conscience, declaring that the man was not suitable. Barrada was enraged at that action and is now doing his utmost not only to get St. Giran removed from his post, but all the members of his order, so that no Jesuit shall confess his Majesty any more.
Paris, the 20th May, 1625.
[Italian]
May 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
68. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On my coach ride with the Count of Olivares he did not enter into essential points, but only threw out hints. Among other things he told me that they had sent orders to the Count of Gondomar to proceed to France to offer congratulations upon the English marriage. He confirmed to me that to offer congratulations to England they had selected the Count of Villa Mediana, eldest son of the Count of Ognatte.
Perceiving the impossibility of staying the new king with hopes about the Palatinate since his father's death, they decided to divert the embassy of Gondomar, intended for this purpose, although some, in order not to betray the game, thought they should keep it up. But it did not appear what they could gain by this, as they could not come to any arrangement with the emperor and Bavaria, and so they thought it best, with the opportunity of these congratulations, that Gondomar should be at Paris during Barberino's negotiations. I have informed his Excellency Pesaro of this.
Madrid, the 20th May, 1625.
[Italian]

Footnotes

1 Sir Henry Fane.
2 Cardinal Francisco Barberini, the pope's nephew.
3 "The French agent (who hath been lately with Denmark and Sweden) hath passed this way two nights since, towards France, being pressed to this voyage by the King of Denmark." Carleton's despatch of the 7th May, o.s. State Papers, Foreign, Holland. His name should be M. de la Haye. See the preceding volume of this Calendar, pages 442, 603.