Venice
December 1625, 16-31

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1913

Pages

248-264

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: December 1625, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 248-264. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89051 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

December 1625

Dec. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
371. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
There are two leading questions, each of which involves consequences of the highest importance, now under consideration at this court, the adjustment with the English and the affairs of the Rochellese, both much more important than they are inclined to believe here and sufficient to bring the affairs of state to ruin. However, the case is not desperate.
The Savoyard ambassador has received letters from the Earl of Carlisle inviting him to England. I fancy this will be the best way of settling the differences between the two kings. He has pointed out to the cardinal the dangers that France may incur from that quarter as well as the advantages, and tried to induce him to send a courteous invitation to Buckingham. A fresh letter from Buckingham, written in a very short manner and not showing him sufficient honour, increased his old standing dislike, but the ambassador made him desire glory more than revenge; the cardinal admitted the force of his arguments and has endeavoured to impress the king also. His Majesty is not altogether pleased; his sentiment is something that he either cannot or will not explain. He recognises that the necessity of his affairs summons the duke to France, he sees that his own personal feelings cannot be allowed free play, he sees what hopes the Huguenots will have, what advantage the Spaniards, what prejudice his own plans and what ruin the public cause may suffer if the duke does not come. On the other hand he fears that the visit may disturb his domestic peace and freedom, may encourage wishes which will subsequently give rise to suspicion, mistrust and worse hatred. Nevertheless he has yielded to the strong representations of the queen mother and agreed to send a person on purpose to England with letters to his ambassador, with instructions for everything that is desired. Accordingly the letters were drawn up by the cardinal himself in the presence of your Serenity's ambassador and the papal nuncio, no other ministers being informed and no one else except the Duke of Chevreuse, who has always been engaged in this matter in which he is interested for several reasons.
With the utmost secrecy they decided to send thither the elder Botrò (fn. 1) , a servant of the queen mother and consequently a dependant of the cardinal, a friend of Buckingham and who knows the secrets of the Cabinet and the intentions of the Duke of Chevreuse and of the queen herself. No better man for the post could be chosen, as he will leave nothing unsaid to induce the duke to come and ensure him a cordial welcome. They are making copies of his letters and instructions, and I feel sure he will start to-morrow if the king consents, for his Majesty does not yet know that they have decided to send. I have suggested to the cardinal that Botrò's intimacy with Chevreuse may displease his Majesty, but he assured me that he would induce the king to approve.
Accordingly nothing remains to be done upon this highly important business, which has kept all right thinking men on tenter hooks these last days. It was reported that Buckingham stated in Holland that he did not intend to suffer the Rochellese to be destroyed; that he hopes in this way to put himself right with parliament and the people, and he will certainly assist Soubise. They attribute a great part of the duke's ill will to the French ambassador at the Hague, who is said to have almost threatened him about the journey to France, and this made him change his mind after it was reported here that he would come to give the king every satisfaction and to arrange the steps to be taken in conjunction with the other princes against the Austrians and Spaniards.
Paris, the 16th December, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Napoli.
Venetian1 Archives.
372. PIER ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary at Naples, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I hear at this moment that the viceroy has imprisoned the English merchants trading in this city, sequestrating all their possessions, amounting to a considerable sum, although there are only four houses of that nation.
Naples, the 16th December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
373. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The cardinal has just informed me that the king will on no account consent to Botrò going to England; he would like to see me on the matter to decide upon this most important question, suggesting that if the Ambassador of Savoy would undertake the task and leave as soon as possible, everything could easily be adjusted with every, satisfaction to the king. I am going now to speak to this ambassador and thence I shall go on to Caliot, whence I will send all particulars.
Paris, the 17th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 17.
Misc.
Cod. No. 64.
Venetian
Archives.
374. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A courier has come from Spain this week with news of the attempt made by the English under Cadiz with a loss of men and guns. I have heard that the English did not go on purpose for that undertaking, but made the attempt, being driven by a storm.
Vienna, the 17th December, 1625.
[Italian; copy.]
Dec. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
375. To the Ambassador in England.
The Ambassador Contarini informs us of the arrival of the Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Holland at the Hague and their negotiations. When calling upon him they asked if he had instructions to take a part in what concerned the public weal, and urged him to write about this. We sent you a copy of his reply, so that if the ambassadors have returned you may speak in conformity. We have expressed our opinion about the disputes with Blenville, that is to say with France. We only aim at uniting them and removing shadows, and we can add no more.
A week ago we recommended to you the interests of Gio. Battista Bentio and Gio. Chizzali, called Bonfadini, and other owners so that their goods on the English ship The Faith may be secured for them and consigned to their agents. We now learn that this ship has arrived in England, and we direct you to perform such offices as you consider opportune with the ministers and the king himself, if necessary.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Dec. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
376. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
Commend his operations, especially the confidential way in which he spoke to the ambassadors extraordinary of England; he will maintain these relations and keep up good understanding between those ministers and the French ambassador in particular and other representatives of the northern powers, as their opponents will certainly try to upset the negotiations. So much in reply to his letters of the 24th ult.
Desire particulars of the prospect of France and England helping Denmark and Mansfelt. He made quite the right reply to the offices of Buckingham and Holland. He will continue the same policy, thanking the ambassadors for their confidence and expressing esteem for their king; our league with France and Savoy is working for practically the same objects as the one they suggest; we must not give the enemy time to stir up suspicion and dissension. We have great expenses in the Valtelline, in our own state and at sea, so nothing more can be desired of us. Such ideas will convince those ministers of the sincerity of the republic. He will pass a similar office with the Prince of Orange. He will thank the English ambassadors for the remark that the republic may always rely upon the naval forces of the English and Dutch.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Dec. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
377. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The dealings of the king here with the French ambassador constantly accumulate worse consequences. The king is labouring eagerly to secure peace for the Rochellese, pointing out the chance the Most Christian has of winning great advantage and offering, I understand, to help the conquest of Navarre with his fleet and 10,000 foot, the Most Christian employing the army being prepared against the Huguenots as well as the Huguenots themselves. The French ambassador told me that the English desire the peace of France from imperiousness and not out of consideration. It was easy to talk of Navarre, but difficult to carry into effect. They could not carry on so many wars beyond the mountains; that beyond the Alps sufficed without crossing the Pyrenees. The English succumb to their wishes, but do not measure the difficulties. France wants no help, but is preparing to make adjustments for others.
The ambassador told me that there is still some mention of the peace of la Rochelle, but they demand that the town and people shall place themselves practically at the discretion of the Most Christian. Contrary to the rumours of disunion among the Huguenots, the English declare that all protest their intention to stand or fall with la Rochelle. The Secretary Conway told me that the designs against the Rochellese keep taking more definite shape, but they will serve to open a way to the intrigues of the Spaniards.
In this state of affairs even worse incidents have occurred. In Falmouth are Soubise's ships, including the one claimed by the Most Christian. There also are the ships of the French fleet under Manti to keep an eye on Soubise. The Governor of Falmouth ordered Manti to withdraw from the port, but he would not comply, saying he would act when he saw the order of the King of Great Britain. The matter went no further, but Soubise's ships have withdrawn further into the port, the ship claimed to a position protected from the sea but exposed to loss. The French ships followed them, but were compelled to retire by force. Thus what they permitted to a rebel like Soubise they would not allow to the Most Christian, his Majesty's own brother. The worst is that when Soubise's soldiers land they go about fully armed, while those of the king are disarmed the moment they set foot on shore. But worst of all in the ambassador's eyes, Soubise's squadron has been increased to twenty ships and has left that port for another. (fn. 2) This means that he is at liberty to do what he likes to succour la Rochelle at a time when Manti is left with only two ships, as he came with seven Dutch ones, which have withdrawn by order of the States and the Prince of Orange on the plea of the necessity of collecting a fleet against the Dunkirkers, owing to the losses before Dunkirk. This act is attributed to Buckingham's offices, and they consider that the affront comes from England as much as from the States; it also coincides with the arrival of deputies from la Rochelle at London, though they do not know what their business may be.
The ambassador has seen the king about these fresh incidents, remonstrating strongly and firmly demanding his master's ship. When the king said he must obtain information, with other evasions amounting to a refusal, the ambassador told him that if they kept the ship his master would not consider him a friend, but would take it as an act of hostility. The king said he would not take such words from him and would only believe it by the express order of the Most Christian. Your Serenity may judge how such an audience terminated, and I do not know what they will decide here. The ambassador, with equal warmth, is preparing to write to France, telling them that matters are hopeless here and advising them to side with the Spaniards, with inexpressible contempt for the forces of England and a corresponding disparagement of those of France. In this respect they are both alike, as both sides are guided more by private passion than by what the sovereigns probably desire in their hearts.
This ambassador occupies a leading position and is highly esteemed by the Most Christian. He seems well disposed towards the public service. He belongs to the party of the queen mother and the cardinal, but formerly he followed Luynes. He took part in the conquest of Bearn, in the war against the Huguenots, in arranging those differences through the mediation of the English, and in these circumstances and in this kingdom he is unlikely to prove an instrument of good. He himself told me his views. I tried to dissuade him from taking steps calculated to create mistrust between the kings, and pointed out the advantages of friendship. The chief thing was to commit the king against the Spaniards and not leave them a free field everywhere, but I made little or no impression upon him.
Kingston, the 19th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
378. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Secretary Conway read me a report of the doings of the fleet, the storm, with the loss of many skiffs and of a ship which went down with 120 men (fn. 3) ; their gathering again and entering the Bay of Cadiz after debating an attack on Seville, which all opposed in favour of Cadiz.
The English made two landings, one of two regiments under the Earl of Essex, which followed the Spaniards too closely and had to withdraw; the other of a larger force which captured a fort in the middle of the island held by about 100 men, which surrendered on terms after losing half their numbers. They captured 12 guns and many munitions. They afterwards burned all they could and withdrew in order. They claim to have lost only about 100 men in all, of whom forty were drowned. One Dutch ship was damaged by gunshot, and as it could not leave with the others, they burned it. Of seven Spanish galleys in Santa Maria they sank three and four escaped beyond the bridge of Cadiz with many vessels. The Spaniards sank other ships to preserve their vessels and prevent the fleet entering. They only captured three ships, one of which has come to Plymouth laden with wool, grain, indigo and dye woods. One hears of no greater designs than to remain at sea, off Lisbon, and prevent the Plate fleet from entering. Four rich ships arrived from Brazil shortly before, but the richest of all was lost before entering the port. The fleet had gone for water to the islands of Baiona. Some say that the English losses were greater and that they have edited the news they publish. There remains the plan of attacking Sanlugar, but it is asserted that the fleet will more probably proceed to le Terzere. Their notion of a cruise in the Mediterranean appears to have cooled, owing to the danger of the season and from having no safe port of repair.
The Spaniards, although in great alarm, celebrated the departure of the fleet with many rejoicings. Conway told me that the fleet is victualled for six months and will not return before another puts to sea.
The ships which accompanied the duke and returned have been sent back to fetch him. He will come to court, where his presence is considered necessary, and that he himself shall give an account of what he has done. One hears nothing about it and silence argues want of success. The French ambassador told me that the Kings of Denmark and Sweden would not consent to an offensive alliance except in conjunction with the Most Christian. I shall await further confirmation.
The duke's journey to France will probably depend upon the course of events. Conway told me that he will be received with the honour becoming an ambassador, but would not be allowed to enter the Cabinet freely as before. The duke would not like this, but he will put up with it if he can secure peace for la Rochelle. The French ambassador has let it be understood that for the future the Most Christian will not lodge or defray ambassadors extraordinary. He has not yet thanked his Majesty for the presents, but the economy of France aims at shutting out the Duke of Buckingham.
The Spanish agent has received orders from his king to leave; before saying farewell to his Majesty he received his passport and a chain worth 1,500 ducats. These courtesies correspond to those of the Infanta. The agent of the king in Spain is also having good treatment at his departure. They are dealing with all those who at one time and another have displayed independence in the parliaments in order that they may not oppose their plans when parliament meets again, and that will be soon from what they say. (si pratticano tutti quelli ch'altre volte con liberta si sono portati nelli parlamenti perche non habbino lingua contraria alli dissegni nella riduttione che si prettende del vicino parlamento).
We hear from Italy that the Duke of Savoy's affairs are prospering and the Ambassador Wake is honoured by the report of having reconciled the Count of Crichi with his Highness. His gentleman (fn. 4) has come on purpose with a full account, and I may perhaps hear of the offices between the ambassador, that prince and his Majesty. The duke is still anxious for ships. Upon this and the proposals of the Margrave of Baden, Conway remarked to me that it is possible they would need the money bags of your Serenity.
They have handed me the letters of the 14th November, which Cuch merely detained because they had other despatches and wished to publish the advices of Spain to suit their own taste (a proprio gusto). With these I found those of the 8th with the advices, though separated from the private letters. Those of the 21st have reached me since, but without instructions or the exposition of the Ambassador Wake. Accordingly I cannot open my mouth, as I know no particulars or anything about the incident with the English consul at Aleppo, and I cannot serve the public interests with the preceding commands, which were violated by the Dunkirkers, as I wrote. I shall act reservedly, endeavouring to do what I think your Serenity would desire.
I will continue to send doubly, by the ordinary way and by France. Although couriers come thence almost daily, yet no advices reach me nor those sent me by the Senate.
Kingston, the 19th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
379. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Letters from Spain report the arrival of the fleet and as usual exaggerate the amount of money, mocking at the English fleet for not succeeding in finding them. This compensates them for the loss of the Spanish island, taken by the Dutch ships (fn. 5) , a much more important position than Baya.
The Dutch have again asked for the return of their ships. They propose to grant this and have decided to buy some. The Dutch ambassadors say the States want the ships to go to the Mediterranean as soon as they have renewed their crews and provisions. The delay does not please the Savoyard ambassador, because the season will have passed before they are ready.
The English also demand their ships, and a fresh secretary arrived here remonstrates about the delay. They wish to satisfy this also, although they say they have received much greater wrongs themselves.
A Scottish gentleman sent by the cardinal legate to Rome with letters and advices of his journey, has been attacked by a large armed barque near Villefranche and had all his papers taken from him.
The cardinal has at last decided to see Madame de Rohan. I hope that matters will be arranged by negotiation or at least a rupture postponed. Nothing can be done except with an adjustment with the English, which they expect soon from the skill of the Savoyard ambassador. He has decided to leave on Monday and go post. At first he refused to meddle in the matter, knowing their fickleness, but after reflecting upon the profit and glory he consented. He expects a good understanding with the Earl of Holland, and is very intimate with the Earl of Carlisle, and the king there has expressed his indebtedness to him for his labours at the time of the marriage. He will do what he can for French interests, but much more to compel France, even against the will of many, to open declarations against the Spaniards and Austrians and to contribute to the league between Denmark, the States and England. He will leave nothing undone to help the public cause. He has been my friend for some years, and we have discussed everything together.
Paris, the 19th December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
380. To the SECRETARY SCARAMELLI.
Your letters of the 7th, 8th, 9th and 13th inst. cause us much concern. We await further news from you before answering the Ambassador Scarnafis, and we have sent an extraordinary courier to France this evening. The reports of the English fleet coming to the Mediterranean, the duke's dealings with the Capuchin Father Zaccaria (fn. 6) and the departure of the French captains are particulars which change the foundations of agreements and mean launching out upon fresh fluctations. However, we shall make very strong remonstrances to the Most Christian, though we cannot help feeling suspicious of the duke because of his old inclinations against the Genoese, and because of these new circumstances which argue some close understanding between him and the English for another war, while they afford an appearance of other negotiations carried on by him elsewhere for peace. We cannot prescribe to you any office to pass with the duke or to speak to others, but you will make every effort to discover if the plan against the Genoese is being carried forward with determination, if France has anything to do with it, and what is the arrangement with England, as we know there has been some arrangement (trattato) for some years. Upon this and the Ambassador Wake's visit to Nice you will try and gather all particulars before that minister leaves. You will also try and find out all about the negotiations of the Capuchin. If when you go to camp the duke or the princess speak to you upon these matters, you will point out the harm done to the common cause by the departure of the French commanders.
Ayes, 107.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Dec. 20.
Cinque
Savii alla,
Mercanzia,
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
381. To the Consul at Aleppo.
Greatly regret the case of the English ship hired by Venetians. He did right in resisting the claims of the English consul. Hope such cases will not arise again in the future, but his action will be supported. Hope to receive all particulars.
[Italian.]
Dec. 22.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
382. The ambassador of the States came into the Collegio and said in substance:
I have come to complain of a circumstance that has befallen me, I know not whether through malice or ill fortune, in that the public letters from the States have not reached me these last days, and I was warned to communicate to your Serenity and your Excellencies the alliance contracted between the King of Great Britain and my masters. Doubtless the Ambassador Contarini has punctually informed you about it, yet I cannot help lamenting this misfortune. Further, I have received letters of the 24th ult., which I believe to be the most recent, with news of the arrival at the Hague, after experiencing a great storm at sea, of the Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Holland, ambassadors extraordinary of the King of Great Britain. Holland is an island in England like our country, hence its name, and as it anciently enjoyed great renown, the King of England gave the title to Lord Rich. The Duke of Buckingham has come with him on matters of great importance. They have had their first audience and are arranging a special conference. They called upon the Ambassador Contarini and communicated their business to him, as he will have told your Serenity, so that you may consider this business, which is of great consequence.
The doge answered: We are sorry about the loss of your letters; such accidents will happen. Our ambassador had already advised us of the conclusion of this league, to which your Excellency has already referred at a previous audience. We rejoice owing to the support which the States will derive from it, and the benefits it will confer, as we consider the interests of the States as equal to our own, owing to the love and affection we bear them.
The ambassador spoke of the disaster that had overtaken the Dutch herring fleet in a storm. The English fleet reinforced by Dutch vessels had come out for some enterprise, probably to attack the Spanish coasts and stop trade, but he did not know all the secret.
[Italian.]
Dec. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
383. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Duke of Buckingham and the other English ministers left with a strong escort of ships. The prosperous wind which accompanies all the actions of this most fortunate gentleman will have borne them to England in a very few hours. The day before he left he called upon me with the King and Queen of Bohemia, the English ambassadors, his brother, nephew and other leading nobles of his suite.
The duke left word that in February next they will summon a parliament, without which nothing great can be expected, especially for the land force for which the ministers here seem very anxious, particularly if they send it to Flanders, although every one thinks there will be difficulties about landing.
They will send an ambassador to France to invite the Most Christian to enter the league or else contribute 100,000 florins a month. Some think Buckingham will undertake this task, but I do not fancy that the French will like this. The Danish ambassadors also have left, and Anstruther went soon after with credits for 300,000 florins a month for the King of Denmark and promises to keep it up, on Buckingham's word.
They have sent credits for Mansfelt; the French ambassador has contributed 80,000 florins, and the English proposed to give 400,000 florins, but subsequently cut down certain items, so that the total sum will probably not exceed 500,000 florins.
Before he left Anstruther called upon me and read me a letter from the King of Denmark about the encouragement and promises given to him by Ricardiera, the French minister. The ambassador assured me of the steadfastness of the King of Denmark and that he will maintain his army if the princes and towns of Germany contribute what they ought.
At Brussels and in the provinces under it they have issued a rigorous edict against all Scotch and Irish merchants, and they have recalled all subjects of the Catholic king in the English dominions, and everything points in the direction of open war.
The Hague, the 22nd December, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
384. Articles of the League. (fn. 7)
Owing to the necessity for protesting against the violence and oppression shown in the Empire, the King of Great Britain sent to the Hague the Duke of Buckingham, the Earl of Holland and Sir [Dudley] Carleton; the King of Denmark sent his chancellor, the governor of the fortress of Niemborgh, James Vluuel and Christian Ustomer, while the States General deputed Lorentio, Count of Culemburgh, Baron of Balanch and Nicolo Abucors, Lord of Norduich, Antony Duch councillor of _ Dolan, Simon de Beomon, councillor of Middelburg, Gester d'Enuelt, Christian Operze, Thomas Vernel, consul of Deventer, and Gisionio Scafer, Lord of Overyssel, as commissioners, who agreed upon the following articles:—
(1) A league shall be formed between Great Britain, Denmark and the States.
(2) Denmark will increase his army to 9 or 10,000 foot and 7 to 8,000 horse, provided the allies supply funds enough.
(3) England will contribute to Denmark 300,000 florins a month of 32 days, to be paid at Hamburg.
(4) England will put a fleet at sea as arranged in the alliance with the Dutch.
(5) The Dutch will supply Denmark with 50,000 florins a month of 32 days; using their land forces to strengthen England and to prevent the enemy from sending help against Denmark.
(6) None of the allies shall abandon the league before restitution is obtained in Germany.
(7) None of the allies shall receive suggestions for peace except in writing, which must be submitted to the ministers of the allies at the Hague, and no answer given except by common consent.
(8) If any of the allies be attacked the others must come to his assistance.
(9) These terms shall oblige the King of Denmark, but only on condition that he receives sufficient help.
(10) That the Most Christian be invited to join or at least supply money to Denmark.
(11, 12, 13) That Sweden, Venice, Savoy and the princes and towns of Germany be also asked to join.
(14) That the Prince of Transsylvania be invited to co-operate.
(15) This league shall not prejudice the alliance made between Great Britain and the States.
All the said parties have agreed upon the said articles, which shall be ratified before the 20th March next or earlier.
Dated at the Hague, the 9th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Napoli.
Venetian
Archives.
385. PIER ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary at Naples, to the DOGE and SENATE.
As all the Sardinian troops have arrived here, numbering less than 400 and destitute of everything, they propose to send a considerable force to that island at the earliest opportunity, the viceroy fearing that the English fleet may land and fortify themselves there. He has ordered that forty men shall be selected from each battalion and sent across at the first opportunity when ships arrive here, the Sardinians being suspected of some understanding with the English fleet, and in any event they would give way much more easily than the Neapolitans.
His Excellency has also issued secret orders for fortifying the Castelnovo inside and for watching the coasts, such is the fear that the English fleet may strike in any direction.
The merchants of that nation were released on the day following their arrest upon good securities, though they keep their goods sequestrated, and are even making enquiries whether they have any capital in the names of others, in order to exact reprisals for the losses inflicted upon his Catholic Majesty at Cadiz and what may be done elsewhere.
They have sent two companies of infantry this evening to Apulia and Calabria for fear of some understanding about these parts between the most serene republic and the English, and they propose to replace the governors, who are all Neapolitans, by Spanish subjects.
Naples, the 23rd December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
386. MODERANTE SCARAMELLI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
To-day they have sent Cavoretto to Turin to ask the English ambassador whether it is true that the English fleet has taken Malaga and penetrated further into the Mediterranean. They welcome the ambassador's view that if the fleet approaches Provence they ought to make an attempt upon Genoa, although the duke told me that they would require 15,000 foot, and he could hardly attend to his other plans at the same time and his forces cannot attend to everything at once, though they would take up everything greedily and generously.
From the Savoyard camp at Biella, the evening of the 23rd December, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
387. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
We have no more news of the English fleet except that it has made no further attempts against these realms. One of the caravels sent to meet the fleet reports having sighted five dismasted ships, supposed to be English, so a report circulates that thirty have foundered. A ship from the Hanse towns reports having met a fleet sailing northwards in disorder, supposed to be the English, and they calculate here that at least thirty ships have perished, although they also fear that a part of the fleet may go to le Tercere or the Canaries; but nothing certain is known.
Madrid, the 25th December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
388. To the Ambassador in England.
We hoped to find the English consul and their ambassador at Aleppo somewhat more reasonable, but the case is very much the reverse. We do not know what may have been the results of your offices with the ministers, who according to our information are all interested in what they call the Levant trade, but we desire you to ask audience of his Majesty and acquaint him with our very strong case against the unjustifiable attempt of his ministers, without previous orders from him, to make our subjects pay duty to any one but our republic, contrary to old established practice, because the goods laded in that town are manufactured there, belong to our merchants alone, the securities made there are directed to our subjects at Aleppo or elsewhere in the Ottoman empire, and it is not reasonable that they should be taken by English ships, indeed the hiring and certain employment of their ships is an advantage to them, as if they went away empty the English consul would derive no benefit, and it is not right he should receive any if the goods belong to our merchants only.
You will add that such pretensions may easily affect the good relations existing between the two states, and the English have always profited by our friendliness in every part of our dominions. After this and whatever other considerations you may think proper, you may say that we feel sure that his Majesty will order his ministers not to persist in their conduct, which will only result in affording opportunities for Turkish avarice and other pernicious designs. You will say that we expect this as a response to our good will to this crown, and we shall always encourage a friendly understanding.
For your complete information we send you the office passed with the secretary of England to be brought to the notice of the Ambassador Wake.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 2.Neutral, 7.
[Italian.]
Dec. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
389. To the Consul at Aleppo.
We regret to hear of fresh trouble with the English consul. We have directed our Bailo at Constantinople to back our case, with power to expend 500 sequins of the public money. We recognise that you were compelled to appeal to the Cadi of Aleppo, but such appeals may prove harmful and troublesome in the future, and you had better abstain from them, going to the Pasha or leading minister in case of need.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 2.Neutral, 7.
[Italian.]
Dec. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
390. That the secretary of England be summoned to the Collegio and the following be read to him:
We have informed his Majesty and the Ambassador Wake of the unreasonable trouble caused us by the English consul at Aleppo. We hoped that the generally recognised justice of our cause would put a stop to this. However, it only grows worse, and that consul has again appealed to the leading Turkish ministers, backed by his Majesty's ambassador at the Porte, a course that can only prove prejudicial to everybody. We desire to repeat our energetic representations to his Majesty, so that with better information he may put a stop to these disputes caused by the unauthorised action of the consul and encouraged by the ambassador. We beg you to repeat our representations to the Ambassador Wake in order to facilitate this result, since it appears that the Turks aim at keeping up the dispute as a means of illicit gain. It is therefore necessary to avoid every chance of evil consequences. We have every confidence in your good will and that of the ambassador.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 2.Neutral, 7.
[Italian.]
Dec. 27. Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
391. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English fleet is talked about more and more here. They say it will come to these seas, and the pope writes that he hears it will attack Spezia and the port of S. Bonifacio in Corsica. Although the Catholic says he will send at least fifty good ships after it, and will make the galleys here in Italy guard the coasts, yet they cannot help feeling anxious and do not consider the force a sufficient defence. I hear that the Genoese ambassador has written to Genoa in the pope's name urging them to guard the Gulf of Spezia well. They discuss here what means to take to prevent the landing of troops in these states, but owing to the marshes near Leghorn they think they need only guard one part.
Florence, the 27th December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 27.
Cinque
Savii alla
Mercanzia,
Capitolare.
Venetian
Archives.
392. In consequence of the troubles of our consul at Aleppo, the Five Sages of the Mercanzia, when ships are hired, shall not permit them to be laded before the masters find pledges to pay the ordinary duties to the consuls and baili of the places to which they are going, and the correspondents of our merchants are not bound to pay these to the ministers of any other prince, as has been attempted. As these troubles have arisen from the lack of Venetian ships and our merchants are compelled to employ foreign crews, the Five Sages shall give their opinion about offering bounties for ships built in our State; but as this will not suffice to prevent foreigners from their efforts to take away all the trade from this mart, the Five Sages must also devote their attention to this question.
[Italian.]
Dec. 28. Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
393. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Has been to the Caimecan, Mufti, Captain Pasha and Calil to complain about piracy. They all made the usual promises. Approached the other ambassadors on the subject. France seemed ready to support; England said that at present the pirates were abstaining from attacking their ships and he had no reason to move, and Flanders is very cold, owing to his hopes from the embassy his masters are sending to Barbary. As the ambassadors are not of one mind it will be better for Venice to act alone.
The Vigne of Pera, the 28th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
394. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Two deputies of the States when informing me of the articles of the league, which I sent, again pressed me for some contribution to these leagues of Germany, though almost apologising for the English suggestion that the entire charge for supporting Gabor should rest upon the shoulders of the most serene republic, and left everything to the good pleasure of your Excellencies.
They showed me letters from the English ambassador at Constantinople, who had been begged by Gabor's minister to write requesting him to intercede with the Palatine to obtain at least money from France England and your Serenity, as his master was more than ever inclined to war. I thanked them for the communication and made the usual observations about all that your Excellencies are doing for the common cause.
Encloses secret articles of the league recently arranged.
The Hague, the 29th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
395. Memorandum touching the league made between Great Britain, Denmark and the States on the 20th December, 1625. (fn. 8)
(1) The allies undertake to obtain the restitution of the Palatinate and will make no treaty without including the Elector Palatine.
(2) England will continue the subsidy to Denmark until it creates a diversion by a strong army or fleet or until Denmark need no longer keep up his army by reason of such diversion, or receives other contributions.
(3) If England supplies 6,000 foot and maintains 1,000 horse in Denmark's army, his contribution shall be regulated accordingly. This shall not affect the troops arranged for by the Ambassador Anstruther.
(4) Mansfelt's force shall be maintained while helping Denmark.
(5) None of the allies shall supply the enemy with munitions of war, food or materials for ships.
(6) The representatives of the parties will declare the will of their principals at the Hague on the 20th March next both upon the public articles and this memorandum.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
396. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI. Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Rochellese have sent fresh deputies with fuller powers. Matters look better than they have done. The king now listens to those who point out the difficulty of the task, the danger of English help and the failure of the new salt tax in Poitou and Guienne; so the way lies open to the peace makers. The cardinal has not yet seen the Duchess of Rohan, as he has been away from court. Apparently war will not break out in this kingdom, and peace may not be far off.
The Ambassador of Savoy left on the 23rd as arranged. They made fresh efforts for Botrò to go with him. The king at last consented, and as they are not sure whether Buckingham has left Holland, Botrò has instructions to go to Calais and thence proceed to England or Holland, according to what he hears. Certainly they could not act with more tact here to satisfy that minister and arrange their differences with the English. But the latter, owing to some undiscovered design, a blind wish for revenge or destiny seem to seek occasions not only of offence but of injuring France. This is incomprehensible in sensible men now they have declared themselves the open enemies of the Spaniards, the emperor and all the Catholic princes of Germany and have taken arms to restore the Palatine, help the Dutch and support Mansfelt and Denmark, besides sending out their fleet. All this would help them greatly if backed by France, who can do more for them than any one else. Yet they continue their uncompromising attitude. The long promised ambassador does not come; they adopt a high tone with Blenville and never dream of carrying out the marriage articles about the Catholics and the queen's household; they support the rebel Soubise and refuse to restore the ships he took, and finally they have taken ten ships laden with rich merchandise and money, mostly belonging to French merchants, and have confiscated every thing, under the pretence that it was going to Spain, selling the goods and even the ships. They coined money out of what they found and make cold replies to the remonstrances of the French minister. They make a great outcry here, and those who rejoice at these differences do not fail to kindle the flame; urging the arrest of all English ships they can find, but this has been prevented by the representations of others, nevertheless they have taken some English ships at Havre and in another port of Britanny and removed the goods at the instance of the French merchants concerned, though the king and ministers express or feign their sorrow. The English merchants concerned are to appear before the Chancellor, who will satisfy them.
Paris, the 30th December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
397. MODERANTE SCARAMELLI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Yesterday evening the duke returned here with the prince. To-day he saw the nuncio and then sent for me. He said he had many particulars to communicate. The queen mother and Cardinal Richelieu had urged the Abbot Scaglia to get Aerssens to induce the Duke of Buckingham to continue his journey to the French court, where he would be welcome and they could arrange matters, proposing that England and France should sign an agreement, to be placed in the duke's hands to help each other, England helping France against the Huguenots if they broke the treaties, and France England in case of internal trouble. Abbot Scaglia was going to England, not so much for the old purpose of offering congratulations upon the king's accession, as to advance these objects and to take a letter of thanks from the duke for the invitation to enter the league against the Spaniards. The duke asked your Serenity's advice about this, as he would not separate from his confederates.
I expect the duke would like the English fleet to enter the Mediterranean, and that his ambassador is going from France to England to deal with this question. I do not think that Wake has any important orders here, as they say no more about his going to Nice unless news comes of the fleet advancing. He professes that if it comes it will operate without the French.
Biella, the 30th December, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Napoli.
Venetian
Archives.
398. PIER ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary at Naples, to the DOGE and SENATE.
No business is being transacted in this city, as there is little credit and no money, and they are terrified of the English; the provisions for defence are worth very little.
Naples, the 30th December, 1625.
[Italian.]
Dec. 31.
Misc.
Cod. No. 64.
Venetian
Archives.
399. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Of the English fleet which attacked Cadiz they said that it was driven off by Don Pedro Giron with a loss of 1,500 men slain and some guns. They now say that it put to sea afterwards to attack the Spanish fleet, but learning that it was in a safe place they turned back to England, followed by the Spanish fleet. The Prince of Echembergh told me this.
Vienna, the last day of December, 1625.
[Italian; copy.]

Footnotes

1 Presumably Nicolas de Bautru, Count of Nogent, as distinguished from his more famous brother, Guillaume de Bautru, who became Count of Serrant.
2 Apparently Fowey. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1625–6, page 171.
3 The storm of the 12th October, st. vet., in which the fleet lost the Long Robert with 174 men, one ketch and all their long boats. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1625–6, page 140.
4 Anthony Hales.
5 This apparently refers to Porto Rico, but it was not taken, only burned by the Dutch Admiral Boudewyn Hendries. Le Clerc: Hist, des Provinces Unies, vol. ii., page 105.
6 Father Zaccaria Boueria of Saluzzo, who had gone in place of Father Hyacinth. Negotiations of Sir Thomas Roe, page 369.
7 Given in French by Aitzema, Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, vol. i., page 480. The Danish ambassadors were James Ulefeld and Christian Thomas de Tommo Rup. The Dutch commissioners are given as Floris, Count of Culenburg, Baron of Pollant; Nicholas Bouchorst, Lord of Noortwijck; Antony Duyck, councillor and Pensioner of Holland and West Friesland; Simon de Beaumont, councillor of Middelburg; Geisbert de Hertevelt: Christian Oosterzee; Thomas Varuer, burgomaster of Deventer; and Goossen Schaffer, Lord of Uthuysen and Meden. Ibid.
8 Aitzema: Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, vol. i., page 482.