Venice
January 1626, 2-10

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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265-278

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'Venice: January 1626, 2-10', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 265-278. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89052 Date accessed: 22 November 2014.


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January 1626

Jan. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
400. To the Ambassador in England.
We are uncertain whether bad weather or private malice has stopped the flow of your letters. We are sure you have not given up writing and yet we have received nothing since the 18th ult. when we had yours of the 21st November. We are most anxious at present for news from that Court. From our ambassador at the Hague we hear of the league between that monarch, Denmark and the States, and the instance of the English ministers that our republic shall contribute 80,000 reichs thalers to Denmark or to Gabor, to which Contarini made a suitable reply. If they approach you on the subject with the return of the ambassadors, you will give the same reasons, pointing out the charges which we support in the Valtelline, and that we deserve praise for our merits rather than requests to assist elsewhere. We have no doubt that his Majesty and his ministers will recognise out steadfastness.
We hear in letters of the 1st ult. that Denmark arranged an armistice for a fortnight with Wallenstein; you will try and discover if anything lies beneath this. What Contarini gathered from Buckingham about the recall of the English ships lent to the Most Christian, and that the English do not mean la Rochelle to fall, indicates fresh bitterness between France and England. Such incidents do not tend to the general welfare but constitute a poison used by those who wish to nullify the union between the two crowns. The removal of the ships means encouraging the pretensions of the Rochellese who owe obedience to their sovereign. The king and his ministers ought to labour for this, as he could interpose effectively in France in favour of peace securing the more profitable employment of their arms elsewhere. We have written to you before on this subject and you will continue the same course, proving to every one the sincerity of our objects.
We have no doubt that when Buckingham arrives you will congratulate him on his return as well as on the birth of his son. Carleton will also accompany him from the Hague, who always has shown an affection for us both here and in his embassy there, always favouring our interests. You will express to him our satisfaction and our desire to do him a service.
Ayes, 107.Noes, 1.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
Jan. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
401. That the following be added to the office voted on the 27th ult. which has not yet been performed because the Secretary of England came into the Collegio with certain proposals and left a memorial upon the differences at Aleppo.
We hoped the Ambassador Wake would have acquainted his Majesty with the unmerited trouble given to our consul at Aleppo by the English consul. We now understand from you that his Majesty's ambassador at the Porte has royal patents with supreme authority over English subjects and the consuls are subordinate to him, so that Wake does not think he can speak to his Majesty on the subject. We do not think this should prevent a reasonable office, especially as the royal ministers in the Levant have acted without orders, and they have no right to claim that our subjects should pay duty to any princes but our republic, according to unbroken custom, and there is no reason why they should, for considerations already given. And whereas the consul complains about the change of flag in the ship which came to Scanderona, the ambassador should know that in contracts for hire our subjects must always arrange to fly the flag of our republic, merely in order to increase their interests in the ship hired, which only ceases to be called English during the period of the hiring. Your ambassador, with this information, will be able to perform his offices with his Majesty and we shall also direct our ambassador to speak to the king.
That a copy of this deliberation be sent for information to be used when necessary for the ambassador in England, the Bailo at Constantinople and the Consul at Aleppo, with a copy of the memorial mentioned above.
Ayes, 107.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Jan. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
402. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The despatch of the 7th November intercepted by the Dunkirkers has reached me after having been sent back to Antwerp. With it, I received private letters of the 5th December, but those of the 28th November are still lacking; I expect they contain orders about the funeral incident; this puts me in a quandary and I can hardly prevent Lewkenor from returning to Court any longer. The duplicate of the 21st has reached me from France with all the enclosures. I went to the king and told him of the preposterous claims of the English consul at Aleppo. I made a due impression upon his Majesty and asked that measures might be taken to prevent similar incidents in the future.
The king seemed to regret the incident and utterly disapproved of the consul appealing to the Turkish courts. He told me he had heard nothing about the matter before, asked time for obtaining the necessary information and said he would enjoin prompt despatch upon the secretary, assuring me that he would see justice done. However, I perceived that the king suspected there might be some prejudice upon the claims to the duty. Accordingly I protested that his Majesty's consuls had never made such claims before, I urged uninterrupted practice and how utterly unreasonable it was that Venetian goods of Venetian merchants should pay dues to the English. I spoke of the arrangement made with the owners, the tolls paid and expenses incurred by the merchants, and the disadvantages the English would suffer if the question remained open, as the ship had been freighted out of confidence in the English and they might easily give the task to any other nation.
I could not obtain any further answer, but I left a good impression. I insisted upon the importance of the matter with the Secretary Conway and the Earl of Carlisle also. The earl told me he was glad the Consul Pesaro had obtained judgment in his favour. He promised satisfaction, but the matter of the duty required consideration. The Consul was appointed by the Turkey Company, that is for the Levant trade, under his Majesty's authority; they cannot settle the matter at once as they must gather information and confer with the chiefs of the Company. Conway merely said they would make enquiry and report to his Majesty and the Council. He asked me to supply information in writing. I made the same observations to him as your Serenity did to Wake's secretary. I will make every effort, but matters cannot be arranged directly at this Court, though the mature in time, and if no change occurs at Constantinople, we may obtain a decision in England conformable to the wishes of your Serenity.
Kingston, the 2nd January, 1623 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
403. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have given his Majesty full particulars of the negotiations of the Spaniards for a truce with the Turks, to induce him to direct his Ambassador at the Porte to continue to co-operate with the others. His Majesty highly appreciated the confidence and seemed to have some information. He remarked laughing: The Spaniards have lost their virginity, they can no longer boast of never having treated with the Turk. He told me he attached importance to the matter, his ambassador had opposed these attempts and would continue to do so. He seemed to esteem and trust his ambassador highly.
I further told his Majesty of the mission of the friar Barili to get the Turks involved in the Black Sea and so leave the Spaniards free in the White. I did not lay stress upon our own particular interests in the Gulf, but said the Spaniards wished to have all their forces at liberty to oppose those of his Majesty. He heard me attentively, said the matter was important, and he would send orders to Constantinople.
The Earl of Carlisle said he was glad of information upon these particulars; the king will continue to oppose the designs of the Spaniards, and he had therefore reaffirmed his ambassador at Constantinople who was skilled in affairs, enjoyed credit with the Turks and had known how to advance Gabor's interests, crediting him with bringing about the marriage between Brandenburg's sister and that prince. I gathered that they propose to grow more and more intimate with the Turks and will open negotiations in Africa, especially with the King of Morocco. Conway told me that Spanish affairs are not going well at Constantinople. Gabor is assured of Turkish support, which is a great advantage, as it gives him a safe retreat in case of accident.
I pointed out to his Majesty the advantage of peace in France, and accommodating myself to their sentiments here I adroitly suggested how helpful the prudence and influence of his Majesty might prove in persuading the Rochellese to submit to their king. The king said he would do his utmost for peace in France. When I promised to help by speaking to the French ambassador, he remarked that it was necessary that ambassadors should have good intentions, hinting that the French one does not please him. He added that he ought to thank me as he knew of my good offices.
The English dislike and distrust the French ambassador so much that a leading gentleman remarked to me that if the King favoured disturbances instead of discountenancing them, he would get the people to stone him owing to their opinion of his contempt for the King and England. As it is, he may go when he pleases but without having obtained anything. The ambassador and the ministers seem to ruffle each other more and more. The ambassador told me he had begged the Most Christian to let him return to France, as he saw he was doing more harm than good, and in the essential matter of his embassy, namely la Rochelle, matters were getting out of hand. Neither he nor anyone else could get anything further. His Majesty must hold fast this intention to make peace with the Spaniards and show his face to the English. He told me that he had induced the Most Christian to arrest the English ships in his harbours, but the ambassadors of Venice and Savoy had prevented its being carried out; we had made a mistake because the insolence of the English arose from the weakness of France. He told me he was very glad to hear to-day from Vilocler that the legate was going to Spain and Rambouillet will have already started for that Court. I can only attribute his satisfaction to the belief that these missions may bring about an accommodation between France and Spain while threatening the Huguenots. In an altercation with Conway about making peace the ambassador told him that his king would make peace with the Spaniards with honour but the English would make terms with infamy. I have tried to throw as much water on the fire as possible.
Your Serenity's considerations and commands of the 7th November will prove most useful. I may add that the levy of 3,000 Bernese by the Ambassador Wake is assured, provided it costs the king here nothing. I cannot tell what orders he has, but he will help the duke of himself with the king's authority, or more probably he has forestalled matters to have Colonel Spiez free, allowing the duke to hope for some subsidy from his king, though from what Conway said, in their present poverty and with their heavy expenses, the plan has fallen through.
I find that the letters of marque extend everywhere without limit, though they must not hurt the friends of this crown; they may make reprisals on the goods of Flemings and Spaniards and take wheat and arms from all who are carrying them to their enemies. They further say that the goods of enemies, wherever found, may be taken, that friendly ships taken from pirates must be restored, but the ships of friends taken from enemies are lawful booty. Conway told me this much. I commended the order not to hurt friends, but the weaker in any event will be subject to harm and loss.
Kingston, the 2nd January, 1625 [M.V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
404. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The duke has arrived and received a most affectionate welcome from his Majesty. The duke was accompanied by some military captains and Sir [Dudley] Carleton.
I sent to congratulate the duke on his return. He said he must go to see his wife in the country but would see me when he came back. Your Serenity will have heard of his negotiations, which have won him great glory. There are various opinions about the league, but it is considered a great matter to have committed the King of Denmark. The agent of the Palatine is urging the king to send a mission to Sweden to support that of Camerarius, the Palatine's Vice-Chancellor, suggesting that they shall offer more to Sweden than to Denmark, seeing that he is further off and outside the empire.
In a long memorandum, consigned by the Palatine to the duke, the chief point is the necessity for an understanding with your Serenity and to urge you to contribute to Gabor. At the same time a gentleman has arrived from Mansfelt, (fn. 1) asking for money, in the fear that the King of Denmark may come to terms, and proposing to join forces with Gabor, considering his present position hopeless if the war ceases. He asks payment for three months at once having already received two from Buckingham's disbursements in Holland. He was dispatched before the conclusion of the league with Denmark and the said payment. The ministers here claim to have given Mansfelt far more than they undertook, and they do not want a fresh agreement with France. The messenger told me that he would tell me further particulars later after he had seen the duke.
Meanwhile the French ambassador affects contempt and says that nothing can be done without his king. They are anxiously awaiting the result of the congress at Brunswick, whither Denmark has sent his ambassadors as well as Saxony and Tilly with full powers from Caesar.
To this news one may add the inauspicious return of the fleet without having done anything. The Earl of Essex arrived first with twelve ships, in a sorry plight as regards men and victuals. The rest followed by degrees and they expect that all will be at Plymouth soon. They say that the king ordered the return upon information from Essex, but the ministers are sure that it was the individual decision of Marshal Cecil. The reasons for this unexpected event are bad management, division between the leaders and shortness of provisions combined with a fear of utter loss at this bad season and that they never would return. The ministers here admit the unfortunate result, but say they must prepare to do better. I encouraged them to send out a fresh expedition and not allow the Spaniards to boast unchecked. I pointed out their designs in the declaration that they would no longer defend but would attack these realms, and the Infanta's announcement in Flanders that the bodies and goods of Englishmen are lawful booty. I know that my representations have done good as subsequently they ordered the governor of Plymouth not to disband the soldiers or sailors with the view to a fresh expedition, though that seems impossible before parliament meets. It is not expected to go back to Spain, but they will make other designs. There is no appearance of its going to the Mediterranean and a leading minister told me that it would be pure loss of time.
They console themselves for the harm which they could not inflict upon the Spaniards with the pleasure of being able to hurt the French, as they think the return of the fleet will increase their weight in the affairs of la Rochelle, where matters are passing from words to deeds. The English think that the loss of la Rochelle would affect this crown too nearly as well as the ministers and the people, and the ships which the Most Christian holds on hire from the English are the pretext for his Majesty's declaration. They told the French ambassador that the king cannot abandon his faith or oppose it; for the glory of the Most Christian he permitted all that the laws of the country will allow in favour of the Catholics, and in return the Most Christian must not ruin the religion of this crown. If the French persist in refusing to give up the ships they have decided that Peninton a brave captain and very zealous for his faith shall go to fetch them with 26 well found ships and either bring them back or sink them. At the same time Soubise has 23 ships provided with all necessaries, which can go to help la Rochelle. Their preparations are made and they will start unless other orders are given.
For this reason the French ambassador wishes to leave and not receive this affront while at this court. He has been carried away by his zeal and perhaps he might have prevented this if he had acted differently. All this helps the Spaniards, who say they are gaining more from the French marriage than if the one with the Infanta had been arranged.
The French ambassador says that attempts to succour la Rochelle will prove as vain as those against Spain. Amid the turmoil I have insisted on the advantage of good relations between the two crowns, and that they should send ambassadors to France. They will do this at once, as the duke has decided not to go to that Court. I fear the remedy will come too late.
The duke has given up the French journey owing to what has happened, though the French ambassador had orders to assure him that the Most Christian would see him gladly, in the belief that he would only come with the intention of giving him satisfaction. Advices from France promise gentleness and to assuage the quarrels, but here they interpret everything in the worst sense, as they have lost confidence, and the ambassador asserts that it will not be possible to divert the Most Christian from his designs against la Rochelle.
It would take a long time to relate the mutual offences of the two nations, but the chief are the imprisonment of a Scotch Jesuit from France, a familiar of the ambassador, who claims his release although he broke the law forbidding subjects to serve foreign ministers. The king sent four councillors to the queen with a paper signed by his Majesty with the regulations to be observed in her household; but the queen took no notice of it, saying she could not surrender her liberty; but the English desire the execution of their customs (usi).
Since the disturbances at Falmouth the king has sent commissioners for information. He informed the ambassador of his decision, but that minister considered that his offices ought to suffice without further process.
The king has held the chapter of the knights of St. George, installing the new ones, but the queen would not see the ceremony from scruples of conscience. This did not please the court and is interpreted as a calculated breach ot the marriage.
The duke thought of inviting the Most Christian, the Queen Mother and the king here to act as godparents to his boy, but when he wanted the christening to take place before news came from France, the ambassador opposed, and this thread of friendship was broken. Both parties have some reason on their side.
The Spanish agent would not leave without seeing his Majesty, who admitted him and bade him farewell.
The Abbot Scaglia is expected as the ambassador of Savoy. They have ordered a ship for his passage. The Earl of Carlisle told me that he was coming because the duke no longer intends going to France.
They have decided to hold parliament; the writs are ready, but not yet issued.
The coronation is announced for the month of February next. On account of the mourning, the plague and present expenses, they will not prepare all the usual splendour. However the public and private expenses will be very heavy. I shall fall sick if I cannot meet the expence for horses and liveries necessary to sustain the dignity of the state. I must also add that shortly afterwards they are going to Scotland, a journey of some 600 miles, when one will do nothing but remain on horseback. If I go I shall render no service and if I remain I shall write nothing. I beg leave to represent my past expenses and my constant necessities. I ask permission to stop here, or else to take leave of his Majesty before the arrival of my successor as the office would only remain vacant during the time that would be lost on this painful and costly journey.
Kingston, the 2nd January, 1625 [M.V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
405. To the Ambassador in France.
We perceive from your despatches of the 11th to the 20th that the French ministers subordinate the affairs of Italy to the internal divisions of the kingdom and their disputes with England. What is worse, both are fomented by private passions and interests. You have already done good service in inducing the Rochellese deputies to submission, in persuading Richelieu and the Duchess of Rohan to a meeting, and in furthering the Savoyard ambassador's visit to England and Buckingham's visit to France. We therefore direct you, as your prudence may suggest from the trend of affairs, to point out to their Majesties how we rejoiced at the opening of good relations with England, and at the deference shown them by the States in the recent league with the English, and that such things give that crown the direction of the enterprises of the princes her friends. The best starting point would be for his Majesty to pacify his own kingdom and not let it waste itself in internal dissensions, giving the Spaniards time to recover themselves.
Ayes, 125.Noes, 4.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Jan. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
406. MODERANTE SCARAMELLI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I informed the duke this evening of the advices from Rome. He told me that Bethune had remarked that they would arrange peace soon. He had written to the French king telling him plainly that if peace were made Venice and himself ought to be included and also informed of any negotiations on foot. He remarked that he thought it impossible that the king should not keep friendly with England, giving them satisfaction by making war in Italy against the Spaniards, as if they did not because of their desire to fight the Huguenots in France, the English would help the latter and the States also. He knew something about this as the Ambassador Wake had told him of their inclination.
Biella, the 3rd January, 1626.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Svizzeri.
Venetian
Archives.
407. GIROLAMO CAVAZZA, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the DOGE and SENATE.
We hear that the Catholic king is informing all the princes of Europe of the attack of the English fleet upon his dominions and Feria has orders to do the same in Italy and to the Swiss.
Zurich, the 3rd January, 1626.
[Italian.]
Jan. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
408. SIMON CONTARINI and MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassadors in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A gentleman of London has been sent here with the secretary of the French ambassador resident there. He had a long interview in the Queen's Mother's own cabinet, and when he came out her eyes were seen to be full of tears. One cannot discover what he said as no one else was present at the interview. It is conjectured that the only thing that could have caused the queen such distress was an account of the quarrels, which are said to grow worse and worse, between her daughter and the King of England, especially in putting to death those Jesuits, one may say under the queen's very eyes.
The ambassador of Savoy writes to me, Morosini, that he has reached Calais on his way to England and the Dutch ships which are to take him, have captured a large vessel of Dunkirk laden with money. The Spaniards are strengthening their fleet, building new vessels and they have made Spinola admiral.
Paris, the 4th January, 1625 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
409. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A report has come that some ships of the English fleet have already returned to Plymouth, and it is suspected they may be followed by the others. This news in unexpected and very unwelcome. They are waiting to receive confirmation, as they are very anxious to know.
The Hague, the 5th January, 1626.
[Italian.]
Jan. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Zante.
Venetian
Archives.
410. ALVISE TIEPOLO, Proveditore of Zante, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ships which come here to lade currants for the west, despite the most severe prohibitions, contrive by connivance with some of the leading men of the place, when they leave, to get as much oil as they require taken on board at a much modified price. That is the bait that allures them, and it is impossible to find this out and punish the offenders.
The captains and sailors of the ships do nothing without the knowledge and participation of the exporters, who are staying here. These transactions affect the price of the oil to the merchants who send it to this town and makes it difficult to obtain the quantity that the country used to produce.
I applied myself to correct these abuses from the first, and when my ministers found a quantity of oil in one of the English ships, laden with the currants, I had it removed and punished the culprits, and the ministers carefully search all these ships before they leave. Nevertheless, the cunning of these persons defeats all attempts.
I think your Serenity should ordain that before these ships are laded with currants, these exporters should provide such surety in money as you see fit, to cover the duties and other penalties when oil is found upon any of them. Although those who collect oil in the island are bound to give a return of the quantity they have and to whom they sold, this regulation is practically a dead letter and it is very difficult to compel obedience. It would be better to discover the quantity of oil that every one has, which could be done easily.
Zante, the 26th December, 1625. Old style.
[Italian.]
Jan. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
411. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They have decided to make a powerful attack upon the King of Great Britain where they think it easiest to make an impression in revenge for the English attack here. They hope to make that king repent of his decisions and show him that it is not wise to disturb Spain. They think that if they take away England's trade they will impoverish and ruin the country. The Secretary Brumeo, who has not yet received orders to leave, writes that the English are very downhearted for this reason, as well as for the plague and the king himself seemed very melancholy and irresolute.
The Spaniards also intend to wage active war on the Dutch for the future, both by sea and land.
Madrid, the 6th January, 1629 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
412. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In the interests of the public service and with the possibility of a rupture between the two crowns, I have thought fit to make suitable representations. The French ambassador agreed with what I said and the king's ministers also seemed pleased. The ambassador partly explained his reasons for offence, his claims for the fulfilment of the treaty, the ill-treatment of the queen, the non-fulfilment of promises, the contempt of his king's offices and the prayers of the queen mother; the tacit claims of the English without confidence to put them in practice (senza confidenza d' impiegarlo). He made two suggestions to me, one that as the king here does not like his mission, I should inform him that he will go back to France very soon, the other, that as he would like to present the request through my means, he would listen gladly and would report it in France with suitable offices.
On the other hand the Duke of Buckingham showed me the violent way the French treat and how much his king objects, disliking the ambassador for speaking to him in an improper manner; the French disliked his going to Holland and threatened negotiations and missions to Spain; this was not a proper way to behave.
I pointed out to both how ill timed these quarrels were and the need for closer relations. I showed the Frenchman the danger that they would cool off here about the Spanish war and other matters prejudicial to French interests. I told the Englishman that irreconcilable enemity with the Spaniards did not require a breach with the French, and by offices and missions to France his Majesty could forward his own designs and the public welfare. I pointed out to both the advantage of supporting the war in Italy and providing for that in Germany; all admitted that the welfare of Christendom and our common interests depend upon the House of Austria being occupied in that province.
The duke told me that whatever offices they performed they would show the world his Majesty's intention to make public interests prevail over private feeling, and therefore he will send an ambassador to offer his continued friendship. I highly commended this decision which the Council had already brought forward in his absence. By it recourse to force is suspended, and the Earl of Holland and Sir [Dudley] Carleton have orders to go straight to that Court as ambassadors extraordinary, so that when they have done the ordinary ambassador Barat may leave. They should start to-day by the posts. I fancy they are to cherish the friendship between the two crowns, discredit the bad office, report the insolence of the ambassador and ask for his recall to France, as his Majesty desires it, though his wrath is assuaged by the reflection that the ambassador has executed his instructions, for which they blame the Secretary Vileocler. They are further to beg the Most Christian to give peace to his subjects for the welfare of France and of the friends of this crown. They will ask for the return of the ships lent, the necessity for them having ceased with Soubise's defeat. The negotiations for an alliance will cease upon the contracts made in Holland and with the Dutch. This is as much as I have been able to gather so far in conversation.
Amid these circumstances Botru has arrived, claiming to be making a visit in the name of the Duke of Chevreuse, but it is suspected he comes to sound the sympathies and inclinations in this quarter. He has some intimacy with the Duke of Buckingham, and as he has been in very confidential relations with him and is also a servant of the queen mother, it is thought he may come from her to make friendly overtures, as the Bishop of Manda, attending upon the queen, is the nephew of Cardinal Ruscelai and has frequently conferred with the king and the duke and they unburdened themselves fully about the matters in dispute, so that the behaviour of this prelate is commended.
He also has left France knowing the intentions of the king here, and has promised to labour to obtain satisfaction for him, and from what the duke said I fancy he has their confidence here and they base hopes upon his efforts.
At the same time M. Vich, Conway's agent, has come from France with an account of things there. He told me that the relations between the two kings are seriously affected, peace with the Huguenots hangs in the balance, Schomberg urging war and the Cardinal insisting upon peace. The efforts of the king here may do some good and peace with the Huguenots would end all differences.
I must not forget to add that before these events there was a great commotion in the queen's household because the king commanded that all the French should take the oath of fealty or go. The queen's secretary impetuously asked the king for leave to go, which was readily granted, but he afterwards repented. The queen wept and he was reinstated, and almost all have taken the oath, because that was arranged in France in the treaty.
The arrest ordered in France but delayed has been carried out, as news has come that they have stopped English ships in the ports there and sequestrated the goods of this nation to the sum of 300,000 crowns. I fancy, however, they will devote their attention to an accommodation and arrange a reasonable compromise about the reprisals already made.
In this state of affairs I like to think that Peninton will delay his departure. He is stronger than I reported as they wished to give him as many as fifty ships. I fancy that, although Soubise has his ships ready, he has not enough of other things to relieve la Rochelle, as the ministers here announced, and the French had taken alarm. They are right to stand on their guard, as the opinion is that the preservation of la Rochelle is more important for this crown than the recovery of the Palatinate. I am assured that the king stated that if the town fell he would recover it in person, so strong is his feeling that this is required by his service, honour, interest and religion.
The king has informed the French ambassador of his decision about the coronation and that it shall take place together with the queen's with all the usual ceremonies, which take place in the church and by the hands of a bishop of this faith, although the French are not without scruples.
Kingston, the 9th January, 1625 [M.V.].
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
413. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I spoke to the duke about the business of Constantinople and other state interests in the same way as I did to the king last week. Taking up what I said about the common need he remarked that we ought to enter a general league, and spoke of the one arranged in Holland. He mentioned Denmark, Sweden and Gabor, and said he hoped the Most Christian, Savoy and Venice would enter, saying it was better to counterbalance the Spaniards at one stroke.
I commended his actions and views, pointing out the heaviness of our expenditure and our constant readiness to support the common cause. The duke said he knew the expenses of the republic were very heavy and here also they had decided to spend more than they could afford; they would continue steadfastly, but others must help. He promised me a copy of the league and tell me their plans in order to induce your Serenity to enter.
I said your Serenity was co-operating with your friends in very extensive operations, and to obtain better results we hoped to see the forces of this Crown effectively employed. I noticed that the duke claimed to have embraced a larger number of princes in the league than his negotiations secured, possibly in order to magnify the fruits of his journey; but it is certain that no one is included besides Denmark; they have sent him to invite Sweden and Gabor but do not know their decision. It is true that the duke offered to invite the Most Christian, our republic and Savoy to enter the league.
The agent of the Palatine protests very freely that the King of Sweden will not accept unless upon different terms, though nothing is decided yet and they are discussing what is expedient to keep the flag flying in Germany. As a beginning they have decided to send 50,000l. sterling to the King of Denmark in addition to the payments made, as they do not wish to fail him on any account, the money being raised by exactions under the privy seal, which provides a convenient means of supply; but the Palatine's agent points out the danger that may come from the assembly of Brunswick, saying that the proposals made may easily please the princes of the Lower Saxon Circle and the Hanse towns, in which case the King of Denmark would be compelled to withdraw and make terms, and shows the damage a flood of Austrian forces would do there. He would like them to send a mission to encourage and support them and the King of Denmark.
Owing to the delay of the Imperial diet and their altered plans here they will not send Anstruther for fear of drawing down some affront on the king's dignity. The Palatine's agent advocates fresh instructions and getting a passport, and that the mission should be to the assembly of the princes. It probably will not do any good, but they ought not to let things slide and afford a pretext to the princes for yielding from having no reasons for opposition and the mission would always serve for some division among the princes and to vindicate the king's pacific intentions. But these matters seem far off and therefore they decide slowly, while France and the internal affairs of the kingdom occupy all their attention. However he has succeeded in getting the king to give a salary to Captain Paul Straoburgh, who is with Gabor, having been sent by the Count della Torre many months ago, so that without being proclaimed as the king's minister he may send advices and do whatever else is necessary. He has informed the king of Gabor's marriage and sent an invitation to attend. They may not respond to this office, as it behoves the king's greatness and the commonwealth (comune) of Germany to provide a rich present for the bride.
It is rumoured that the fleet has all arrived in various western ports of the realm. They speak more and more of its mismanagement. They wasted three days deliberating at Cadiz and very few Spaniards upset everything. They add, however, that great expeditions frequently result thus, but the king is more resolute than ever and will certainly try again.
The Dutch have taken two Dunkirk ships in the strait of Calais, where they command the sea with a fleet, and Abbot Scaglia passed to this kingdom with their admiral, escorted by fourteen ships. This ambassador is very welcome at this conjuncture and has already been entertained in London. Today he is to come to London and will have quarters in the park near the Tower, though the French grumble, considering that their ambassador was not treated so well.
I have already written of the levy of Bernese to be made by the Ambassador Wake. I do not know whether Wake has any other business at Turin. They say here that he will wait till the snow has melted and then return to your Serenity; but the coming of the Savoyard ambassador will throw light upon these transactions.
I have made representations for the release of the goods belonging to Venetians, as instructed. The Secretary Cook tells me that he has received orders to release all goods which are proved to be for Venetians. I have advised the agents, so that they may look after the interests of their principals, and I will do more if necessary, as it is the usual thing in this country for difficulties to crop up.
I have received no reply about Aleppo; I fancy they intend first to write and obtain information from the king's ambassador at Constantinople.
The Council of Scotland has arrived, composed of six well qualified persons, Sir [George] Hayes, the chancellor; the Earl of Mar, treasurer; the Earl of Meures, secretary of state; the Archbishop of St. Andrews, primate of Scotland, the Earl of Morton; the Earl of Roxford. They say that the king means to submit his plans and the conduct of his forces equally to the advice of parliament and of the Scots.
Parliament is fixed for the 6/16 February, and the coronation will take place four days earlier. I am preparing for this, so as not to be surpassed by others, and to maintain the dignity of the state, sustained by the hope of pleasing your Excellencies and receiving assistance.
Kingston, the 9th January, 1625 [M.V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
414. To the Secretary in Savoy.
You will thank the duke for his communication of the negotiations between France and England and the assistance given by him, telling how that our ambassadors also have helped. With regard to his request for our opinion about the invitation for him to enter the alliance between England and the States, we wish to let the matter drop. If provoked, you will say, as from yourself, that you thought that his Highness had wished to gain time by his reply made in general and formal terms.
Ayes, 140.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The Sieur de Wolffen. Rusdorf: Memoires, vol i, page 669.