Venice
December 1625, 1-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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232-248

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'Venice: December 1625, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 232-248. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89050 Date accessed: 28 August 2014.


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December 1625

Dec. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
342. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
An ambassador of Prince Gabor has arrived here and had audience of the Caimecan two days later. I sent my secretary to pay my respects and the other ambassadors did the like. He came to inform the Sultan of the proposed marriage of his prince to Brandenburg's sister. He came to call upon me; he spoke of the warlike preparations of his master, but said he would not move unless he had the support of the princes; he asked me about the intentions of the republic.
He told me that his prince had received assurances that the diet and the movement of Wallenstein were not intended to do him any harm. If the prince suspected that the diet would treat of the appointment of Cœsar's son, he certainly would not remain idle. He had just come from the English ambassador, who advised him to speak of these matters with the Caimecan, and obtain help from the Porte to upset their plans. He could not do this as he had no orders and the Turks kept nothing secret. I told him that I thought the English ambassador's advice wise.
It is clear from what the ambassador said to me and the other ambassadors that Gabor's move on Cassonia is not to upset the diet, but to check Wallenstein and to show the allied princes that he is ready. He had orders to open himself to the English ambassador more than the others and complained to him that his king had not made up his mind after such a long time. England attributed it to the late king's death. The English, French and Dutch ambassadors seem quite satisfied of the prince's sincerity in the matter and feel sure that if he makes war on the emperor the Turks will be forced to help him, especially as the Caimecan is well disposed towards him. Accordingly they think that the princes ought to make up their minds to make a strong diversion for Caesar in Hungary by Gabor's forces, and they have written to their princes, the Transylvanian having informed England that his master will keep his force of 10,000 men on the frontier for sometime yet, after which, if the princes do not make up their minds he will disarm.
Apropos of the peace, the Caimecan remarked to me that they were not at war with the emperor and therefore could not make peace with him, and to do that he would have to leave their friends in peace. He added that what had been arranged by the commissioners in Hungary had not been done with the approbation of the Porte and had not been communicated to the Divan. In order to make sure of Sulficar Chiaus, who has great influence with the Caimecan in the matters of Hungary and Transsylvania, the ambassadors have given him 100 thalers each, and 25 to Jusuf Aga.
The Vigne of Pera, the 1st December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
343. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have spoken again to the Caimecan about the Spanish negotiations for a truce. Since the departure of Mont Albano we ambassadors have been keenly on the watch to see if any secret reply or letter came upon the matter. We have discovered nothing so far, but the English ambassador asserts that Mont Albano took a letter of Bairan Pasha to the Viceroy of Naples assuring him that if the King of Spain will send an ambassador to the Porte with worthy gifts to ask for a truce, he will certainly get it. I am trying to discover the truth; although Bairan, at his wife's instance, gave a similar letter to the Jew, Cormano, it seems unlikely that he would take such a step in face of the opposition of the Caimecan and others.
The Vigne of Pera, the 1st December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
344. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Upon the question of a northern league the English and Danish ministers with eight deputies, one for each province, and the duke, who takes Barnevelt's place, have met four times. They first produced full powers to conclude this alliance. All agree that it must be offensive and defensive, but there was a difference about the enemy, as the Danes do not want open war with the King of Spain, saying they have no pretext. On the other hand, the English and Dutch having declared want all the rest to do the same. However, they have agreed to declare the league for the liberty of the empire against those who disturb it, to last until all the princes have recovered their titles and States. The Palatine presented a paper offering his person, as he had nothing else, and praying for his restoration.
At another meeting they heard Camerarius with instructions from Sweden, who asks them to pay 10,000 foot and 3,000 horse, offering to maintain an equal number and wage war. He wants a decision before March and pay for three months in advance. They do not devote much time to this, not because they despise the support of that king, but because there is no one to treat with and reduce his terms, and they think him sufficiently taken up with the Poles. They would like to get him to supply 3 or 4,000 men to Denmark or three ships. They have not come to any decision because they want to leave room for Sweden and others also to enter the league.
The English promise to contribute 300,000 florins a month upon condition that they shall not be bound to this if they put a land force in the field, at least not to all of it. The Danish ambassadors ask for 300,000 reichs thalers a month, to support 24,000 foot and 8,000 horse. Denmark's proposals have rather excited cavilling. They speak well of your Serenity, but seeing what you are doing they merely make a simple petition of you.
The French ambassador did not take part in this meeting, but he practically states that his king will help the league with 500,000 florins a year, and he may be induced to do even more. He also lets it be understood that his king will contribute 2,000 horse to the English, if they put an army in the field; but some think this is only a device to discover the plans of the English, as they are not without some jealousy, owing to what has been said about landing in Flanders and because of so many leagues with princes of the religion.
If they will not treat directly with Gabor, I hope at least that they will keep a place for him in the league. I urge this as much as possible. They have said nothing about Mansfelt; but I have heard a hint that our league might support him in order to relieve the English.
The Hague, the 1st December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
345. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
It is true that the Duke of Buckingham brought jewels and plate with him to pawn in Amsterdam. He has sent his secretary and was to have gone himself but he refrains perhaps in order not to bruit the matter too much, though it is fairly patent seeing he has brought with him the Cavalier Meilne, keeper of the king's jewels. (fn. 1)
Letters of exchange arrived from England yesterday for 400,000 florins for Mansfelt, and the French ambassador sent his secretary to Amsterdam yesterday to arrange about the remainder. It is reported that if the two crowns continue this help they will give the King of Denmark the control of this also. It is uncertain if this will satisfy the count, who is now at Diepholt, where his soldiers live upon the country.
In the preceding despatch your Serenity noticed that the English ministers refuse to continue the contributions to Denmark if they have to raise a land force. They seem inclined to this, though it seems doubtful through lack of money. However, everything has been referred to the Prince of Orange, who will arrange with the Duke of Buckingham about the place, time and numbers. The three fleets reported are likely to be made ready soon, from what the English say; the States certainly will raise no difficulties. Every one thinks they will follow up the plans of the first, as with respect to the Mediterranean they have considered the distance, the difficulty of succour, the calms and the coasts lined with soldiers. This is not the case in Spain, where they have not known war for many years, not to speak of their plans against the gold fleet, of which they think most.
Since the return of the Spanish ships to Dunkirk nothing has happened. The States have not been able to set ships to guard the port because of the stormy winds. We hear, however, that il Granù, lieutenant-general of the artillery, sent by the Prince of Orange to inspect the position where the Infanta proposes to erect the fort of Gravelines possibly for some design of the English fleet, has been taken prisoner.
Buckingham says he will return to England in a few days. They would like him or some one else to go to France in the name of the English king about the Huguenots. The last news is bad, the Most Christian having expressed a wish to buy some of Houtim's ships, although the Savoyard ambassador wanted them to go to the Mediteranean. The Dutch will decide nothing till after the offices of Aerssens.
With Buckingham the Ambassador Carleton is recalled, being destined for the office of Vice-Chamberlain when Bristol receives his expected punishment, and now the league is concluded the king wants his advice, as no one is better informed than he, owing to his eleven years' residence at this court. He leaves in his stead his nephew John Carleton with the title of secretary, (fn. 2) until his successor, Mr. Chelegre (fn. 3) arrives.
When Carleton called to take leave he expressed the intention of his king to see this thing through and hoped your Excellencies would do the same. The ambassador answered by mentioning your Serenity's expenditure for years, your promises fulfilled and the risks you run.
The Hague, the 1st December, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
346. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador of the States had his first audience of his Majesty the day before yesterday, merely informing him of the league between his masters and the King of Great Britain and inviting him to enter it, and become its chief. The king answered in general terms and seemed pleased at the decision of the Dutch; he said he would confer with his Council.
They are scandalised here at the departure of the English fleet from Cadiz; they blame the commander and augur badly for the success of that great naval force.
Another brief pamphlet has appeared, answering the warnings of the Jesuits and a book about the alliance of this Crown with the Turks and heretics. (fn. 4) Those unacquainted with the facts cannot imagine the good which such pamphlets do among a people so curious and anxious to understand and know.
Poissy, the 2nd December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 3.
Cons. di X.
Parti Comuni.
Venetian
Archives.
347. In the Council of Ten.
In conformity with the request of M. Antonio Correr and Anzolo Contarini, ambassadors elect to the King of Great Britain, and Zorzi Zorzi, ambassador elect to the States, that they may send a secretary to the Catholic ambassador, once only, to ask for passports for their journey through Flanders.
Ayes, 14.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Dec. 4.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
348. With regard to the claim of Ralph Scimes, English merchant, not to pay the Cottimo of Damascus for some indigo and other goods, that the matter be referred to our Collegio, who, after hearing our fiscal advocates and the Proveditori of the said Cottimo, as well as what Scimes has to say, shall decide what is reasonable, their decision having as much force as if made by this Council.
Ayes, 128.Noes, 2.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Dec. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
349. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
With the absence of the duke the court here seems incapable of decision or of maintaining its splendour. News has reached the French ambassador of the arrangements for investing la Rochelle, arousing a very strong feeling in the king and every one here. The ambassador has seen his Majesty and without denying the resolution assured him that the Most Christian desires peace and will grant it to the Rochellese if they do their duty, and he will always listen to the good offices of the king here. He also asserted his master's intention to pursue the war in Italy; Bassompierre will levy 10,000 Swiss to penetrate to the centre of the State of Milan if Venice consents. The ambassador told me these particulars.
Other representations have considerably softened as they do not insist upon the absolute rigour of the treaty promises about the Catholics but only to give the Most Christian some way of putting himself right with the pope.
They also offer more than before for the common service. I do not find whither this will lead, but the king has expressed his determination to have his ships back, promising to show himself a good brother to the Most Christian. They constantly speak of getting back these ships and of helping la Rochelle. The French use every blandishment and by showing good will, promising war in Italy, and taking advantage of their poverty here while they are committed against the Spaniards, they hope to achieve their purpose and capture la Rochelle. In their fear of some succour they announce that in any case the Most Christian will ruin that port, by sinking ships, which he will willingly sacrifice to win the place. They also say that the Most Christian will look upon covert assistance as an open affront and even threaten intrigues with the Catholics. They seem inclined here to let private individuals help the Rochellese, who would readily undertake the task, and only the lethargic nature of this people may prevent it being done.
Meanwhile the Catholics are in a worse condition, because the king has ordered the execution of the laws; withdrawing some contrary orders to the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and the pursuivants are left free to act. As regards the confiscation of the goods of Catholics, amounting to two-thirds for those called recusants, his Majesty has ordained that he will employ nothing as in the past in private gifts, but it shall remain in his privy purse, and he will spend everything on their present emergencies and in the defence of the realm.
His Majesty has held the Council upon the affairs of Ireland, and laid before them the execution of the laws against the Catholics and the defence of that island. It seems that they propose to show moderation towards the Catholic faith, because that climate is not adapted to such subjection and they would have to maintain 30 ships for the defence of that kingdom.
With a like idea they propose to hold a parliament in Scotland and have asked the Scots to maintain at their own cost and for their own safety twenty ships of from 200 to 300 tons burthen with 3,000 foot and 1,000 sailors. The Scots pleaded poverty, so the king said he would accept a voluntary contribution, and for the purpose of maintaining that fleet he will leave them 50,000l. sterling granted him by Scotland for the expenses of his coronation and for his journey to that kingdom, which they claim.
In carrying out the edict of revocation customary in that kingdom of all the things done by his Majesty's predecessors there, an important difficulty has arisen, because the order was not as usual. To quiet the resentment of those ardent spirits, his Majesty has ordained that the Council of Scotland shall come to court to discuss the necessary expedients with him.
It is known that the duke was caught in a storm and lost two ships. We hear nothing of his negotiations. The Dunkirk fleet has returned to its own coast. The damage done to the Dutch amounts to 2,000,000 florins, but the Flemings behaved with Spanish cunning, not doing the smallest harm to the English or the Scots.
They propose to renew the blockade of Dunkirk, and secure all ports with the two fleets of Scotland and Holland, but they do not move as promptly as the situation requires.
With the certitude of war on la Rochelle and the suspicions of the Most Christian about the duke's journey, they say he will not go to France, though I am assured he is not countermanded, but actually ordered to go first to that court.
There is some secret plan to send back across the sea the principal attendants of the queen, but I do not know if they will do it soon.
From their conduct it is argued that parliament will soon be summoned. The duke's opponents are not made justices of the peace but sheriffs, a more important office in civil and criminal matters. The seals have been given to Sir Thomas Coventry, a dependant of the duke.
This is all the news at court except the birth of a first son (fn. 5) to the Duke of Buckingham, to his Majesty's great joy. They have sent a gentleman to Holland with the news. On the 29th November they celebrated his Majesty's 25th birthday, and I send your Serenity and your Excellencies my best wishes for the new year, in the hope that the blessings of peace and prosperity may flourish in it.
Kingston, the 5th December, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
350. To the Ambassador in England.
We have frequently expressed our wish to you to unite minds and wills for the benefit of the common cause. We direct you to pass offices for this purpose and we are sure that you will show your habitual prudence. We observe with great regret the dissatisfaction of the French ambassador extraordinary at that court and how the English are offended at his proposals, because such misunderstandings cannot fail to have the worst consequences. We have informed our ambassadors in France of all that you have advised, so that they may support the sound views of the queen mother. We direct you to advocate the mildness and tact which are necessary in order to bring those monarchs to a perfect understanding, that being our chief object, to prevent the overthrow of further progress to the common weal. You will act so as to show the excellent disposition of the republic, and point out the advantage of a union between the two kings to Germany, France itself and Italy.
We observe from your letters that they waver greatly at that court about the Huguenots in France, for which we are very sorry. You will observe what they propose to do and at the same time continue the good offices we have already enjoined with the reserve necessary in such matters. We especially wish to know what happens to Soubise. You will speak of the need for the Huguenots to receive peace from the king upon terms befitting subjects who profess loyalty.
Your letters of the 3rd ult. have just reached us through France. We are highly satisfied with what you have done to prevent the efforts to reinstate the Master of the Ceremonies. You will have received ours of a week ago, and see that we agree with your advice about getting Lewkenor released by the action of our republic.
We hear from Spain in letters of the 9th that 80 English ships have anchored in the Bay of Cadiz and taken a fort and a small island. We await further details, especially after the news you send that the Chiaus assured that court that the pirates will be ready when they wish to use them. For your particular instruction we send you a copy of some paragraphs from the letters from Spain on this subject.
Ayes, 150.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Dec. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
351. To the SECRETARY SCARAMELLI in Savoy.
We hear from England this week of quarrels between that king and the Most Christian about the Catholics, Soubise, the French of the religion and especially about the queen's household. We are extremely sorry, as we hoped all disputes between the two crowns would be put aside owing to the serious harm they inflict on the common cause. We direct you to inform the duke about it, insisting upon its gravity and adding that as we have directed our ambassadors in France and England to make representations in favour of peace and concord, especially to the queen mother, we hope he will do the same, in order to cherish a perfect union between the two crowns, and also to appease the religious disturbances in France, so that the Most Christian may act with more advantage in Italy, remarking to the duke that it will also be advantageous to pass some offices with the Ambassador Wake.
Ayes, 145.Noes, 1.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Dec. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
352. To the Ambassador at Rome.
The papal nuncio in France has stated that if the English attack the Spaniards he will say nothing against it, and the pope is not inclined to lean to the Spanish side. As news reaches us from Spain that 80 English galleons have anchored in the Bay of Cadiz and occupied a fort and island there, you will keep on the watch, without speaking of the matter, to see what impression this news makes on the pope.
Ayes, 90.Noes, 0.Neutral, 9.
[Italian.]
Dec. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
353. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Yesterday being the usual day of audience, I went to see the pope. After discussing various matters, he asked me what news there was of the English fleet. I said we had heard of its sailing, but nothing since; there were various rumours about it, but nothing certain. The pope remarked that people said it might come to these waters. He did not think they would find it easy to land, as they could so easily be stopped, especially as large ships would have to keep a long way from the shore. He was not afraid for the state of the Church, as he had so many subjects, who would soon gather at the coast, arms in hand. Still less did he see what other notable enterprise that fleet could attempt; as landing was difficult and so would the holding of any position be so far away from their supports. Such fleets often broke up of themselves.
Rome, the 6th December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
354. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A ship that recently arrived at Leghorn from Ireland reports that eight days before off Cavo Palla in Spain she fell in with four English merchant ships and learned from them that the English fleet had taken Cadiz and held it, and a part of the fleet was sent to Malaga, where they found fourteen ships returned from the recovery of Baia, which they burned, including Ossuna's best ship. The capture of Cadiz is confirmed by another ship at Leghorn, which left Marseilles on the 27th. However, they do not believe it here, as they have letters from Lyons of the 22nd saying that the Dutch, not the English fleet, made an attempt upon Cadiz and was repulsed.
Florence, the 6th December, 1425.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
355. MODERANTE SCARAMELLI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The French ambassador called upon me and in discussing many things he expressed his dislike of the negotiations opened by the English ambassador for a marriage between the Prince of Denmark and one of the Infantas here. He said if they considered the matter it ought to be done by the intermission of the Most Christian, who had already approached the duke on the subject. He said that Madame in writing to the Queen of England had merely addressed her in French as "my sister, the Queen of Great Britain," which they did not like there, claiming that they should communicate with each other in different terms, but the princess here will not yield a jot.
Turin, the 7th December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
356. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
At the frequent meetings between the ministers and deputies here they have practically arranged a league of which I enclose a copy. The deputies have not yet signed it, but they will doubtless do so. I expect there are some secret articles which are not yet arranged; probably they chiefly concern the Palatine, as the articles say nothing about him in particular.
The English ministers here speak of returning so soon as the wind serves, having practically completed their most esssential negotiations. They are now considering the contributions for Mansfelt. for which the French ambassador has a large sum ready.
The English will do the same without availing themselves of the jewels for which a gentleman will remain here and proceed with more caution after Buckingham's departure.
They write from Brussels that Spinola has been summoned to Spain because of the attack on Cadiz. Some say he will go by sea on the seven Dunkirk galleons which are to go to Spain; others say he will try his hardest not to go far away from the Infanta's favour. The capture of Granùis confirmed.
The fate of the captains present at the surrender of Baiia is not yet decided. The troops were fined a single pay; this has roused a great disturbance, almost a mutiny. The English appealed to Buckingham. A large part has gone to Denmark with Mansfelt's men.
The directors of the West India Company have 20 ships ready to join Admiral Lam, the success of the English fleet and the delay of the plate fleet having greatly encouraged them.
The Hague, the 8th December, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
357. First sketch for articles of a league between the Kings of Great Britain and Denmark and the States.
1. The league to be for the liberty of the empire and to last until the states and goods unjustly taken are restored.
2. Denmark will maintain a force of 8 to 10,000 foot and 7 to 8,000 horse, with the constant help of the allies.
3. England will pay 100,000 florins per month of 32 days at Hamburg.
4. He will also keep a fleet at sea.
5. The States will contribute 50,000 florins per month of 32 days, have a fleet to help the English and an army to help Denmark.
6. No one shall leave the confederation before the empire is freed from violence and oppression.
7. No ally shall listen to the enemy except in writing, which shall be submitted before reply to the ministers of the allies at the Hague.
8. If anyone is attacked in his own States the others must help him.
9. All these articles are binding upon Denmark in so far as the above contributions are supplied.
10. The Most Christian shall be invited to enter the league or to assist it.
11. The King of Sweden having expressed his good will, shall be invited to enter and be assisted as agreed.
12. Venice and Savoy shall be asked to co-operate in this good work.
13. Similarly the electors, princes, free towns and others of Germany.
14. Also Prince Gabor.
15. This alliance shall not prejudice the one which the King of England has recently concluded with the States.
The above articles were arranged by the English and Danish ambassadors and the deputies of the States in accordance with the powers conferred upon them; the ratification may wait until the 10th March next or sooner if possible.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Svizzeri.
Venetian
Archives.
358. GIROLAMO CAVAZZA, Venetian Secretary with the SWISS, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have sent the Baron of Spietz the reply given by your Excellencies to the request of the English ambassador on his behalf to command the regiment of 3,000 Bernese in the service of the Duke of Savoy. I thought that when the English ambassador went to Berne he should speak about this and find out what they intended about granting troops.
Zurich, the 10th December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
359. To the Ambassador in England.
After the English ambassador had had a long audience of the Duke of Savoy, he sent his secretary to England apparently to ask that the fleet might be sent to the Mediterranean and to pay 3,000 Bernese until the end of the war, while it appears that his Highness is dissatisfied with that king. Wake stays on there, apparently without important negotiations, though he has suggested a marriage with the King of Denmark's son. We desire you to find out whether the ambassador has orders to stay there. We have understood that he will wait for the reply brought by his secretary from England and to have orders for the levy of the 3,000 Bernese. We have sent you these particulars so that you may be able to discover the actual and essential truth.
Ayes, 83.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Dec. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
360. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
Rumours that Buckingham going to France instead of the Hague. Apparently he is glad to get away from the English court, to give room to any ill humours against him at the meeting of parliament. It is also with the king's consent. You will find if any other motives bring him. We gather that the States and England are showing reserve in the matter of the Huguenots, rather than advising the latter to submit reasonably, which would be the best course. You will continue your offices to that end. If Buckingham goes to the Hague, you will find out what instructions he has about Gabor and observe what they do, advocating an understanding between those northern powers and Gabor.
News of the withdrawal of the Spaniards in the Milanese and the progress of the Duke of Savoy. The Spaniards claim an advantage near Chiavenna, though both sides suffered. Heavy snow has impeded the operations of the league, but they are securing their position.
That these advices be also sent to England.
Ayes, 83.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Dec. 12.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
361. To the Ambassador in England.
By the enclosed memorial presented by Gio. Battista Bentio and Gio. Chizzali called Bonfatini for themselves and their partners, you will see their request that on the arrival of an English ship called the Faith in those ports, upon which they have laded their capital, you will see that is assured, as it must afterwards be consigned to their agents. We therefore direct you to see to this, so that they may profit by your protection. We feel sure that you will meet with no difficulty and shall wait to hear from you what you have done.
Ayes, 83.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Dec. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
362. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Margrave of Baden, after treating with the Ambassador Wake in Geneva, has written to the Palatine's agent here and Wake has also written to the king from Turin. The agent himself told me, with much confidence, that his business consists in making a levy of 10,000 men to create a diversion in Alsace and Burgundy in favour of the public cause and for the recovery of his country. He shows how easily this can be done if the Most Christian bears the major portion of the expense and the King of Great Britain a lesser share. He points out the ease of making levies in Switzerland and in Burgundy if France consents, the Swiss being bound by alliance. His son will help and so will Wirtemberg; Nuremberg and Strasburg will favour it, and with his fortress of Ocbergh as a base and the artillery he has there, he can easily take the field. He would agree also to return the money after his restoration. France might lean to this for various reasons, and with their plans against the Huguenots it might be to their advantage to be friends with a Lutheran prince, which would help to divide that party which the House of Austria keeps united for its own purposes. This attempt would strike at the nest of the Austrians, as it would mean war in their war magazine for Italy and prevent succours reaching Milan, while they would engage two fresh powers against Spain, the Swiss and the French, who would be forced to support the undertaking from being so near, while the diversion would help the Duke of Savoy and the other plans for the Valtelline.
I do not know what they will decide here, as the king is away hunting and the ministers are at their houses, but they detest anything which increases their expenditure even upon what they approve of. The agent has written to his master and to the King of Denmark about the importance of this design so that they may get this design carried out.
Kingston, the 12th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
363. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Various advices show that the fleet has done something, but they keep things so secret that I have not succeeded in obtaining full particulars. They have made some attempt upon Cadiz, but were driven off after causing great alarm to the Spaniards. They propose now, it is said, to dominate the sea, capturing or burning ships, but at court they seem to know nothing for certain and are waiting for confirmation. The king has begun to speak of providing succours and of equipping fifty ships.
We know nothing about the Duke of Buckingham beyond his welcome by the States. Some imagine that his negotiations are not proceeding to his satisfaction and that the King of Denmark, with all his preparations, only considers himself the enemy of the Duke of Bavaria in his capacity as chief of the Catholic league, and is unlikely to take up any interests outside the circle of Lower Saxony. I must let events show whether this is put abroad to favour Sweden here at the expense of Denmark.
It seems that the duke has written to his Majesty about the orders not to go on to France before coming back to the court, pointing out the necessity for making that journey promptly. Despite all uncertainty they feel sure that the duke will go to the Most Christian, induced by the secret hopes of his friends and the dependants of this Crown that that monarch will gratify him in his designs, as they consider all that the French ambassador here proffers mere deception.
They say the duke attaches importance to this journey as a demonstration of his devotion to the public service and to obtain peace for the Rochellese with the idea of establishing the designs or consulting with parliament about the preservation of la Rochelle, upon which his salvation certainly depends. The king does not evince ill feeling to the French ambassador, but does not fail to let him know that Soubise will be the instrument of the succour and that the fleet after attacking Spain may easily afford help to la Rochelle on its return.
The ambassador not only submits to the presence of Soubise here, but has practically suggested an accomodation to the king, though nothing is actually being done. In order that the Most Christian may not be diverted from his design, I think the ambassador assures him of their ill will here and at the same time advises them of the impossibility of securing the result.
To the queen's complaint about lack of money and provision they have supplied her with money and the king gave her jewels to the value of 80,000 crowns.
To the ambassador's offices about the Catholics the king replied mildly that he did not wish to go to extremes, the last word rested with him and he was not sanguinary. Appearances belie their words, not indeed about life but property. The king's Council has replied asking the ambassador to point out to the Most Christian that the present proceedings do not contravene the promises of the treaty.
The ambassador has preferred fresh demands for Soubise's ships, but the king asked for time to consult the laws of the country, the law of nations and the rights of the English admiralty. The ambassador has power to restore the royal ship in the Most Christian's fleet, but he delays out of consideration for the greater security of his master. He asks for leave to recross the sea, considering his offices useless owing to the king's decisions and Buckingham's hopes of operating in France without his assistance.
The Dunkirkers command these waters and the passage between Dover and Calais, where they have taken an ordinary of Antwerp with your Serenity's letters of the 7th November. Those of the 14th also have not reached me, because all the letters of this week have been taken to the Secretary Cuch, and I have no certitude of the orders sent to me. With this uncertainty I am sending the duplicates by France.
I hear that the Spanish agent has orders to leave without visiting the king to say adieu.
Kingston, the 12th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
364. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Aerssens has asked for the return of the 20 ships; but they will not make up their minds before they know about the Rochellese. The Savoyard ambassador and the Duke of Guise urge that they may be sent to the Mediterranean if peace ensues with the Huguenots.
The English ambassador to your Serenity now in Piedmont has sent his secretary to England. This gentleman (fn. 6) has called upon me, as I knew him when I resided at that court. He takes the news of the relief of Verua and the withdrawal of the Spaniards. He will try and get the promised ships sent to the Mediterranean, and will show letters from the duke giving the reasons why the ambassador is staying, so as not to abandon these most important interests.
Paris, the 12th December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
365. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have tried to learn their views here about the constable. The Duke of Savoy wants to monopolise French help for himself and tries to make them mistrust him, and this makes the constable wish to withdraw. I have spoken to the cardinal on the subject, pointing out the harm of such a step. He told me that it certainly would not happen from the affairs of the English. I observe that hate is firmly rooted in the cardinal's heart and he cannot bring himself to believe that the English will do much. He laughs at Buckingham's journey to Holland and his proposals, and does not expect much from the English fleet. He says the king is poor without the help of parliament, and that will never meet because of Buckingham, who very nearly came to grief through the last one.
Paris, the 12th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 13. Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
366. MODERANTE SCARAMELLI, Venetian Secretary in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
An express has reached his Highness from Nice that five feluccas from Barcelona are taking word to Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Genoa and Corsica to arm themselves, because the English fleet, which accomplished nothing at Cadiz, has reembarked its men, passed the Strait and entered the Mediterranean with 150 sail. The English ambassador remarks that as the king's fleet only consisted of 105 ships, the others must be Dutch, who have joined them as arranged. When further news comes he will go straight to Nice, as they must afford facilities to that fleet at Villefranche, and he will have to arrange with the commanders what to do in conjunction with the duke for the surprise of Genoa, and to see if the French wish to have a share or if they must act by themselves. They certainly do not want this fully equipped fleet, provided for any enterprise they wish, to enter without doing anything. They propose to urge the duke to return to the western Riviera.
Turin, the 13th December, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
367. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Since the departure of Monte Albano the imperial resident has not taken any steps about the truce. All the ambassadors think that he will push the matter warmly. The French ambassador told me he had written home about these negotiations, suggesting that they should use the Spaniards' own means to upset them, money. The English ambassador agrees with me that there is no danger of a truce at present, but we cannot say the negotiations are dissolved. He told me he had received no reply upon this or other matters, and attributed it to the plague.
It appears that Diacmemet Pasha of Sulistoria arrested Friar Basil with letters from Monte Albano and the Viceroy of Naples to the General of the Poles, to induce the Cossacks, by promises of money, to continue their raids. Sulficar Chiaus showed the letter to the English ambassador, who urged him to take it at once to the Caimecan, but he is afraid of offending the said Acmemet, who took away the money given to the friar by Monte Albano for the purpose, and so wants to keep the matter secret for some time. But I will try and arrange that the Caimecan shall see the letter.
The Vigne of Pera, the 14th December, 1425.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
368. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Prince Gabor's ambassador (fn. 7) has not yet said a word to the Caimecan about the diet of Hungary or the emperor's intention to get it to nominate his son for that crown, despite the advice of the ambassadors, so that he might get help from the Porte to prevent it, and England's offer to perform the office with the Caimecan himself. The ambassador says his prince has heard nothing of any such intention of the emperor. I have spoken to the other ambassadors on the subject. France and England have written home very frankly about the prince's sincerity, urging their masters to prompt and favourable decisions and pointing out the advantage of such a diversion. England has promised the Transsylvanian to give him their decision within three months, while the latter undertakes that the prince will maintain his force of 10,000 men until next May. Apparently, however, the prince will not make war without some help from the others, and he shows great respect for the emperor, indeed the French resident at Vienna advises their ambassador here that the prince, to prove his loyalty to the emperor, sent him the letters written to him by the English and Dutch ambassadors here, urging him to make war, which his Majesty had published.
The Vigne of Pera, the 14th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
369. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The league between England, Denmark and the States was arranged as reported, but not signed till yesterday. There was some difficulty because the States wished to sign as the equals of the kings, but ultimately they waived this claim. After this declaration, Buckingham, in the presence of the deputies, tore up the paper containing the signatures of the English ministers in the first line and those of the Danes in the second, saying he would grant what they wished as a favour. They then signed, in the first line Buckingham, the Danish ambassadors and one deputy; in the second the Earl of Holland, the other Danish ambassador and one deputy, and so on.
I do not think the league so well established as is desirable, as Denmark still asks for 1,000,000 florins a month, including the 300,000 florins he offers from his own purse, and yet they have only provided 350,000. They have left until the 20th March for ratification, as in the meantime ambassadors from England and Denmark will go to France to urge that king to contribute 100,000 florins a month. Other ministers will be sent to the princes of Germany, the Margrave of Brandenburg and others to induce them to supply something to help satisfy Denmark. Meanwhile I believe that king will continue the war, relying upon the contributions of England and the States alone and Mansfelt's diversion. The league contains secret articles; one that they will not lay down their arms before the Palatine is restored; a second that the English shall be discharged of their obligations to Denmark in proportion to the land force which they provide, expected to consist at first of 8,000 foot.
They would like your Serenity to contribute to the 80,000 thalers a month, and Buckingham and Carleton have strongly represented the matter to me at more than one meeting, saying that it could be done quietly and need not begin until Gabor has taken the field towards May or June and would only last until November, as this year we shall see how things are going. I said the burden on your Excellencies was already too heavy, pointing out the fresh expenses upon the fleet, the leagues, Mansfelt and so forth. The States have not yet approached me on the subject of Gabor, as they recognise the reasonableness of our attitude.
The Hague, the 15th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
370. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
To-day the Duke of Buckingham and the other English ambassadors have taken leave in the Assembly of the States. They will not start directly owing to the wind and the news that the Dunkirkers are watching for them at sea. They have written to England for more ships to secure their passage, and the States have ordered them to the coast of Flanders. They say a gentleman has just arrived post from England, but as he left the court a fortnight ago I think he only comes on private affairs about the birth of a son to Buckingham. The ministers of the two crowns will provide Mansfelt with 800,000 florins for two months.
The French have applied to the States for six of Houtim's ships, but the Dutch refused owing to the lack of ships and so forth.
The Duke of Buckingham informed me afterwards that they had recalled the English ships serving against the Rochellese, and they do not wish that place to fall on any account. This corresponds with the action of the States, and I have written to France for information.
I remarked that the common service required a united France, and the influence of the King of England and the duke's advice might confer this boon upon Christendom.
The Hague, the 15th December, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Sir Henry Mildmay, Master of the Jewel House.
2 Sir Dudley Carleton had three nephews, sons of his brother George; Dudley, George and John. Manning and Bray: Hist. of Surrey, vol. i., page 460. It was Dudley who succeeded him in the Netherlands.
3 Sir Robert Killigrew.
4 The reply written by Nicholas Harstein to the Misteria Politica; which had appeared early in the year. Mercure Francais (Richer), vol. xi, pages 34–99.
5 Charles Villiers, born on the 27th November. He died on the 26th March, 1627.
6 Anthony Hales.
7 Roe gives his name as Paul Kereztessy. Negotiations of Sir Thomas Roe, page 478.