Venice
September 1625, 16 - 30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1913

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160-172

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'Venice: September 1625, 16 - 30', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 160-172. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89045 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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September 1625

Sept. 16.
Misc.
Cod. No. 64.
Venetian
Archives.
234. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I learn on good authority that M. de Marseuil, who came with the Archduke Leopold, was told by his Highness that if the Most Christian would make some proposal for an accommodation with the Palatine, he would see that it was taken to the proper quarter. I understand accordingly that Marseuil has made secret proposals that if they restore the Palatine's states the Most Christian will give Coire to the House of Austria. I know that the ministers here laughed at this, and the French resident knows nothing of the proposal, or pretends not to.
They hope here that peace will ensue everywhere, and feel sure of it, especially owing to the quarrels they now hear of between France and England. They promise themselves a union between the House of Austria and the Most Christian against the King of Great Britain and the Dutch. I am assured that they have opened negotiations already, with the idea that if the Most Christian persists in the war they will then arrange a union between the King of Great Britain and Spain against him, and will try and make trouble in France with the Huguenots, the king's brother and other malcontents.
Now they feel sure that the empire will not feel war, that Denmark is disarming and the House of Austria will have two powerful armies at liberty, they push forward the decision for a diet at Ulm, as Saxony approves of the place and promises to attend; Brandenburg does the same and Wittemberg writes that the Palatine promises to send a representative if the King of England agrees. The Electors have invited the Most Christian, and the Marquis of Gondomar and the ordinary ambassador will represent Spain, while the Infanta will also attend.
Noistot, the 16th September, 1625.
[Italian; copy.]
Sept. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
235. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Gondomar does not abandon his attempts at negotiation here and his attempt to lull them to sleep by his proposals. His Majesty's resident at Brussels wrote recently that Gondomar came with the olive branch, saying that he brought it for the peace of all Christendom, as the Catholic king desired peace with all and especially with this crown. He knew he was out of favour at this Court and with the people, but he declared he had never deceived, had served his master well and had tried to preserve friendship between the two crowns; his Majesty could test his truth and sincerity, as he had certain means for an adjustment; the Infanta has powers from the emperor, the Catholic king and the Duke of Bavaria for a prompt adjustment, and if his Majesty would send delegates there or if he came here they could arrange it at once. When asked how the Palatine would be restored as peace depended upon his maintenance, he said that he would not make these proposals if he was not sure, as he knew that the king and people would kill him if he deceived them. He stated with the utmost confidence that everything would be secured by a marriage of the Prince Palatine either to the emperor's second daughter or the Duke of Bavaria's niece. Since this Gondomar's coming to this Court is reported, but the members of the government deny this and deride his proposals.
Some speculate upon the poverty of this crown and that provision depends upon parliament, which the duke must detest, because it is always trying to overthrow him. The certainty of breaking off negotiations depends upon the sailing of the fleet. It continues to complete its preparations, but they do not decide to plough the waves and everyone fears some miscarriage. Nevertheless the king has decided to go to that port by sea, the journey by land being too long; they say he is going in order to see the fleet sail.
With respect to the negotiations of Talier and Gondomar, the Palatine through his minister has pointed out their deceit in the past, and the securities they must take in his interests, but he never excludes negotiation utterly. He also asks support for the arms of Denmark and Sweden. He encourages the King of Denmark to prevent him from listening to negotiations or making arrangements without including this crown and himself and asks for continuation of the payments or other means. He suggests that they approach the Dutch to supply that king with 6,000 foot and 1,500 horse for a diversion in Westphalia, Denmark paying part of the cost, but the States decline because their troops are already in garrison. He asks a favourable reception for the Swedish ambassador, (fn. 1) who has reached Gravesend with two ships, offering that king the Garter which he wants, and accepting his proposals, namely money to make a diversion in Germany, pointing out that they must not let Denmark succumb and must encourage confidence between those two kings upon whom the hopes of Germany depend. The Palatine reminds them that the treaty of alliance with the States provides for the liberty of the princes of Germany and if they like to enter this league.
This point seems to please them, and the ministers turn it over in their minds; but here, as in all other matters, they do not say no, but by irresolution they refuse and practically abandon everything. The ambassadors of the States have had another meeting, but made little progress. The duke told me that the king offers them a defensive and offensive alliance. He desires nothing from them outside their own service, but they seem to hang back and are going to destruction. I have not been able to discover how things are proceeding, but the States do not want to offend France, and think to profit their own designs by raising difficulties. They hope that the king's fleet will break first and make it easier for them to get the conditions they want, and as they undervalue the affairs of Germany, which touch them to the quick, so they reckon that by cutting the Spaniards' purse, that is by spoiling their trade and turning away the fleet, they may re-establish matters both on sea and on land. Their ships are already at sea to join the fleet.
The English and Dutch will remain in sight of Dunkirk to prevent the ships there from coming out. These are drawn up outside under the fort waiting for a spring tide. Spinola has placed some guns to keep the ships at a distance, but this has done no good. If they keep the ships from coming out with the spring tide it is said that the Dutch ships will go to join the fleet at Plymouth. Three ships are reported captured and sent to Plymouth, laden with provisions for the Spanish fleet. (fn. 2) To obtain an excuse for issuing letters of marque for reprisals they propose to ask the Infanta for payment of the debts which many places in Flanders, and Brabant in particular, owe for loans made by Queen Elizabeth in the time of M. d'Alençon, crowned Duke of Brabant. (fn. 3)
The agent of the Palatine has paid his respects to the queen for divers princes of Germany connected with his master. They have sent patents to Colonel Cecil as marshal of the force and lieutenant-general confirmed by the Palatine, and have made him Viscount Wimbledon, where he lives. One hears many comments on the Duke of Buckingham declining this great opportunity. I have spoken to him about the funeral incident. He asked pardon for not keeping his promises, confessing he had done nothing, but he would let me have a decision. He objected at my not having made some complaint to the French ambassadors, but I said they had nothing to do with the relations between the king and your Serenity at this Court, and indeed they had expressed to me their disapproval of the incident. He again assured me of satisfaction, and with the arrival of the new offices of Wake I hope I shall leave my post here with a confirmation of the dignity of the State.
I humbly thank your Excellencies for directing the Ambassador Zorzi to start at once. I shall leave the house soon and shall eagerly await the Ambassador Contarini, who will be heartily welcomed at this Court.
Southampton, the 17th September, 1625.
Postscript.—This night the Secretary Morton has died of a malignant fever. To-day they are sending to meet the Swedish ambassador. This is better than the case of the French ambassador, who has been expected a week and has not yet arrived, and they are not sure whether he will come.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 18.
Senato,
Secrete.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
236. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
The prejudice of the neutrality of Goch and other places. He will continue his offices, together with the ambassadors of the two crowns in pointing this out. He is to come to a good understanding with the ambassadors of France and England about supporting the proposals of the gentleman sent by Gabor, encouraging the negotiation with prudence, but not committing himself to anything without express orders. Enclose copy of letters from the Bailo at Constantinople about Gabor's proposals to the Porte; and also of letter from France about hastening the sailing of the English fleet. News from Milan and Zurich.
That the portion touching Prince Gabor and the part of the French letters about the fleet be sent to the Ambassador Pesaro in England for information.
Ayes, 74.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Sept. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Svizzeri.
Venetian
Archives.
237. GIROLAMO CAVAZZA, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I do not find that the four towns will give anything but a reply in general terms about the Grisons to the English ambassador, although he told me he would try for something more specific, with hope of success. I know that they profess here that they cannot possibly do any more. The ambassador has received the usual honours and this morning he left for Berne and Piedmont. Before he left I went to pay my respects; he assured me that the republic would receive satisfaction about the funeral incident. He attributed the delay to the plague.
Zurich, the 18th September, 1625.
[Italian.]
Sept. 19.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
238. To the Ambassador in England.
The gentleman of the Count of Mansfelt who was sent to Gabor has returned and reports that the prince will move against the emperor if he has 4,000 paid German infantry, 100,000 crowns yearly in cash, is included in the league and assured of being included in any treaties made. This, with the information you have of Gabor's proposals at the Porte, will serve you as a clue to obtain further particulars. We send you a copy of particulars which we have received from France about the sailing of the fleet in the name of the Most Christian.
Vigore deliberationis Senatus, diei 18 Septembris, 1625.
[Italian.]
Sept. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
239. To the Ambassador at Rome and the like to the other Courts and to the Proveditori General.
Feria is losing all hope of taking Verua. The Duke of Savoy's artillery has inflicted great loss on the Spaniards. 1,600 Lorrainers have joined his Highness. Feria is expected to raise the siege. He is afraid of the French creating a diversion by attacking the three Pievi and proceed to Riva that way, and he has detached 2,000 foot in that direction. Papenain asked for men and money. Feria wanted money from Milan and Naples. The viceroy sent him 300,000 crowns. His levies are to muster at Varese. The levies for the Valtelline have marched.
We hear from Zurich that the English ambassador spoke strongly for the Grisons in the diet of the four towns. A diet assembled at Lucerne, and the French ambassador sent to prevent any attempt to stop the levies for his king. We hear from France that the Duke of Rohan and M. de Soubise, his brother, have decided to serve the Duke of Savoy. Rohan will go to persuade La Rochelle to submit, and, if they refuse, to declare that he and his brother will leave them to their fate. We send this for information.
Ayes, 121.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Sept. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
240. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassadors of France and England are as much disgusted as I myself at the terms of the letter of the Sultan to Gabor, as unbecoming to the dignity of our princes. The latter wrote to me on the subject.
Achindi, the 20th September, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Sept. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
241. ZORZI GIUSTINLAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have letters of the 14th ult. brought by an English berton from Cyprus, hired by merchants there for Syria. The English ship was attacked by three bertons of Barbary, but when they found the Englishman powerful and ready to defend himself, they sheered off with a present of some raiment and a few thalers. The consul at Aleppo reports the safe arrival of the ship at Alexandretta.
Achindi, the 20th September, 1625.
[Italian.]
Sept. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
242. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have just learned that a courier has arrived from Flanders, sent by the Count of Gondomar, with news that the English fleet has sailed, to the number of sixty ships. Some say that these are all war ships and that others are following with victuals. There is also a report that some Barbary ships have been sighted in the strait. It is thought they may be going to join this fleet.
Madrid, the 20th September, 1625.
[Italian.]
Sept, 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
243. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Two deputies of La Rochelle named Papim and Tibout have arrived here after having been in England. They come to offer excuses for the incident between their ships and Admiral Outim. (fn. 4)
The Hague, the 22nd September, 1625.
[Italian.]
Sept. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
244. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They have gone as far here as one could desire, the departure of the fleet being assured, and a defensive and offensive alliance being arranged between the king and the States. The king left for Plymouth yesterday. He changed his mind and went by land because of contrary winds and other dangers. He will go long stages, and he proposes to return here and go off somewhere else with the queen and Council. The king is going to review the united fleet and the troops make the final arrangements; and if the weather favours give éclat to its departure by his presence.
In order to keep their operations secret, they have ordered the ports not to allow anyone soever to leave, and travellers will not recover their liberty till after the departure of the fleet. I enclose particulars of its strength. It is difficult to say what its objects may be. The force was prepared long since under the late king with the idea of joining first with France and possibly expecting to excite terror by the mere preparations. Subsequently they proposed to use it to obtain money; and now without any of these grounds they have decided to send it out, so as not to lose reputation, to conciliate the people and to prepare the designs to be carried out by the league with the Dutch.
Taking into consideration the season and the provisions it is considered certain that the fleet will go to harass Spain, interrupting its trade and occupying some position if possible, and thus either capture the fleet from the Indies or prevent it from reaching Spain, which would do them almost as much harm, they think, as if the Spaniards had not the credit of the fleet to fall back upon, it is reckoned that they would be exhausted next year and unable to support their forces or provide for their renewal. Time will disclose their plans. They speak of Cadiz and le Terzere, the latter more than the former.
Some fear that scarcity of provisions will bring the fleet back after a short cruise, and they think that the small number of gentlemen in the expedition will weaken its efficacy. However, the king has come out openly as the enemy of the Spaniards, the alliance with the States being public. On the 21st at Tichfel, after the ambassadors had dined with his Majesty and submitted the document to him in the presence of the commissioners and some of the Lords of the Council, he signed a defensive and offensive alliance with the States against the King of Spain for fifteen years, to thwart the schemes of that king, defend the liberty of the States, recover the Palatinate and generally work for the public welfare and mutual security. They are to attack the King of Spain by land and sea. By sea the king is to maintain a fleet to which the Dutch will contribute. By land he undertakes to raise a powerful force in his name, and the States are to support all their plans with another force. I cannot make sure of their naval plans. Conway told me it was against the Indies; the Dutch ambassadors assured me they would attack the Spaniards everywhere, and especially keep all the ports of Spain blockaded, destroying all their sea trade. They reserve the right for other princes to enter the league. They propose sending out ambassadors to declare that the war is political and not religious and draw attention to the general peril from the greatness of Spain and the House of Austria. I fancy they will make every effort to draw France into their plans, and will pretend to do nothing without her.
Conway told me they would like France to decide to annex Artois or another adjoining province. The Dutch ambassadors asked me to make two requests of your Serenity, first to induce the Most Christian to take some resolution in conformity, as otherwise it might upset the whole affair, and they said the Most Christian should make a defensive alliance with this crown and promise not to treat with the Spaniards except jointly. Also that if the Most Christian desires to be principal in the undertaking, he shall make an alliance with them similar to the one arranged with the King of Great Britain. The second request was that your Serenity should enter and contribute to these great interests, or else generously continue the war in Italy, and by the two leagues the Spanish monarchy will be humbled. The Secretary Conway said much the same to me. I commended the resolutions, but did not consider that I could meddle in French matters. Your Excellencies would always labour for the common welfare. I pointed out all that I had done to encourage decisive action in this quarter. The ambassadors seemed content if we continued to move in Italy; they always seem fearful of an unexpected accommodation.
The ambassadors said they had made representations for the support of Mansfelt and payments to Denmark. These things were outside the league, but promises of the king. It is now said that they will take up these expenses. This would be contrary to what the duke said and also beyond their powers; however, they have sent a messenger to Mansfelt with promises, referring the news of his Majesty's decisions to the Ambassador Carleton. The duke may now be better advised. The Dutch ambassadors rejoice at having made this king the enemy of the Spaniards, and joined interests, as even Queen Elizabeth did not make open war, but helped her friends covertly, and carried out her designs and piracies in the name of her captains.
Two of the ambassadors will leave for the Hague the day after to-morrow to report what has been done and send back the ratification. They hope to add to the league all those who wish to join in Germany, and Joachim will remain here to continue the embassy.
Southampton, the 23rd September, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
245. List of ships and soldiers in the fleet before starting.
The king's ships.
Ships12
Tonnage8,128
Sailors2,830
Merchant ships.
Ships30
Burthen8,785
Sailors1,613
Soldiers4,678
Victuals5,590
Ballast1,953
Ships of Newcastle, or colliers.
Ships43
Burthen9,556
Sailors1,508
Soldiers5,770
Victuals6,410
Ballast2,363
Total.
Ships85
Tonnage8,128
Sailors5,951
Burthen18,341
Soldiers10,448
Victuals12,000
Ballast4,316
Dutch ships, 22; making a grand total of 107 ships.
[Italian.]
Sept. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
246. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They are already beginning to think of equipping a second fleet, in accordance with the Dutch alliance. A proclamation is ready to recall all subjects residing in the Spanish dominions upon pain of being considered rebels. They have already issued many letters of marque to privateers to make reprisals, without seeking the slightest excuse. This will inflict heavy loss upon the Spaniards and Flemings, and the decision has highly pleased the people here. They have sent an express to recall the king's resident with the Infanta; everything points to war. The report that Spinola, by staying at Dunkirk, proposed to cross to this island and land at Harwich in Essex has led to the Earl of Warwick being sent promptly to fortify that place, which was previously fortified, and he has taken 3,000 foot thither. He can also use 1,500 of the troops of the neighbourhood. This provision has caused some alarm on the coast there, and the inhabitants go away from the sea as if the enemy had landed.
They have also decided to inspect all the coast positions most exposed to danger and provide for their defence in the manner previously adopted in times of peril. The provisions are rather a preventive than because of real danger; they might receive an affront but no harm of consequence when they have a powerful force equipped, and could easily collect ships all round the island.
The Dunkirk ships which cause the uneasiness are watched by 25 Dutch ships and 10 English. This force is considered sufficient, as the other Dutch ships have gone to join the fleet.
The first and most pressing task is to provide the money. They have already sent the privy seals through the kingdom. With the persecution of priests and Jesuits and hostility to the Spaniards they hope parliament will be ready and the duke considers himself safe.
An equal reason in my judgment for the present most opportune decisions is the arrival of the ambassadors of the King of Sweden and the Elector of Brandenburg. (fn. 5) The Swede came in two ships from the Baltic with a noble company; the other left Holland, where he was resident, and came almost incognito with few attendants. They offered congratulations and may perform offices for the general welfare. The envoy of Brandenburg urged the cause of Germany and opposition to the diet. He asked for the king's continued protection and the support of the elector's interests in Juliers and Cleves, and that he may be included in any accommodation for the restitution of the Palatinate.
I have exchanged visits with the Swedish ambassador. He said that his master for enmity, religion and the public weal desired the abasement of the House of Austria and the King of Spain. If the king here and the King of France operate against the Spaniards he will continue his present operations in the same cause; to attack Poland means diverting those forces and weakening the Catholic league. He asked me about the war in Italy, the negotiations of Rome with France and those between the Turks and Spaniards. I made suitable replies calculated to encourage the designs of his king. He expressed a desire for better relations with your Serenity, taking advantage of the leagues in treaty. He suggested mutual ambassadors. I said your Excellencies esteemed that monarch as highly as France and England, and we had the highest opinions of the qualities of his king. Apart from compliments this ambassador desires union so that he may operate with the certainty that the King of Denmark will not thwart him. I think his Majesty has promised this. He bases his negotiations upon a war of France and England against Spain, and obtaining help from those two kings while he does twice as much himself. He says that Sweden has 30,000 foot on land and 60 ships at sea; she has at this moment conquered all Livonia and is ready for further designs.
The ambassador is going to the Hague for the same cause, and they say he may send a gentleman to France. At the Hague I think he will urge the union proposed some time ago, based upon the league between the king here and the States.
The post of Secretary of State has been conferred upon John Cuck, Master of Requests, a man of erudition in languages and affairs and above all in naval matters. He is a dependent of the duke, who has established his secretary of the sea in the post of the Requests, a very high office. (fn. 6) The duke disposes of everything, as the king only desires his pleasure; the hatred of the magnates increases against him, and one may say that he stands ill with everybody.
My representations about the funeral have prevailed. The Lords of the Council and Conway told me that the duke brought the matter forward and they decided to satisfy your Serenity. They recognise that Lewkenor has been an outrageous partisan of the Spaniards, though he was not altogether blameworthy in this incident. However, they have decided to put him in prison and remove him from his post for good unless the republic or I intercede with the king for him. His prison will probably be his country house. I press for satisfaction and hope to obtain it, but I have never dealt with a more delicate or difficult affair. I am uneasy because the king has left without doing this act of justice, firstly, because Conway has charge of it, and his delays are endless owing to his slowness and neglect, and secondly, because they want this master of the ceremonies to gather the fruits of the presents from these ambassadors extraordinary.
After his return the king will spend some days in these parts and then go to Lincoln, 160 miles away.
I have exhausted my goods and myself and I cannot continue this costly travelling about, which began four months ago, after so many other calls for expenditure. The promise of the Senate that I may return home consoles me.
I have received the commands of your Serenity about the carriage and costs of letters, which I will punctually observe.
As these presents cannot go by the ordinary I will try to send them through France, so that although the ports may be closed for many days, your Excellencies may be acquainted with these important events.
Southampton, the 23rd September, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
247. To the Bailo at Constantinople.
We hear that Prince Gabor has left Transsylvania with 10,000 men and some guns. He was going towards Lower Hungary, probably to prevent the diet there and its plan to make the emperor's son his successor. We direct you to communicate this important news to the ambassadors of France, England and the States in order to impart it jointly to the Porte so that they may encourage the prince to go on, producing results highly favourable to us and the other interested parties. A declaration from the Porte that they will help him will prove most beneficial. You and the others must persuade the Caimecan to send him a written permission to act as his own advantage demands, adducing the arguments you have advanced previously, insisting that the Porte must protect his actions and ensure the crown of Hungary descending to some one dependent upon them.
Ayes, 125.Noes, 3.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Sept. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
248. To the Ambassador in England.
We are quite satisfied with your offices with the Secretary Conway about his Majesty's decisions, especially as we see the results in the secretary's answer. We direct you to cherish these good inclinations and to commend his Majesty's decision about the fleet sailing and the help to Mansfelt, as worthy of his Majesty's greatness. You will inform us without delay of what is done. Last week we sent you word of Gabor's plans. We now send you our news from the Imperial Court about that prince's movements, to the great alarm of Cæsar and his ministers, who propose to send Wallenstein against Gabor. We send you the report of the Secretary Pauluzzi in the Valtelline of the sudden advance of Feria's forces under Popenein to Dosso. This does not check our activity and we have sent 1,000 foot and two companies of horse to reinforce our arms in the Valtelline and have ordained the supply of all the victuals and munitions of war required. You will make use of this to demonstrate our steadfastness, and that we are doing more than we are bound, although we have to keep our fortresses garrisoned and our frontiers guarded. Accordingly the other princes interested in the common cause must prevent the ambitious designs of those who wish to suppress the liberty of this province and of all other princes.
You will observe the negotiations of the secretary of the French ambassador in Holland. We understand he will offer to support Mansfelt, in order to please the king and the States. You will discover the particulars and if anything else takes him to England. We also expect to hear of the arrival of the Savoyard ambassador there, as our Ambassador Morosini reports that he had decided to go. You will find out all particulars. The more frequent and diligent your advices, the better we are pleased. By these and the trouble you incur in following the Court, you increase your merits, which we duly appreciate.
That 300 ducats be granted to the Ambassador Pesaro in England for the expense of couriers and the carriage of letters.
Ayes, 125.Noes, 3.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Sept. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
249. To the Ambassador at Rome and the like to the other Courts and to the Proveditori General.
We hear that Colonel Papenein has 1,600 foot and 300 horse. They are advancing by the mountain and compelling our forces to withdraw. Popenain is at Dosso and can use the lake to obtain supplies. The allies hold the trenches and the original fort at Dosso. They ought to stand fast there, though they have a safe retreat to S. Pietro. The event was unexpected, but it has not changed our purpose to hold conquests. We have sent orders to our Proveditori General to send 1,000 foot and two companies of horse to the Valtelline immediately and to supply all necessary munitions. Our Proveditore Zorzi will have already arrived in the camp and Swiss levies continue to come in; 1,166 horse of the young Count of Mansfelt have passed into the Milanese and his infantry are beginning to march, amounting to some 4,000 men. They are said to be good troops, but they have no arms. It is said that so soon as Feria can use these men he will dismiss Berlingher and Flechstein.
From Vienna we hear that Gabor has left Transsylvania with 10,000 foot, and his army keeps growing. Wallenstein has orders to join Tilly. Although Feria does not look like taking Verua, he has ordered provisions as if he meant to winter there. The mortality in the Spanish camp continues, especially among the superior officers.
Ayes, 95.Noes, 1.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
Sept. 27.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
250. The secretary of the English ambassador came into the Collegio this morning and said:
I come by the ambassador's order to inform your Serenity that the Grisons do not seem disposed any longer to be so slow and lukewarm as in the past, but mean to undertake vigorously the complete recovery of their country, and follow his Majesty's advice, as expressed in their reply to his ambassador, which he took up and read.
The doge thanked him for the news and expressed his gratitude to the ambassador for the information, which showed the success of his operations. He asked for a copy of the reply, which the secretary promptly supplied, giving it to me, the secretary, when he left, having previously recommended the case of the Scoti in the ambassador's name. The doge said they always attached importance to the ambassador's recommendations. It was a matter for the Council of Ten, which would always do what it could to favour the ambassador, and so the secretary departed.
Christoforo Surian, secretary.
[Italian.]
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Roma,
filza.
Venetian
Archives.
251. Most Illustrious and Most Excellent Lord:
Your Excellency's assurance of the friendship and protection of the King of Great Britain for our Grison country was communicated by us to the people, who expressed their grief at the loss of King James and their joy at the prosperous accession of King Charles. We wish him a most happy reign. We rejoice at his Majesty's satisfaction over the recovery of our country. We also value his offer of protection together with the allied princes, and the requests made by your Excellency of the republic of Venice and the Marquis of Coeuvres. We rejoice at the future good of some of our subjects. We also thank you for the advice to unite for the maintenance of our country and its liberation. We recognise our obligations to the confederate powers, who have spent so much treasure and blood, while our people were the last to move and the first to withdraw. We especially thank his Majesty and the confederate powers for all they have done for us. We beg them, as we hope and trust, to preserve and augment their goodwill and help us to recover the remainder of our country. We promise that we will no longer be lukewarm and languid, but we will join with one heart and soul not only for complete recovery, but to co-operate in the plans and desires of our good friends. We beg your Excellency to thank his Majesty for his goodwill and his memory of us, which we hope he will preserve for the future. We especially thank your Excellency for the affection you have shown us, and we wish you all prosperity and success.
The 24th August, 1625.
The chiefs and councillors of the three
leagues assembled at Coire.
[Italian.]
Sept. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
252. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They are awaiting with the utmost anxiety the return of the. Brazil fleet. They speak in such a way as to show that they no longer care about the English or the Dutch. They say the forces of these realms amount to 120,000 men, sword in hand, so they do not fear invasion and in the Ocean the king has 130 armed galleons besides small ships, with 26,000 soldiers on board; the English fleet is in a lamentable state and has the plague, and may easily run into disaster very speedily. It is perfectly true that around Lisbon and Galicia they have 58 large ships, all well armed; there are others in the ports of Flanders, while the Brazil fleets number about sixty. If the Dutch and English forces perished or were enfeebled it would be a most serious matter, as nothing could resist all these forces united.
Madrid, the 29th September, 1625.
[Italian.]
Sept. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Napoli.
Venetian
Archives.
253. PIETRO VICO, Venetian Secretary at Naples, to the DOGE and SENATE.
There is no provision of sailing ships, and in order to fulfil his latest instructions to obtain all he can and send them to Spain, the Viceroy has arrested all that are in the port and common report says that he will send them to the Spanish waters.
Naples, the 30th September, 1625.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Gabriel Oxenstiern.
2 Captain Thomas Vaughan captured three ships from Calais, supposed to be Dunkirkers, the St. Peter, St. Catherine and St. John. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1625–6, page 98.
3 Francis, Duke of Alencon and of Anjou was made Duke of Brabant in February, 1582. This claim had previously been raised by James I, in 1620. See vol. xvi of this Calendar, pages 206, 207.
4 On the 17th July, Soubise with a fleet of 74 ships of La Rochelle, surprised the Dutch Squadron under Hautain in the roadstead of Olonne, burning one ship and capturing four before the Dutch admiral could get away. Le Clerc: Hist. des Provinces Unies, vol ii, page 105.
5 The Brandenburg ambassador was Floris a Merode: his credentials are dated the 10th June. State Papers, Foreign, Germany (States). He arrived on the 17th September. Rusdorf: Memoires, vol. i, page 628.
6 Thomas Aylesbury succeeded Sir John Coke as Master of Requests.