Venice
June 1625, 16 - 30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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78-95

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'Venice: June 1625, 16 - 30', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 78-95. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89040 Date accessed: 20 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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Contents

June 1625

June 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
110. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Mansfelt is at Gliet in the duchy of Cleves. His men desert more than ever, including the officers, and he is not supposed to have more than 8,000. Dulbier, his treasurer, cannot find a merchant to give him money, seeing that he only has bare promises from England, parliament is postponed and the six months for the payment have nearly expired, with nothing done. Thus the whole affair seems a failure, especially as one may now say there are no longer any French or English in the force.
The ambassadors extraordinary for England have received their despatch. They are to incite the king to declare openly against the Spaniards: fly his own flag, and not the Palatine's, over his fleet: make an offensive and defensive league by sea and land, chiefly for the restitution of his sister and brother-in-law, as the States want to carry the war far away from their country.
Besides the ships for England the States have promised ten companies and troops to man them. The English now ask leave to select ten of the best men from each company of their countrymen, but the States have refused, as it would go far to ruin the army.
Fonsbergh, the ambassador for Denmark, has reached Hamburg. They are expecting the English Ambassador Anstruther there, but he may not leave before Buckingham returns, bringing the intentions of the Most Christian about the league.
The Hague, the 16th June, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 17.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
111. The English ambassador being sent for to the Cabinet, the doge said that they regretted fetching him back from Padua, whither he had gone to see the feast of the Santo, but they had important matters to communicate from the Senate. The ambassador replied courteously and they read him the deliberation of the Senate of the 12th inst., together with a paper sent by the Ambassador Pesaro from England about what happened at the late king's funeral. The ambassador replied:
I am amazed and grieved. This is new to me. My king certainly is quite innocent and the paper shows that the leading ministers acted properly, the Lord Chamberlain doing what was right. This was a single minister and this is not the first time as the same thing happened to Gabaleone, the ambassador of Savoy. It is not remarkable that there should be one person of the sort among so many who serve. There was one traitor among the twelve. Your Serenity will not judge the whole kingdom by this action. Throughout the kingdom there are persons who honour the representatives of your Serenity, as his Majesty intends. In the time of Sig. Antonio Donato, when I happened to be acting as master of the ceremonies in the absence of this minister, I clearly saw the esteem with which the king ordered your representatives to be treated, and your ambassadors themselves can testify so much. The default was not due to any of the leading ministers of the household but solely to the master of the ceremonies, who indeed has never served any one but the Spanish ambassador. He would have been already dismissed for his conduct, but his long service, dating from Queen Elizabeth, and his great age prevented the Lord Chamberlain from acting. Now he will not escape punishment, and your Serenity will have conferred a great boon on the king in delivering him from such a minister. I promise to write very strongly to the king, as it is most improper that your ministers should be slighted. I have always received the greatest honour here. Recently at Padua the rectors paid me a visit in state and gave me refreshments, as if I had been a new ambassador, when I only wished to stay quietly like a simple student.
The doge replied that they felt assured of the favourable disposition of the king, who fully reciprocates the friendly feeling of the republic. Your Excellency will obtain the proper remedies in this case, and as the matter was public, the reparation should be done in the sight of the world. The minister ought to be publicly punished to show his Majesty's proper feelings. The ambassador repeated that he would write strongly. He asked for a note of what had been read, and took leave. He then withdrew with the secretary into the Antisecreto and took full particulars of the circumstances. On rising he remarked to the secretary, This minister is truly a sorry rogue. I will write strongly and do my share to get him punished, and I feel sure he will not escape this time.
[Italian]
June 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
112. To the Ambassador in England.
The Ambassador Wake admitted the justice of our cause about the funeral incident, and we must needs promise ourselves the best results from his representations. We expect him to send by the ordinary of to-morrow. However, you will only use the enclosed copy of his exposition for your information and will continue to act upon our orders of last week, as we shall not abate our just claims. The declaration of the French ambassadors that they had nothing to do with the incident, is more appearance than reality, but you will make it public to remove this stumbling block. We will write to our ambassador in France.
The French ambassador here has informed us of the union between the two sovereigns, without further particulars. This agrees with your report that Buckingham had orders to urge the Most Christian to enter an offensive and defensive league with England, the States and others, and the declaration of France approving of the German league but not wishing to take part in it, except by paying money. However, as we have no particulars, this order of M. d'Allegri may be premature. In any case we want further particulars, especially as we hear that the French king has sent M. de St. Leger to encourage the States to such an alliance as well as Sweden and Denmark.
We hear that the surrender of Breda was to take place on the 5th on terms similar to those of Antwerp. We know what an impression this event will make, though long foreseen, and with what purpose Mansfelt has gone to Germany. You will endeavour to encourage the States and prevent any wavering. You will speak to the ministers and the king on the subject, especially our satisfaction at hearing of his Majesty's zeal to send out a very powerful fleet, a most useful decision for the common advantage and necessary in the present circumstances, befitting his greatness and strength and realising the expectations aroused at his accession. You will encourage them in this way in order to counterbalance the great efforts made by the Spaniards in every direction.
Ayes, 100.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian]
June 19.
Cinque Savii
alla
Mercanzia.
Capitolare.
Venetian
Archives.
113. That in gratification of the English ambassador Thomas Transfilt, captain of the ship William Ralph, may take from this city to foreign parts 15 bales of calf skins, free of the duty, and that a notary of the chancery be sent to inform the English ambassador, who shall also inform him of the commutation of the punishment of the Counts Scotti, to prove the disposition of the most serene republic to give him satisfaction.
[Italian]
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
114. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
While separated from the Court I find it most difficult to learn the news, but I must make the most of what I have here. The queen postponed the continuation of his journey longer than was proposed, and the delay has not pleased the king and caused comment at Court. However, his Majesty went to Dover, to await news about the passage and of the conference to be held about the ships, but having ascertained the breaking off of these negotiations and the return first of the Most Christian from Compiègne, and then of the Queens of France, after having seen the ships and dined upon one of them, he returned to Canterbury, where all the Court, cavaliers and ladies are entertained at the royal cost and spend the days in conversation and the nights in dancing.
News has come that when the queen parted from her mother she received her blessing on her knees, the queen mother adding that if she changed her religion she gave her instead a thousand curses. Her Majesty travelled on and reached Boulogne on the 8/18 of the month, for which the fleet of twenty English ships sailed immediately, commanded by the Earl of Montgomery, acting as Vice Admiral, to escort her across the sea, not for the passage, but to keep a look out on six well armed Dutch ships.
The bride on landing will be received by the Lord Marshal at Dover; she will rest at the castle there, and the king and Court will meet her between that place and Canterbury, it being uncertain whether their Majesties will afterwards stop in that city or proceed straight to Greenwich. Meanwhile the ceremonies are very scanty, being put off for London, and they must be for some other time as they are making no preparations here.
The queen is bringing a royal train and her moveables, besides her dowry will be worth 100,000 crowns. She was accompanied by leading persons, by Monsieur her brother to Boulogne, by the Duke of Chevreuse, the chief and ambassador of the convoy, and by the Secretary Villeocler, who is charged to obtain the ratification of the treaty, which must be registered in parliament and published, and to see that the terms are carried out in every respect, and the queen established in conformity with them.
In her train the queen has a bishop and twenty-four Berullists or fathers of the Oratory, Jesuits being absolutely excluded.
The Duke of Buckingham was presented by the king with a circlet of diamonds worth 200,000 francs and with a bronze horse most beautifully moulded. The two English ambassadors have received the value of 25,000 francs each. The Secretary Morton crossed the sea with an account of the negotiations, showing that beyond the employment of Mansfeld reported Buckingham made no progress towards a defensive and offensive alliance. He interposed apparently for a settlement with the Huguenots, but to little purpose because France does not want interference in those affairs from this quarter, though they say matters there tend to settle themselves.
I have heard it said that the Savoyards proposed that the fleet here should pass into the Mediterranean and his Highness wants to employ Soubise and his fleet in the same affair, the Marseilles fleet acting for the Most Christian, Soubise for his Highness and the fleet here for the King of Great Britain.
The Archbishop of Canterbury told me that the Constable strongly pressed this design and everything would have been arranged, but as they wanted to change the commanders of Soubise's fleet and bring him captive to the affair and not as leader, every thing fell through. Apparently other difficulties arose about leaving captured vessels to the king and having others in exchange. It is impossible to discover how they received these proposals at Court here. However, they have ordered a fresh press of ships, and with the duke still in France, this may have some connection with the matter.
The ambassador of Savoy in France sent his secretary to Dover. He negotiated with his Majesty, having come simply to relate the operations in Italy, discover the plans for the fleet, their decision about ships entering the Mediterranean, and information about the cost of ships, as the duke may think of hiring some if others will not help. I have not yet discovered what he obtained, but from something he said their decisions do not apparently agree with his designs. However, he professes to have obtained an absolute command for Wake to proceed to the Swiss and to Savoy. They seem to have sent an express courier to Wake.
It is as yet uncertain whither these naval forces will go. I know that the Palatine wants it against Flanders, and, has obtained no decision, although they are hastening the despatch of provisions and materials, but failing the certitude of union with France they will aim at doing everything to unite with her over the interests of Germany. They write that the emperor, through Bavaria, has already proposed an armistice, but the King of Denmark warned Tilly to evacuate the States of Hesse. Anstruther has not been able to obtain complete despatch for the money, but he will not wait any longer. He declares he spoke clearly to his Majesty about the necessity of remaining steadfast and giving definite promises to the Princes of Germany and the King of Denmark. The king confirmed his promise, to be fulfilled by paying 30,000l. sterling a month for six months with the opening of parliament.
There is no news from Holland. They expect confirmation of Mansfelt's crossing the Meuse with the purpose of invading Cleves. They would like him to join Denmark, but it is doubtful if that king would welcome him and they have not sent orders hence to that effect.
The prisoners from the Dunkirk ship number sixty. They propose through them to recover the goods taken from the king's subjects. The order to detain all ships of Flanders and Spain is announced as being because of merchants and not of the Catholic king or the Infanta. They would like, through pinpricks to induce the other side to break and put them doubly in the right, but the Spaniards will put up with them or else will respond with similar injuries.
The king by messengers is urging the queen not to stay anywhere but to come straight to him. The despatch of affairs is urgent, as the people and the members of parliament are complaining, laying the blame on France. The French ships have never started. They represent the delay here as the fault of the sailors, but their object is first to make sure of the trend of affairs.
London, the 20th June, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
115. To the Ambassador at Rome and the like to the other Courts and to the Proveditori General.
Our French companies have mostly arrived and are mustering at Brescia. We have sent 100,000 crowns for them to our Proveditore General in Terra Ferma. Corbellone and Colonel Popnain remain at Riva, arousing anxiety as to some design upon the valley, especially as troops keep arriving from Germany. In Spain they have deprived all French subjects of their goods, also arresting their ships. Feria has brought pressure to bear upon the Duke of Mantua to admit a Spanish garrison into Mantua; the duke refused, but may easily be induced to comply. The Duke of Savoy, foreseeing trouble at Gavi has gone to Acqui, determined to offer resistance. Skirmishes have taken place between his cavalry and the Spaniards, the latter being worsted. Two galleys have captured a French ship at Naples; on every hand the intentions of the Spaniards disclose themselves. The surrender of Breda is counterpoised by the approaching sailing of the English fleet and by Mansfelt's march to Germany.
Ayes, 130.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian]
June 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
116. To the Ambassador in France.
The ambassadors of crowned heads were invited to the funeral of the late King in England, but our Ambassador Pesaro was excluded. We have made suitable representations to the Ambassador Wake and at that Court. This incident is bound to excite remark. You will only express to Cardinal Richelieu the importance in these times of a perfect understanding between the common ministers at all the Courts, especially in England with its new ruler, beginning under such auspicious circumstances, where it would be lamentable to indulge in disputes, and invective at the outset. You will speak to this effect to the English ambassadors, expressing the regret experienced by the republic at the incident, and the reparation done to her.
Ayes, 130.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
June 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
117. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Monday a courier arrived from the cardinal legate in France. The pope expressed to me his satisfaction with the Queen of England, who went to meet and accompanied the legate when he called upon her, and when Buckingham remonstrated she told him that it so behoved her to treat the representative of the head of his religion. The pope hoped that in England also she would show her devotion to the Catholic faith.
A congregation of cardinals has been deputed about the affairs of Germany and the Palatinate, and they proposed to appoint Cardinal Zoler legate a latere to deal with these affairs, but Bethune represented to the pope that this would do little good as he could not treat with the English or the Palatine, and others in Germany might not like it; so I hear they have decided to write to Cardinal Barberino to treat about it with the Most Christian.
Rome, the 21st June, 1625.
[Italian]
June 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
118. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Marshal Roquelaure has died and his rank has been conferred on Schomberg. This is considered a sign that Richelieu is going out of favour and of the like befalling the queen mother, indeed I found him very perturbed and melancholy the last time I saw him.
By the last news the queens were still at Amiens, having been detained there a few days by a slight indisposition of the queen mother, though it was only a cold and she is quite well again. They were to leave that town on Wednesday and it is reckoned that they may be at Fontainebleau on Tuesday of next week. Monsieur is with them and one may say the whole Court, as where the queens are one finds the ladies, and with the ladies the cavaliers. The king, accompanied by very few persons, is passing his time in the forest with great delight, hunting wild beasts.
Gondomar is expected at Court next Tuesday. Nominally he comes to offer congratulations upon the marriage, but so important a minister must have other business. He will bring powerful support for the cardinal legate. The entertainment of the cardinal legate and Gondomar will cost the king 1,000 doubles a day: and he spent as much when the English were here with Buckingham.
Melun, the 22nd June, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
119. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have just heard that the Secretary Baroccio, sent by the Savoyard ambassador to treat with Buckingham, has got back, and that he has been in England by Buckingham's order upon the said business. I will make every effort to find out all about it.
Melun, the 23rd June, 1625.
[Italian]
June 23.
Senato,
Secreta,
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
120. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassadors extraordinary for England came to see me before leaving, and told me their instructions, confirming what I wrote. They will strongly urge the advantageous employment of the fleet. Aerssens told me that if they joined the Dutch ships they must go against the King of Spain, as they had no other enemy the ships were too large for landing in Flanders and too numerous to go to the Indies, so nothing but the coasts of Spain and Portugal and the islands remained. This shows their ideas here and the object of the defensive and offensive alliance. They said they would meet the king half-way for this and leave room for friendly princes, but they must act within a few weeks, as the favourable season is passing and delay strengthens the Spaniards. They expect great help if the English king will attack at sea and fly his flag. They said they would always fight at sea and remain cautious on land.
They are greatly afraid of the legate in France, lest he succeed in arranging an armistice. They expect to hear any day and delay in hearing about Buckingham's performances causes them some trepidation. I have sent word to Pesaro.
The ambassadors left for England last Wednesday, accompanied by Count Giovanni Battista Vimercato, a subject of your Serenity.
The Hague, the 23rd June, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
121. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have recently been with the French and English ambassadors and some deputies of the States discussing Mansfelt's affairs, which are now desperate. The two ambassadors begged the deputies to find some way to prevent the force dissolving. It was said that he had no more than 4 to 5,000 foot and some 1,000 horse. The 400,000 florins recently paid upon England's credit are gone, and without help the force will dissolve in a week. They only need keep a small number on foot till fresh decisions come from France and England. They asked the Dutch to contribute something upon the credit of the two crowns. The French ambassador said that the honour of the two sovereigns was at stake.
The Hague, the 23rd June, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
122. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Someone has come from Amiens to the English ambassador with news that the Secretary Morton, after Buckingham's offices with the Most Christian, is to go to Dover to confer with his king and then come straight here. He has not yet appeared so they fear that difficulties may have arisen. Meanwhile they announce that Mansfelt will be supported for six months, though I hear that quarrels have broken out between the French and English on one side and the Germans on the other, increasing the disorder and danger.
The ministers of France and England say they cannot interfere openly in favour of Pasini without orders from home.
The Hague, the 23rd June, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Svizzeri.
Venetian
Archives.
123. GIROLAMO CAVAZZA, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have your Serenity's letters of the 14th inst. with the exposition of the English ambassador and the reply given to him. The Germans only have the pass of Orsera through the Catholic Cantons. The Grisons should occupy it by surprise to close it. The Swiss Protestants are ready to take arms. The present season requires more provision than the winter, and the Cantons with Spanish sympathies have taken measures against any attempts.
The letters written to the same ambassador from Berne with complaints about levies in that country, do not speak for the state but for a certain individual, who is the Baron von Spietz, I understand, as he wants employment upon some levy as Colonel of your Serenity.
Zurich, the 26th June, 1625.
[Italian]
June 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
124. To the Ambassador in England.
Our Ambassador Morosini and the Duke of Buckingham have exchanged the most friendly offices in France, and the duke has thanked him warmly for his help. The French have excluded the proposed alliance, and the duke did not even obtain a promise that Italian affairs should not be accommodated separately from the Palatinate. But they granted six months' pay to Mansfelt, though the proposal to send the fleet to Flanders if France sent 2,000 horse there did not ripen. We have sent this so that you may act with full information, at the outset of this new reign, with the French match and that powerful fleet which cannot long lie idle. The Savoyard ambassador in France also suggested to Buckingham that England might send this fleet to help Prince Vittorio and Guise to make a diversion, but the duke disagreed, so the ambassador could get no further with the duke's short stay at that Court. It might be taken up in England, so you will keep a look out, as it might have important results.
We have decided to pass an office with the ambassador of the States about Breda, an order to encourage them, and we are instructing our Ambassador Contarini to do the like with them. You will do what you can to the same end and we repeat our orders of the 19th. We send a copy for information of what we had read to the French ambassador about our scrupulous fulfilment of our obligations, as ill affected persons try to cast a slur upon us.
Ayes, 90.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian]
June 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
125. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The queen crossed the sea comfortably on Sunday, the 22nd inst., although she was sea-sick (fn. 1) . She rested at Dover Castle, where nine rooms were prepared by the Duke of Buckingham, to whom the place pertains as Admiral of the Cinque Ports of this realm. On the morning of the following day the king came to see his bride privately. When she met his Majesty at the stairs she offered to kneel and kiss his hands, but the king welcomed her with every respect and graciously saluted her. The queen made excuses for her delay, asking pardon and saying that now she saw his Majesty she had her wish and was most content. They dined together, the queen sitting on the right. Afterwards they travelled together to Canterbury, and on the road they were met in the country by the lords and ladies, who were all graciously honoured by the queen, who from the first won universal commendation and approval. The banquet of that day was taken publicly, their Majesties being waited on by the king's attendants only, to the disgust of the French, who considered themselves excluded too prematurely. The consummation of the marriage took place that same night.
Two days afterwards they started on their way without going to Greenwich, that place being infected with the plague, and came straight to this city, where they arrived yesterday. They entered by boat, the ships in the Thames to the number of quite 160 being arranged in order, decorated and beflagged, and they received salutes from the guns of these and the artillery of the Tower. A great number of small and medium sized boats followed, and their Majesties went in the rich barge which is practically a small model of your Serenity's Bucintoro. Bonfires were lighted everywhere. They will leave very soon for the country houses, but parliament will be opened first, that having been fixed for to-morrow. They will try to obtain money and to have things deferred to another time. There is some doubt whether the members of parliament will be content without limitation of the expenditure or their own satisfaction.
They are to make authentic the contract by a counter dowry, in particular. They will give some festivity or masque, the public celebrations being postponed until the time of the coronation. In these early stages, however, satisfaction does not seem to be altogether reciprocal. The French have not been entertained so much as they would like, the reserve habitual here not suiting the freedom of their own fashions. The people here complain that the queen's suite exceeds what was arranged, because the two kings had arranged to cut down expense and display, but the number of superfluous and vagabond folk is large. The dissatisfaction is the greater owing to the ill success of the duke's negotiations. They speak about it openly. At the first opportunity of negotiating I will learn the particulars.
The duke was sent back from the French Court with these answers his proposals were very important and required mature consideration; meanwhile they must speed the cardinal legate and afterwards they will speak of this matter. To prove the continued goodwill of the Most Christian they would support Mansfelt for six months from the date of his leaving Holland. France made this proposal of its own accord to bind Mansfelt to its interests and prevent him from joining with Denmark, as they would like here, as the French wish to keep the direction of affairs. This change in the hopes about the French negotiations alters things here, and one cannot say which way they will decide. The fleet is intended to join the French and Dutch. Buckingham believes this firmly, and this sub credenza may increase the disgust at not having succeeded.
Morton was to go to Holland, but if the negotiations with France cease that also might fall through. However, after many consultations his Majesty has sent him post to the States. They say he is to arrange with the Palatine for reprisals to be made by the fleet and for Buckingham's advantage, and also to get patents in the name of that prince, but these have already arrived in most ample form, in quality of admiral of the fleet and generalissimo of the land forces. It is unlikely that they will send to Holland to arrange what they can very well do here; but the wisest say that Morton is going to report the rupture of the negotiations and France's shortcomings, and to advise the employment of these forces and to test them together. Those who know that no agreement is yet arranged, fear they may not derive the benefit expected, and from the nature of the provision they conclude it will be employed near at hand. Time and the parliament will bring certainty.
They add that the emperor and Bavaria are asking for peace, making Lorraine their intermediary with the king here and Wirtemberg with the Palatine, to outline some negotiations and learn the claims of the parties, to be crystallised later by the greater potentates. Cæsar and Bavaria declare that they do not want a palm of land of the Palatinate; the Catholic similarly declares that he never pretended to want anything of the Palatine's, and if they arrange reasonable terms he will give up everything, directing the Infanta at Brussels to do the same.
The nature and sincerity of their advances may be judged by the character of those who possess the belongings of others.
The agent of Bohemia is to speak to the king upon these proposals, pointing out that they sound well but that which they negotiate they must also use force at the same time; his master would do well to accept his own no matter how hard the conditions, as he could always be justified in recovering the rest when the aspect of affairs changes. Moreover, Lorraine owes the Palatine 70,000 thalers, sequestrated by Cæsar, and by negotiations his master should first of all recover this.
These ideas tend towards a composition. I do not know whether they have begun to negotiate or if Morton has orders on the subject.
Anstruther is leaving with the drafts. The report persists that Denmark has his forces ready. They add that Tilly has again attacked Lower Saxony, and they hope for good results. Denmark has conferred with Brandenburg and will do the same with Saxony. They will invite this king to the diet announced to resolve the differences. Such is the news touching the interests of this crown in Germany. The princes there have paid their respects upon the late king's death and the accession of his Majesty by letters presented by the agent of Bohemia. They feel offended at not having been advised by special letters from the king.
The ships arrested belonged to merchants, and the specie was, for the Catholic king for Flanders, to the amount of 100,000l. sterling. By the laws of this kingdom when once it has entered it cannot leave the island again, but is taken to the Mint, the value here being paid. I fancy they will not do this in ready money, as it can be done with equal advantage, though with greater delay, by letters of exchange. They say the ships were arrested more particularly in order to stop the trade of Hamburg with the Spaniards, who receive provisions and equipment for their fleet from those parts, rather than from the hope of profiting by vessels from Spain, which rarely appear, while it would greatly hurt English subjects who have a rich trade and a large number of ships in Spain.
It was rumoured that the Earl of Argyle, with a powerful Catholic following in the north of Scotland and in the Hebrides, had passed from Brussels to that kingdom, (fn. 2) and further that the Earl of Tyrone, an Irish Catholic of great reputation, had also passed from Brussels to Ireland. These two are noted for their scant loyalty and are servants of Spain, far away from their own houses. The news has caused uneasiness and exacted disturbances in those parts. It is not confirmed; such diversions can be effected easily by the Spaniards and are feared at this Court, not for what they accomplish but because of the expense which the king must incur by meeting them with greater force, as the Scots are dissatisfied since the death of the late king, for they have no hope of the chief influence, and absolutely require his Majesty's coronation in Scotland, which they will not grant although they may temporise.
When recently they asked if they might have their own secretary or some person in a privileged position near the king, they received, not a refusal, but an answer by no means meeting their wishes, his Majesty merely declaring that he was born a Scot and would bear for Scotland the same affection as his father. It is unreasonable to limit the ruler's power over these charges, but the jealousy between the two nations is very great and is increasing in the new reign.
The queen's dowry has been paid, partly in cash brought by her Majesty, partly by merchants' letters, but the expenses far exceed the provision.
Mourning was laid aside amid their rejoicings, to be resumed again until the time of the coronation, and as the gentlemen here are richly apparelled, so I see to it that others do not outshine this embassy, and keep changing dress and liveries according to the order and practice of the Court. Nothing mitigates the hardness of my lot.
The plague has penetrated into this very parish, as many as 31 being already infected. (fn. 3) This week the deaths amounted to 165. I shall leave, having provided for my household and other expenses, although greater than usual and increasing every day.
I have never received the despatch of the 13th May. There is now time for a reply to my extraordinary, and I would fain know your Serenity's intentions.
London, the 27th June, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
126. GIROLAMO PRIULI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
M. de Buglion has been to see me. Among other things he told me in confidence that his king was resolved to make peace. He thought the most serene republic would be of the same opinion, as there would be negotiations about the Palatinate and other matters in which the Most Christian would have to take part in conjunction with the King of England and other interested princes. He thought they should only demand the execution of the Treaty of Madrid.
Asti, the 27th June, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
127. To the Ambassadors in Spain and the like to the other Courts and to the Proveditori General.
Feria, learning that the Duke of Savoy and the Constable proposed to attack Castellazzo, sent out a force from Alessandria. The Poles engaged the Constable's rear guard and then retreated reporting the enemy near, after suffering considerable losses. Feria says he will attack on the arrival of his reinforcements. The Savoyard French army is partly at Acqui, partly on the road to Savona.
The Duke of Guise has heard of a fight in the Straits of Gibraltar in which the Dutch lost three ships; the rest should start very soon. The Marquis Santa Croce heard that the English fleet of 132 ships would leave for those waters on the 15th with provisions for a year. We hear from Genoa that the French galleys coast along the western riviera unhindered, while the Spanish do not pass Savona. On the 17th nine galleons of Naples reached Genoa with 4,000 foot, many being sick. The Genoese are surprised at the retreat to Alessandria.
In France the cardinal legate has insisted upon an armistice and asked for satisfaction about the Valtelline. His Majesty refused the first and made many promises upon the second. He went with the queens to Compiègne and returned to Fontainebleau where he told the cardinal legate that he could not discuss an armistice, but he would give the pope satisfaction about the Valtelline. Feria's forces increase daily; when all the troops he expects have arrived they say he will take the field with 20,000 foot and 3,000 horse and go straight to Montferrat. Savoy and the Constable declare that the skirmish with the Spanish cavalry will bring about a rupture between the two crowns. The French army keeps increasing. Feria by raids towards Asti hopes to make the Duke of Savoy hasten to that city. We send this for your information.
Ayes, 139.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian]
June 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
128. To the Ambassador in France.
The ambassador of Prince Gabor had a brief audience of the Caimecan, presenting a long letter from his master. He told the ambassadors of France, England and the States and our representatives that he had instructions to treat with all of them upon the current affairs of Christendom. He told our representatives that he received a favourable reply from the other ambassadors that the Prince should be included in the league, and asked what instructions they had. He suggested that all the ambassadors should meet to discuss the matter. He suggested two requests to be made of the Porte, one that the Pasha of Buda should receive orders not to proceed further in his peace negotiations with the emperor, the other a letter from the Grand Turk to the Prince, giving him leave to enter the league of the Most Christian and his allies. All agreed to this, but to avoid exciting the suspicions of the Turks they thought it best to ask him to join the Palatine and his old allies. The ambassadors approached the Pasha separately on the subject and found him favourable, but he wanted to speak to the king first.
We send this for information. We have no information about the proposals made by France to the Transsylvanian. We have decided to write to our Bailo that the proposal of the ambassadors that the Transsylvanian should join his old allies was the right way to effect his good intentions; and he must adhere to the counsels of the others, seconding their resolutions with the Pasha and other ministers.
We send you this news to make use of where you see may most profit our affairs.
The like to the ambassador in England and at the Hague.
Ayes, 99.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian]
June 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
129. SIMON CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador, and ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On the 14th instant a courier arrived from the Pasha of Buda to the Caimecan of the conclusion of peace between the Ottoman and imperial commissioners, with great advantages for the Porte. The Caimecan seemed much displeased, and he told the dragoman of the French embassy that they would take no notice of what the Pasha of Buda had done. In order to get at the truth the ambassadors met at the French ambassy; England could not attend because of the news of his king's death. It was resolved that the ambassadors of France and the States should go to the Caimecan and mildly remonstrate with him for breaking faith with them. The Caimecan declared that the Sultan would not ratify the peace, as he was resolved not to arrange any peace with the emperor before that of Situan had expired a year hence. The ambassadors were well satisfied of the Caimecan's sincerity.
The Vigne of Pera, the 28th June, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
130. SIMON CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador, and ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
We paid a visit of condolence to the English ambassador upon the death of his king, assuring him of your Serenity's grief. He returned our visit, with reciprocal compliments. From what he said we gathered that the present king will take up the war much more vigorously than the late one. He greatly doubts the sincerity of the Caimecan in what he said to the ambassadors of France and the States, and thinks they will induce the sultan to ratify the treaty made by the Pasha of Buda. Of this there are may indications and especially that Gabor's resident, despite all his efforts, has never been able to get any orders in writing to give to the pasha against the peace. On the other hand the ambassador judges favourably of the sincerity of the prince in his negotiations with the Most Christian and other allied princes, to arm against the emperor, and break with him, even without the Porte's leave, and even if the peace made at Buda takes effect. We believe that the ambassador has represented to his new king these opinions which do not coincide with those of the ambassadors of France and the States.
The Vigne of Pera, the 28th June, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 30.
Collegio.
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
131. The ambassador of the States was summoned to the Cabinet and the Senate's deliberation of the 27th inst. was read to him; he said, among other things:
I can say nothing precise about the Count of Mansfeld, but I may state that he has left our provinces without effecting anything. This force came suddenly upon our hands, without arms, money or provisions. Of 12,000 English I can assure your Excellencies that only 1,200 were fit for war. My masters wrote about it immediately to the Most Christian Court, to England and Savoy. I also informed your Serenity, who rightly told me that you were not concerned with the matter. The fact remains that the provision of everything for them fell upon our shoulders alone. I may tell your Serenity in confidence that even now the count has left I cannot discover whether he was ever free to fight with us. At all events, his departure and his presence neither helped nor hindered the Breda business.
[Italian]
June 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
132. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Secretary Baroccio reports that he presented his master's letter and the paper to Buckingham, who read them and approved of his going straight to England to tell the king. The duke also wrote and sent the Secretary Morton, who was always here with him, and who knows Italian well. Baroccio crossed the sea with Morton, leaving Buckingham with the queen and the rest of the suite, who were slowly following the same route. At Dover he found the king and all the Court. He told him the contents of the paper and had orders to confer with the Secretary Conway. He waited a day and a night for an answer, when Conway told him and the king confirmed, that the proposal required consideration: it was bold, but really concerned Savoy first, France next and himself and his sister third. All the same, if France and the duke would declare what share he should have of the booty he would let them and the world see his desire for the welfare of Christendom. But it was necessary above all things to make a rupture with Spain in Italy before he could listen to the proposal.
The secretary received a jewel worth 200 doubles. The Savoyard ambassador is somewhat mortified at seeing his affair delayed if not rejected. He has informed Cardinal Richelieu of everything, having left a memorial in writing and asked him to speak to the king. I cannot say that this cardinal takes the matter up readily, as he was not altogether pleased about Baroccio's mission, of which he was not told, and has as ill an opinion of the English as the Earl of Carlisle has of the French, while the quarrels between these two leading ministers will not help and may only revive old quarrels between England and France.
In a recent conversation with the cardinal I recognised the slight hope there was of any generous resolution. When the queen mother took leave of her daughter and Buckingham and they pressed for the alliance, the assistance and help for the Palatine, she replied that she had already given a sufficient answer about the league, but for the rest declared that she would work for the common cause and the king would not hang back in anything. Richelieu said he had heard this by the queen's letters to the king and others. He said Buckingham was satisfied with the answer and a promise to send an ambassador to his king to impart his Majesty's intentions. I enclose the paper for those who may be curious to see it.
Here they blame the English for so long delaying to send the twelve ships, as arranged long ago, as with that reinforcement they might reduce Soubise. But the wisest perceive that they must not rely too much upon the English and Dutch fleet, as the latter wish to help to reduce Soubise, but the former want peace and not to destroy their co-religionists.
Melun, the 30th June, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosure.133. Arguments to persuade the King of Great Britain to send his fleet to Italy.
The moment of the marriage is propitious; Spanish ambition overweening; the Palatine has felt this more than others. The King of Great Britain bound to help the public cause because of his sister and kin. The great fleet is equipped, Savoy is ready to help, and France also has a force near Genoa. Spain has no fleet in Italy. The English can be sure of conquests and booty. They will find powerful friends in Italy and weak enemies.
The first stroke of the fleet should be against Genoa, the sole source of the Spanish power in Italy, the only storehouse for their treasures. Its preservation is more important to Spain than that of Mexico, the Indies or Peru, and they have made every effort to preserve it. The blow would compel France and the allied princes to unite their interests with the Palatine's and does not bind the King of Great Britain to any declaration against the Spaniards. France certainly would not withdraw. The princes of Germany would profit, as Genoa supplied the sinews of war against them. The Spaniards, upon whom the support of the emperor depends, would be hit in the most vital part.
The whole undertaking would only take two months, without the loss of a soldier. The French fleet under the Duke of Guise would co-operate with the English. The question is more important than the defence of Breda or an attack on Flanders; it means the reinstatement of the Palatine at the smallest cost and great glory for the new king, and it can all be done without any direct declaration against Spain.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
134. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Don Federico de Gusman, first cousin of the Count of Olivares, sent by the Infanta of Flanders to confirm the surrender of Breda, brought word that 25 ships of the English fleet had started, and soon afterwards news came that a large number of sail had been sighted towards the Strait. It is thought that these must be the 25, joined with those granted to the Most Christian and some Dutch ones, and that all together they may enter the Mediterranean and proceed towards Genoa. I have not had time to obtain confirmation from my correspondents.
There are various opinions about the English fleet; some say it is to stop in some port and not move till further order; others that it will fall in with the returning Brazil fleet, destroy it and then proceed to the Indies. The fear of this troubles them greatly. Olivares said recently that his sins had brought this fleet. They do not fear what it may do to this kingdom, owing to the precautions they have taken and because they have a good fleet of sixty ships.
Madrid, the 30th June, 1625.
[Italian]
June 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
135. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Mansfelt failed in an attempt to surprise Ryngembergh. The States have pledged their credit for 50,000 florins for him. The merchants require a promise from the ambassadors of the two crowns. France has no instructions; England does not refuse to promise, but the merchants, remembering the last payments, show some reluctance, so the provision is not yet made and the force is dissolving. England owes for the last three months and France for about two.
The other day 2,000 English foot reached these ports to fill up their regiments, which are very weak, and take the place of the veterans asked for and taken away to serve on the English fleet.
The Hague, the 30th June, 1625.
[Italian]

Footnotes

1 "Mariata" from the Spanish marear.
2 "Three posts arrived within these two days out of Scotland with news that the Earl of Argyle is come thither with forces to trouble that country or Ireland, to which he is a near neighbour." Chamberlain to Carleton, the 12th June, 1625 o.s. Birch: Court and Times of Charles I, vol. i, page 29. In the Domestic State Papers (vol. xxii, no. 116), there is the information of one Duncan Colvil, about an intended rising of the Roman Catholics in Scotland. In the Calendar (vol. 1625–6 page 392) this is dated tentatively in July, 1626, but it would appear that it should belong to the previous year.
3 That is to say 31 parishes. See Birch: Court and Times of Charles I, vol. i, page 32.