Venice
July 1625, 3-14

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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95-111

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'Venice: July 1625, 3-14', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 95-111. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89041 Date accessed: 28 August 2014.


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Contents

July 1625

July 3.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
136. The ambassador of the States came into the Cabinet and spoke as follows:
Last Monday your Serenity sent to impart your sentiments about the event at Breda. I have instructions to tell you that we have not lost courage because of this blow, and we are prepared to defend ourselves. The Count of Mansfelt has gone towards Cleves, proposing to cross the Rhine and attack the Elector of Cologne.
The doge replied that they rejoiced to learn the high spirited resolution of the States, for whom they preserved the greatest affection and they would always keep their part of the alliance.
The ambassador answered: I will report everything to my masters, who will be exceedingly gratified by this fresh pledge of the affection of the most serene republic. I must not forget to tell your Serenity that the King of England has requested the Prince of Orange for a certain number of veteran troops, or at least for a certain number of captains and officers in exchange for the new ones of his force. Although this will somewhat weaken our own forces, yet my masters have thought fit to gratify that sovereign to some extent, so as to afford him no excuse for withdrawing from his good intentions. The force was ready to leave and though its objects were not certain, it seemed that it was to fight in the name of the Palatine, his Majesty's kinsman, and accordingly it seemed probable that it would serve his interests.
His Serenity expressed his pleasure at receiving these advices, and after he had commended the decision of their High Mightinesses to second the plans of the King of England and maintain their union with him, the ambassador took leave and departed.
[Italian]
July 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
137. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
There is no certain news as to whether the Dutch or English fleet has entered the Mediterranean. The reports persist which I recently wrote of.
Madrid, the 3rd July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
138. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Parliament opened on the 1/2 8/8th, the appointed day, the king having entered it privately without the usual pomp, because he has not been crowned, although on his royal throne he put on the robe and wore the king's crown. His Majesty spoke to this effect, that the chief object for convoking the assembly was to receive assistance in the present great occasions for the recovery of the Palatinate. He admitted the mistake of his journey to Spain, but God had turned it to good. He said that the preparations for war had been begun by the late king at the exhortation of parliament; he was the king who was engaged and they were the ones who had committed him. He gladly entered upon this enterprise, and to withdraw would dishonour both him and them.
He asked for contributions for the necessary expenses, and prompt expedition without delay, as much to avoid imperilling their lives in this time of plague, as because otherwise the business would suffer and their opportunities vanish. He expressed his belief that no one would question his holding the same faith as his father professed, in which he had been brought up; he assured them that he would keep and defend that faith loyally, and was ready to live and die and shed his blood for it.
As regards domestic affairs, he desired them to postpone all examination and decisions about them to another time. They would be at liberty to consult, deliberate, meet and disperse whenever they wished. He had ordered the Lord Keeper to speak in conformity, more for the sake of custom than because of any difference in what he had to say.
The Lord Keeper followed, praising and thanking the king for having spoken to his people. He could add nothing, but could only touch upon certain circumstances. He begged the two houses to consider that that session was the first of the first parliament of his Majesty's first realm. The chief reasons why they were assembled were the great engagements in which his Majesty was involved for the recovery of the Palatinate, treaties of alliance and confederations, and the embassies necessary for these affairs; the king his father had charged him with this, or the king had rested it upon his father, or rather the parliament had laid it, with good grounds, upon both. His Majesty embraced the business in such fashion that he would rather go down to his grave than that these designs should not go forward. He pointed out the charge of Mansfeld's force, of the preparations of a fleet for sea, of the land forces, of the repair of the ports, of the supplements sent to Ireland, all tending to the recovery of the Palatinate as the centre, in contemplation of which all the subsidies and fifteenths granted in the last session had been expended, and much greater sums besides, as might be seen. In conclusion, he recommended the consideration of these circumstances; actions did not command time, but time actions, and anything done too late would be useless. He remarked on the necessity of providing the supplies at once. The ordinary methods would prove too slow. His Majesty might prescribe the manner, but in his goodness, graciousness and justice, he would not do so but await their advice and provision.
Such was the discourse of the Lord Keeper, advancing the need and the honour of their king and country. The members of parliament, it is said, are not very pleased with these speeches, as they do not want to contribute without making sure of their laws. They contend that they have not committed the king, although they persuaded the abandonment of the negotiations with Spain. It is said that they offered everything upon condition of the observance of the laws and the banishment of priests and Jesuits, but their decisions are not yet settled because they have not given their reply. They have indeed proposed to petition his Majesty for leave to withdraw, owing to the prevalence of the plague, to meet again at another time and then discuss the provisions and order the laws. His Majesty expressed the state of his needs and his displeasure at hearing of such ideas. Accordingly they are resuming their discussions and we shall hear what they resolve; it promises not to meet the requirements or at least to be inadequate. Instead of discussing matters of state they want to arrange ecclesiastical affairs and before the closure the laymen wish to ordain a fast although the spiritual lords claim that such matters pertain to them.
The parliament complains that the three subsidies granted to the late king were expended fruitlessly and ask to see the accounts, which will be communicated to them. They say they wish to contribute what is necessary to the king but in the ordinary ways. But beforehand must come arrangements for the other requirements of the realm and the king must give retribution and recompense to his people, which means that they desire first of all the enforcement of the laws against the Catholics, to make new laws that Catholic subjects may not take part in the mass or the ecclesiastical functions of the queen; that the people shall be relieved of some ordinary grievances, and from purveyance for the king's journeys, which costs the country a great deal.
But the king believing this to be a special prerogative, for the preservation whereof he is very jealous, will cling to this as something capital.
The parliament recognises that the king is guided by certain maxims of his father, and especially in his desire that the royal revenues shall pass separately and not through the public exchequer. They suspect that he means to continue to spend his own as he pleases, in order to make the people contribute what is necessary afterwards, and as they perceive that the granting of subsidies in advance has not served them for obtaining subsequently the satisfaction which they claim, it is probable that matters will take a long time, or the contributions will be scanty. If this want of confidence be not remedied it will constitute a serious obstacle in the way of carrying out their plans.
London, the 4th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
139. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The French ambassadors had audience of the king the day after their Majesties' arrival to pay their respects and treat of the two leading points about the marriage, one the effectuation of the compacts for the Catholics and the faith, the other that Frenchmen shall be established about the queen, as agreed. As regards religion, the king said he could not prevent his subjects from talking and negotiating, but he would keep his promises, and he assured them of this with an oath. As regards establishing the French there seems to be some difficulty, as non-Catholic Englishmen already have several appointments, so the household arranged for the queen will not be carried out. The French ambassadors contest this point and have sent to France for orders. The king promises, however, that they shall be satisfied before they leave, but as the parliament is unanimous it is necessary to temporise. As all these disputes are carried on between the ambassadors and the king, these early quarrels, the fruit of a marriage between different religions, are dissimulated between the king and the queen.
The French complain of ill-treatment in general with the intent of forcing them to leave, especially that the things promised about religion have not been effected, indeed persecution was renewed in the first days after his Majesty's arrival. There will always be some difficulty, because as the laws are not withdrawn certain ministers will always have the power to enforce them. They have forbidden the Catholics to attend the queen's mass, and individuals stand at the doors, whom the French call inspectors (surveglianti), who stop the entry and protest the king's misfortune, when recognising Catholics. The ambassadors declare this is a bad return and that it will induce France to make terms with the Spaniards.
Other dissatisfaction will possibly be heard of. Nevertheless, they have published the contract as agreed. This took place on the first of the month in the presence of their Majesties, the French ambassadors and a great multitude. The Ambassador Villeocler read the contract in French and the Secretary Conovel read the terms in English. Afterwards the ambassadors dined in public with the king with great ceremony. The queen dined publicly apart in another place and many ladies also separately in another room. Afterwards they danced and it was a fine sight to see the splendour of the liveries and the carriage of the French ambassadors at the palace, richly be-jewelled and dressed, accompanied by all the Court, the Duke of Buckingham and several gentlemen having fetched them from the embassy. On the following evening the ambassadors and the French gentlemen were entertained with surpassing splendour by the duke, and with this I fancy all the rejoicings will end for the time being, although the entertaining of the ambassadors continues.
The English are dissatisfied because the negotiations for the French alliance proved unsuccessful, although they hide their displeasure in silence. The French advise them to make progress in fulfilling their engagements, when France will become more and more united and friendly. But the terms and the steps desired here cannot be obtained.
Apparently the French allow themselves to be persuaded that Mansfelt shall go to Germany, but with everyone wishing to dispose of him I fear he will fall, as they will all fail him. He has preferred the wishes of France to those of this country. All the good offices of the Palatine were not devoted to him; but here the marriage and the carelessness about affairs prevent any resolution.
I know that the English offer to take up the proposals of the Duke of Savoy for a union of forces in the Mediterranean jointly with the French, who not only will not consent but rather obstruct this concert, and the duke will only obtain ships here by payment.
Nothing is heard of the naval force of the king here, because their plans are not fixed. The French have no share in this. Nothing certain is known about Morton's journey, although he goes upon this very business.
The Dutch ambassadors have arrived, two extraordinary and one ordinary. (fn. 1) They have paid their first respects to his Majesty, but have not negotiated. They will stay some time in this city. The Ambassador Contarini tells me he has fully informed you about their business.
The agent of Bohemia here says that as they cannot prevent the diet meeting in Germany he will try and get them here, jointly with France, to oppose the acceptance of the proposals in favour of the emperor, so that the princes need not come to terms and say they could not resist Cæsar without help. That would induce Denmark to give in also. The French ambassadors told me that the Palatine would not agree to appear at the diet unless he was certain of restoration.
The French ships left with the wind that brought the queen to this island, and they are in Normandy. Two difficulties stand in the way of using them, first that some of them are of less burthen than agreed, so that the Most Christian has the cost without obtaining the force he desired; secondly, whereas it was arranged that they should be armed with French soldiers it appears that the English sailors, who serve as soldiers also, will be the stronger, and the Admiral Montmorency will not feel safe to use them in delicate matters, without being sure of his hold on them.
The Duke of Chevreuse, commissioner of his Most Christian Majesty, conferred the order of the Holy Ghost upon the Ambassador Fiat, with all the usual ceremonies. (fn. 2) The Berulle fathers chanted the vespers publicly, and the queen attended mass the day after, communion being also celebrated in the church of Chevreuse's house.
The king says he will leave this city on Monday. I expect to follow him, as every one remains here at serious risk owing to the very great increase of the infection. They say that if the parliament does not settle the necessary business promptly, they will have to remove it elsewhere.
I cannot help renewing my supplication. I have to contend with the plague, hunger and my ill health. The physicians assure me that if I remain in this country I shall either be crippled or die. I suffer from hunger because my heavy expenses prevent me from obtaining sufficient nourishment. So I humbly pray for release.
The instructions of the 12th ult. have reached me; I will do as commanded.
London, the 4th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
140. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Duke of Savoy has written to his ambassador here about the matter of the English. He commends the idea but says that while the cardinal legate and the Count of Gondomar are in France they cannot decide to give them satisfaction. The ambassador is to go to England to discuss the matter, and the duke will send him further particulars by another courier.
Melun, the 4th July, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
141. To the Ambassador in Spain and the like to the other Courts and to the Proveditori General.
The Spaniards keep raising troops in Alsace. Tilly is preparing to attack Denmark's army. Feria has finally taken the field and held a general muster of his troops. The pope continues to arm and has sent a courier to the cardinal legate in France. The departure of the English fleet delayed by revictualling. Their orders for the arrest of Spanish and Flemish ships point to vigorous resolution in his Majesty, who has gone to meet his bride. They say he may cross the sea. Since the surrender of Breda the Dutch show great vigour and are defending their frontiers. The Duke of Savoy has sent Prince Vittorio and M. de Crichi towards Savona, while he confronts Feria. In the Valtelline our barques have won an advantage over the Spaniards. We hear nothing of Popnain, who remains at Riva. The Catholic ambassador has been to audience this morning with the usual complimentary offices.
We send you all this for information.
Ayes, 147.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian]
July 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenzi.
Venetian
Archives.
142. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They have received no information here about the English marriage, except what was said to the ambassadors at Paris. Nevertheless they wish to send the Archbishop of Pisa as ambassador to both Courts. They previously arranged embassies and presents for the Spanish infanta. Count Orso opposes the idea, but a short time will show what is best in the interests of the state.
Florence, the 5th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
143. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
As I have written before, England has lost credit through delay in the payment of past disbursements. This appeared in the last requests for Mansfelt, as there being no one to pay down the 50,000 florins, the States contributed 20,000 from their exchequer, which will be repaid when provision is made. The English ambassador has been recently to Amsterdam for this, as well as to serve the queen, who has gone to North Holland for pleasure.
Mansfelt himself was here two days ago. He wished first to disabuse the Palatine of the evil ideas spread against him by the French and English to excuse their desertion. He described the state of his force, which agrees with what I wrote. He asked the Palatine to order him to join Denmark or to do anything else he wished, but he only obtained general replies. All his requests are for money. He expects to get some from France soon. From England nothing can be decided without parliament, but with Morton's coming the count expects to hear good news.
The count made some overtures to have the 2,000 English who arrived last week in the ports here, but I do not think he will succeed.
The Hanse towns are raising troops, partly out of fear of Denmark; there also things are moving slowly owing to the delay of the help promised by England.
The fleet of twenty ships has not left yet. The Prince Palatine and the Ambassador Carleton, when passing through Amsterdam, desired to see them, but those of that Admiralty are already at the Texel.
Morton has just arrived from England with the title of ambassador extraordinary. Carleton has gone to Rotterdam to meet him. The deputies of the assembly have gone to the usual place and the French ambassador and I have also sent. His arrival is quite unexpected, though they have been looking for him for some weeks. I will observe his negotiation, especially as every one hopes for some advantage to the common service.
The Hague, the 7th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 8.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
144. That 1,200 gold ducats be paid to Alvise Contarini for his embassy to the King of Great Britain, for four months in advance, for his expenses, for which he need render no account; 300 ducats of 6 lire 4 grossi for horses, trappings and chests, 1,000 gold ducats as a gift for all expenses soever except couriers, and 160 crowns of 7 lire for the carriage of letters for four months in advance for which he need not render account; to the secretary 100 ducats as a gift to put himself in order, and 20 ducats each to two couriers accompanying; for the salary and table expenses of the chaplain and interpreter 186 and 200 ducats respectively, all for a year in advance.
Ayes, 135.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian]
July 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
145. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The anxiously awaited news has come of the total recovery of Brazil, brought by an Aragonese carrack sent by the General Federico de Toledo which made the voyage in 49 days. They fought the enemy for 29 days. The fort contained 1,900 infantry, comprising Dutch, English, French and a company of 500 Indians. They all surrendered at discretion saving their lives. The general gave them clothes and provided ships to take them home on the understanding that for a year they should not fight against this crown.
They seem inclined to devote their attention to the mastery of the ocean. They wish to keep a flying squadron to secure the passage of their fleets, and another large squadron of warships at Dunkirk and somewhere else in Flanders, hoping to cut them off from the sea and so crush them. They have given permission for privateering. The ambassador of Germany told me that in a few months they would have 600 sail, which would not cost the crown one penny or diminish the fleets which they have at sea.
Madrid, the 8th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
146. To the Ambassador in England.
When we first heard of the proposals of the Savoyard ambassador in France to the Duke of Buckingham to send the English fleet into the Mediterranean, we attached great importance to it. Your letters of the 20th now confirm it. As such a step would benefit us greatly we direct you to support such a decision, though without engaging the name of the republic, but merely co-operate with Savoy's aims, pointing out the advantage to the common cause and the counterpoise which his Majesty's fleet would constitute to the Spanish naval forces in the maintenance of its superiority. You will keep especially alert upon this matter and discover what the French ministers are doing, as we think their influence will do much to decide one way or the other.
You will follow the example of the other ambassadors upon the arrival of the bride and in the subsequent complimentary offices and you will take an early opportunity of expressing our satisfaction at this marriage and the advantages that every one expects from it, commending the worthy opinions which she expressed to our Ambassador Moresini, in which we cannot do better than encourage her.
Ayes, 135.Noes, 0.Neutral, 5.
[Italian]
July 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
147. To the Ambassador in France.
We have precise information of negotiations for a truce between the Ottoman House and Spain and that the ambassadors of the Most Christian and other powers there have orders to act jointly to prevent it. The Viceroy of Naples sent to Constantinople a Neapolitan gentleman named Gio. Battista Montealbano, who has received a cordial welcome at Ragusa. Antonio Barilli, a Franciscan who has previously conducted similar negotiations, accompanied him. They bring various presents from the Viceroy to the Sultan and Grand Vizier.
Our bailo has orders to communicate these particulars to the ambassadors of friendly powers, with whom he had previously arranged to co-operate to prevent this design. The Caimecam pretended to know nothing about the matter, but it is incredible that the Jew should have acted without authority from the Porte or that the Viceroy should have taken such steps. We must therefore fear some deceit and that the Turks are consulting their own interests. The matter is serious and very important for the common interests. You will therefore pay great attention to what is said about it at Court, and will tell such ministers as you think fit and ambassadors sharing the same interests, to concert what measures to take and what instructions to send to Constantinople. We will do everything in our power to stop the negotiations.
The like to England and the Hague.
The first paragraph only to Spain.
Ayes, 107.Noes, 2.Neutral, 3.
[Italian]
July 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
148. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have exchanged visits with the ambassadors of the States, while maintaining the superior dignity of the most serene republic. They expressed the warmest friendship to me, presenting letters of credence from the States General, of which I enclose a copy, and intimating their wish to enjoy the most confidential relations with me. They told me that when asked to join the royal fleet here they readily agreed to supply twenty ships, though so heavily charged with expenses, and they have them ready to proceed to this island. They have no information about their employment and still less have they been told of the negotiations on the matter with France. They expect to learn later as they know that as yet there is no settled plan. They will try to move the king here to open war, and if he will operate against the Spaniards they will be ready with all their power. From these generalities I might infer the particulars of their negotiations, but as they progressed they would impart to me all their proceedings.
I expressed my willingness to co-operate zealously in the common service and for their satisfaction. I left an opening for them to talk about these preparations and unions. They told me that it would very speedily appear that this fleet has not sufficient provisions for the Indies; it cannot be employed in the Mediterranean without arrangement with France and other interested parties; it would be a good plan to send it against Flanders, but that country is strongly defended, and the king here can do nothing on land by himself; with France he could do it, but it is said that France might conceive some jealousy.
They spoke of attacking Spain, but said it would be profitable to scour and dominate the sea, whereby they would smash the trade with the Indies and ruin the forces of the Spaniards, cutting off their gold supply from the Indies and thus deprive them of half their subsistence.
They betray a suspicion that France, by refusing alliances, desires an accommodation and will leave the others in the lurch; and in the interests of good service they would like a declaration from the king here.
I pointed out that while our league was operating, the others ought to take advantage of the opportunity. France being engaged cannot withdraw without the consent of her friends; if they cannot obtain a full declaration here they must obtain advantages by other means, and not lose them on a question of ceremony; they must meet art by art. By a strong expedition of force under the name of others this king would bear the expense, and in fine the cover would be so transparent that the Spaniards would take equal offence, whether war was declared or no. I further remarked on the advantage to the States of operating with Denmark for a diversion with Mansfelt's force, with the movements in that quarter, and the forces of Italy, which should divert all danger from them, withdrawing the forces of Flanders, and the States could not have a better opportunity. I spoke thus because here they say freely that the States are ready to accept a truce; this may be spread by the Spaniards, to discredit them, or by themselves to gain further advantages.
They are trying for a closer union with this nation, to concert joint plans and to ensure steady and regular support for Mansfelt. Six commissioners have already been appointed to treat with them, namely the Duke of Buckingham, the Treasurer, the Chamberlain, the Earl of Carlisle, Lord Bruch and the Secretary Conway.
For the fleet, which is the chief of their plans, Colonel Cecil has arrived to command the troops. They have appointed colonels and captains, and have brought various ships into the Thames, to proceed to Plymouth. They are hastening in order to avoid the plague and to show parliament that something is being done. They reckon that as the provisions are made and not much money is required for the payments, they can very speedily obtain the decision and despatch, as besides victuals and a certain amount of clothing, the king does not usually pay the fleet until its return.
It is a great thing that just as the fleet is ready before their plans, so the troops are raised and gathered first and their officers appointed afterwards. This is useful in this country, where the soldiers are commanded by force and the counties are bound to keep them efficient. The other way also may prove advantageous if they carry their plan in their bosom in order to effect a surprise.
London, the 11th July, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure.149. Copy of letter from the States of the Netherlands to the Ambassador Pesaro.
Recommendation of the Lords of Sommelsdeyck, Joachim and Biurmania, their ambassadors to the King of Great Britain, who have instructions to maintain confidential relations with him, with request to second their good intentions.
The Hague, the 6th June, 1625.
[Italian]
July 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
150. ZUANE PESARO. Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Palatine has strongly urged his Majesty to oppose the meeting of the diet at Ulm or to send to oppose its decisions. He desires the same of the Most Christian. His agent has spoken to the king, who proposes to satisfy him, and they are arranging to send somebody. The agent has made the same request of the French ambassadors so that his master may have the support of the Most Christian and that France may maintain her authority in Germany. The ambassadors seemed well disposed but have not promised, as they cannot decide without the Most Christian's consent. The agent points out the advantage the emperor has received in that deputation, how he has abused the peace and the interposition of the kings, especially the King of Great Britain; the mischief he has done to the French negotiation in Germany, the artifice whereby Bavaria was established; that Cœsar is embittered and will not want the interposition of the kings. The judgment of the meeting will amount to fundamental laws, accepted by the whole empire, and everything would turn to the advantage of the House of Austria and the Catholic league; Denmark might withdraw and the King of Great Britain spend his money in vain and remain helpless. He declares they cannot restore peace, liberty, justice and equilibrium in the empire except by arms or by impartial interposition. The King of Great Britain must not be diverted from his good intentions but must forestall such pernicious designs, help his friends or force a just composition and general peace.
The King of Bohemia protests he will not accept a peace based upon ruin and extirpation as his enemies design, but only one upon just conditions and his complete restoration with equal tranquillity for all Germany. The Palatine has put everything into a memorial presented to the French ambassadors and to the king here. He adds that he should send two persons in addition to his own ambassador to consult his own service. I find that negotiations were opened here through Lorraine, but it amounted to nothing more than the information already given by the agent of Bohemia.
The King of Denmark has written that he will not move unless Anstruther goes to him and they fulfil their promises here. But with Anstruther present he may be satisfied and begin to fulfil his promises. The Palatine still suspects that king of seeking only selfish advantages and says they should insist on guarantees. However, the king has declared his complete confidence in his uncle. Denmark and the States urge support for Mansfelt. Apparently all agree that the count must have a separate force. The Palatine has again thanked his Majesty for the command to Mansfelt to obey his orders, but as disorders arise from the count doing things after his own fancy, he requests that arrangements be made to support him for six months jointly with France. His force is important as a counterpoise to Tilly's, for the designs of Denmark, who makes capital of those forces, and for the advantages that may be claimed in the diet of the delegates. The Palatine also calls to mind that to ensure obedience, Mansfelt's captains should take the oath of fealty to the two kings concerned in the cost or to himself. They promise to maintain those forces, but orders have not appeared, and without a regular and assured supply of money Mansfelt will always remain without discipline and without sufficient forces.
From these concerns I will pass to the affairs of France. The French ambassadors, insisting strongly upon the two points of the faith and the queen's establishment, the king at first confined himself to promises and oaths of fulfilment, and although actual deeds seem to indicate the very reverse, the French cannot do more but must leave the rest to time and to their representations.
As regards the establishment, as the arrangement was made for the Princess of Wales, the English contend that they may make other arrangements for the queen, but the ambassadors insist that they shall not infringe the treaty. So they have promised to order the queen's household as arranged, excluding non-Catholic Englishmen, and confirming the appointments made by the Most Christian, declaring that if the queen requires more officials they will do what the two kings agree upon.
French affairs do not conform with the proceedings of the parliament, so they are hastening their despatch with all diligence. They propose to invest the queen's dowry in land. Meanwhile they are waiting to hear from the Most Christian and receive the placet for the Duke of Chevreuse to accept the Garter offered by his Majesty.
Besides all this the French are bound to feel some resentment because the agreement about the ships supplied from this quarter to the Most Christian has been broken, upon the pretext of the excess of sailors or of Frenchmen to be added. The ships have therefore recrossed the sea, and they would not agree to any idea of fighting against Soubise or those of the Religion. Thus the mutual advantages which the two crowns promised each other vanish away.
The queen, to please the Catholics and of her own piety follows the custom of the Catholics here as regards festivals, without cutting off the ten days, and severely observes all the vigils, to the confusion of the malignant, who predicted otherwise, saying that out of complacency for her husband she would relax Catholic abstinence.
The Palatine is trying to obtain the title of king from his Majesty, but has not yet succeeded, although, contrary to the practice of the electors, he has written to the king with the title of Majesty, whereas the electors are accustomed to assume royal dignity.
Parliament continues and declares strongly for the enforcement of the laws against the Catholics. The contest between the spiritual and temporal members has been brought before the king by petition; he neither consented nor refused, but the lower house maintains that it belongs to the supreme authority to ordain and to the clergy to carry out. They desire a general fast with these objects, to pray for release from the plague; for abundance against the bad weather which threatens scarcity; for a happy issue out of current affairs, saying that since the king has favoured the Catholics everything has gone wrong. They lament Mansfeld's failure and the waste of so many Englishmen, with loss of money and reputation. They impute everything to the advice of the Duke of Buckingham and the Secretary Conovel. They do not approve of the command of the fleet, fearing the consequences of delay and that the duke wants to control the affair by himself without the advice of experts. These two persons are both somewhat menaced, but as both declare themselves devoted to Religion and have the king's support they will easily stand fast.
Out of religious zeal they have imposed two oaths, one for recognising the king as supreme head of the Anglican Church, the other of allegiance. The latter used to be common to all. At first titled noblemen and peers of the realm were not obliged to take it, owing to their privilege, and they cannot in any case be compelled to take any oath except upon their own honour. This session has compelled all to take the oath, except some Catholics, who did not appear at the parliament, and a few others, who absented themselves with his Majesty's permission, leaving proctors.
They announce that they will help the king with subsidies, but the laws must be observed and the Catholics must pay the recusants' fines, which are very heavy, and the Catholics must also pay a new tax on their goods. This, in addition to the other charges, will exterminate them. The persecution is considered worse against their goods than their lives. All the rich will be forced to go to church.
It is said they may claim to know about the expenditure and the counsels. But just as parliament prevails through the king's necessity, so the king gains by promises about religion. Thus yesterday they granted the new king two subsidies without any conditions, to be collected one in October next, the other in April, with a declaration that these are for his Majesty's accession, but if he wishes provision for the forces and his needs he must first see to the execution of the laws. The minds of the members of parliament are entirely directed against the Catholics.
I will report what happens; it is not certain whether parliament will continue or be removed. The king has not decided where to go, as the danger surrounds him on every side and it is thought he will have to go far away. I have the expense of the house provided without being able to use it. I remain in the same quarters in even greater peril, as fifty parishes are infected and 390 deaths are notified, but the number is much greater everywhere.
After my most humble recommendations to his Majesty I will fulfil the duties of my charge. I will relate two particulars about this. First, I have paid my respects to the queen on entering this kingdom and upon her marriage, in a manner befitting our esteem and our relations with the two crowns. She heard me and replied with the utmost graciousness. She told me that the Signory always remembered her, and she thanked me. She remembered the friendship I had displayed to her in France and she would always be ready to serve your Serenity and satisfy me.
The other is about the incident of the funeral. Upon this subject I decided to speak to the Lord Chamberlain, who knows all the arguments, is well disposed to your Serenity and has to look after the ambassadors. He admitted that reparation was reasonable. The Ambassador Wake had not written. He advised speaking to his Majesty. I thought it best to avoid this audience, though I wish to do what they ask. They recognise the need of a remedy; the only difficulty is with the duke, who is unfortunately mixed up in this affair, owing to French interests. If the ambassador speaks for the king's service I shall be able to profit that of your Serenity. I expect to hear in the next letters.
London, the 11th July, 1625.
Postscript.—The instructions of the 14th and 19th ult. have just reached me.
[Italian]
July 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
151. To the Ambassador in Spain and the like to the other Courts and to the Proveditori General.
Feria, taking advantage of the separation of the opposing forces, has captured Acqui. Savoy immediately collected his army together to repair this blow. This prevented Feria from making an attack on Asti. Sickness is spreading among Popnain's troops and he has asked for reinforcements. Leopold keeps arming. The Marquis of Coure has taken up quarters at Morbegno, for the healthier air. Gondomar has had his first audience in France, where the Huguenots are troublesome. They propose to reinforce Coure and allow Guise to raise 3,000 more foot. We have no more news from England. Mansfeld was ready to join the Danish army near Cleves; the beneficial effects for the common cause ought soon to appear.
We send this for information.
Ayes, 140.Noes, 0.Neutral, 4.
[Italian]
July 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
152. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On the last day of last month of the arrival at Ragusa of a gentleman sent by the Viceroy of Naples with a passport, (fn. 3) to proceed to Constantinople. Owing to the negotiations of the Jew Isaac at Naples for a truce, the Ambassador Contarini and I thought fit to communicate the news to the ambassadors of France, England and the States. They all thought it important to forestall this gentleman by speaking to the Caimecan. France, the States and I decided to go together. England could not join because of the usual dispute with France, but being outside the city because of the plague, he said he would go later. Accordingly we three went to tell the Caimecan, asking that the gentleman might not even be admitted to the city but be sent back at once. The Caimecan assured us that he knew nothing of the matter but declared that they would not listen to any such proposals.
The Vigne of Pera, the 12th July, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
153. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Last week passed without anything being done. Everyone cries out at the delays. The constitution of the government and the air here seem inimical to decision. It is lamentable that important affairs should be so neglected. The king fears nothing so much as civil war, the queen mother's most heartfelt desire is for peace with the Huguenots; Richelieu recognises that his fortune depends upon this. These three control the machine, and yet matters drag on from mere irresolution and negligence.
There has recently been some slight commotion at Court and they contemplated ordering the Princess of Conde to leave. Some thought this was due to the suspicion that she was writing to tell her husband what was going on. Others attribute it to more definite suspicions owing to the free and easy behaviour of the princess herself, as she is constantly with the queen regnant, which they do not like. There is much gossip about about the journey to Amiens, of the queen herself, Buckingham, the English ambassadors, the princess and the Duchess of Chevreuse, but it is all kept very secret.
Melun, the 12th July, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
154. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They have proceeded no further in the negotiations with the English. The French ambassador there understands that they want a league, the very name of which they detest here, and they have never agreed to discuss it. They are expecting the ambassador promised, but it is said he cannot come unless parliament meets and has decided upon the destination of the fleet, and the designs of that crown.
The Savoyard ambassador here is waiting to hear from his master before proceeding to England on the business reported. The delay distresses him, as he is very hopeful of doing much if he goes. Here they have done nothing so far in response to his requests.
Melun, the 12th July, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
155. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Mansfelt has gone to Amsterdam to induce the merchants there to pay him something upon the credit of England, Morton having pledged himself to so much; but I expect little from mere promises.
Letters from Denmark report the arrival of the Ambassador Anstruther with very ample instructions and credits. Something may be hoped from that direction as hitherto they have laid all the blame for delay upon England. The King of Sweden is sending an ambassador to England (fn. 4) with congratulations upon the succession and he may have other business.
The Hague, the 14th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
156. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Morton had his first audience on Friday. In general terms he expressed the king's good will to the common cause and especially to these provinces. He asked for deputies to whom he might make his proposals. They met yesterday and dealt first with the employment of the fleet, asking that for the sake of secrecy the king's plans might be communicated to the Prince of Orange alone. Both ambassadors, the ordinary and extraordinary, have left to-day about this matter and to choose the men to man the twenty ships, so that they may not lose the good season. As the ships are too large for Flanders and the Indies are too dangerous there only remain the coasts of Spain and Portugal, the islands and to enter the Mediterranean. It is clear that the employment is not remote as the provisions are only for eight months and they are to act in the name of the Palatine and his wife, since they have drawn up and signed the patents for the Duke of Buckingham, with power to substitute others and for Colonel Cecil, who will command the embarcation.
I also gather that this ambassador will propose an offensive and defensive alliance, though I have no particulars. This business requires much consideration, especially if they wish to employ the land forces here or in the Palatinate, since the Dutch will always be ready at sea. The French think this mission is calculated to arouse their jealousy, after Buckingham's negotiations at their Court, and the French ambassador said as much to me. Much will depend upon the tact shown by the States. However, the English ambassadors themselves still hold out hopes that the Most Christian will enter the concert, and their own monarch will show the way.
The Queen of Bohemia told me in strict confidence that parliament will terminate with satisfaction for the king and a good provision of money for the fleet and other emergencies, but they would provide little or nothing for Mansfelt, although if the Most Christian supports him for six months longer, England may make an effort, though it is very doubtful.
It is already announced that the ambassador extraordinary will remain some weeks. I paid my respects, which he fully reciprocated. He seems a minister of sound views. He speaks as if the sword were the sole means of bringing safety. He considers France divided in her councils and he expects nothing from Mansfelt. He makes capital of the Hungarian diversion but fears the peace with the Turks reported everywhere. He is utterly devoted to the Queen of Bohemia in whose service he lived many years. He promises to tell me everything in complete confidence as he passed many years at Venice. I encourage him with the idea of preparing the mind of an influential minister for my residence at that Court.
The Hague, the 14th July, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 14.
Cons. di X.
Parti Comuni.
Venetian
Archives.
157. In the Council of Ten.
That Francesco Iseppo, banished by order dated 26 January, 1620, be allowed a safe-conduct for a year on account of his good service in London and Flanders, to see to his affairs.
Ayes, 10.Noes, 1.Neutral, 5.
Second vote: Ayes, 6.Noes, 3.Neutral, 7.
Pending as it requires 5/8.
[Italian]
Enclosure.158. Petition of Francesco Isepis della Tisana, sentenced to ten years in the galleys for killing Nodal Grotto, for a safe-conduct to return home for one year, as he has served his country in London and Flanders, willingly doing all that the ambassadors ordered; for instance he brought the news from London of the prince's journey to Spain, and recently he brought word of the king's death, in nine days only, without any reward.
[Italian]

Footnotes

1 Aerssens and Burmania, extraordinary, and Joachim, ordinary. They arrived on Monday the 30th June. Salvietti, on the 4th July. Brit. Mus. Add MSS. 27962 D.
2 On Saturday, the 28th June, at Denmark House. Salvietti, newsletter of the 4th July. Brit. Mus. Add MSS. 279620.
3 His name was Giovanni Battista Montealbano.
4 Gabriel Oxenstiern. See Rusdorf: Memoires Vol. i, page 664