Venice
October 1627, 11-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1914

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416-429

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'Venice: October 1627, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 20: 1626-1628 (1914), pp. 416-429. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89134 Date accessed: 17 September 2014.


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October 1627

Oct. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
524. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The deputies of the Infanta and the States have met again recently at Rosendal. The pretexts are slight, merely to settle about some small disturbances at Oltemzel, but there are certainly other proposals, notably one for permitting free intercourse for trade between the two countries. I do not know what connection this may have with the matter taken up formerly by England. Carleton told me that his mission really arose from the overtures made by mediaries, by which I suppose he meant Rubens and Gerbier. They made proposals which could not be dealt with in England, and he was sent here to assist. As a matter of fact he had not met anyone, and so he stayed on to confer with the mandatary of the Infanta. Rubens had gone to Delft on purpose to see him, but he would not go there. He complained of the States, who required that his king should not listen to a word without informing them, while now they are making a formal alliance with his enemy. He declared that if his king had wished to come to terms with the Spaniards to the prejudice of the States, he could have done so with advantage to himself and the Palatine also, who was also present at the interview.
I tried to mollify him, pointing out the difficulties of the government here in maintaining their independence. The alliance was only a renewal of the last one and might not injure his Majesty more than that did. When the ill relations between the two crowns ceased this difficulty also would disappear. Carleton was not satisfied and said that matters could not be settled so easily. When the English began a war they did not end it so soon. When his king has broken against France the States ought to have no alliance, and they are bound strictly and in honour not to deal with the French if they wish the friendship of his king.
Last Thursday the Queen of Bohemia gave birth to a little prince, (fn. 1) who comes after eight others.
The Hague, the 11th October, 1627.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
525. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A gentleman of Bethune has passed this way, returning to Rome. We hear from his letters that the one sent to Paris with Sansurin was Embresem, a gentleman of Buckingham's chambers, (fn. 2) not Lord Fillin. It is confirmed that he went about peace, for which Torras had made some overtures, and Buckingham having shown him every courtesy, he decided to ask him to permit the sending of one of his gentlemen to the Court, suggesting that it would be a good thing to adjust the differences between France and England, and turn their arms against the enemies of the common cause. Buckingham expressed his willingness and said he would send a gentleman of his own to learn what France proposed. When the two reached Paris the king would not see Embresem. However, the cardinal treated with him and there were negotiations for peace in secret.
From this mission by Buckingham they argue here that he is very feeble, and he may have lost the high hopes he had from the malcontents of the realm. On the other side the cardinal seeing that his own fortunes depend upon the issue of these affairs, sees nothing but peace to strengthen his foothold, and if the wind does not change he will buy it at any price. He agreed to his Highness beginning the affair, but he has treated secretly with Embresem, thinking the opportunity a good one and being as anxious to take the affair out of the duke's hand as to conclude peace. Embresem had left so they said, and every one was anxious to see the fruits of the cardinal's sowing. The whole Court here is full of curiosity. Montagu, who receives neither letters nor commissions, does not know what to say except to boast of the forces of his king and the power of England. Marini openly states that if they hope the Huguenots will be included in the peace with England, they deceive themselves. Toras sent San Surin to represent his condition to the king, he being sick in bed owing to his continual labours. He says he will gladly die if his Majesty desires it, but commends himself and the remnants of the regiments which have been the glory of the French arms. The cardinal told them to hold out to the last gasp, they will certainly relieve them, and he will do all in his power to prevent the loss of the fort, well aware that the Most Christian could not make peace with such a blow to his reputation, Buckingham. seeing that provisions have been introduced into the fort contrary to his expectation, presses it more closely, and is now only two paces away. The cardinal proposed to send to the island five pinnaces or 6,000 foot to drive away the English, but those who understood the business better soon changed his opinion. They would need a much larger number of pinnaces for so many men, which are not ready, and they would be furiously attacked by the English guns, so that they could not rely upon even a small portion reaching the fort.
The Spaniards, who have promised so much and made the cardinal believe that the English fleet would be dissipated by their force by this time, have sent a captain to reconnoitre the French ports and forces. They say he only found six ships worthy of the name. Accordingly he announced that unless 25 are ready, those of the king will not come to throw themselves away for the sake of France. There is a rumour here that three very fine ships are ready in Holland, but that the sailors will not serve against the King of England.
Two English ships have arrived in the port of Villefranche. They came in six weeks, before the news of their departure arrived by land. Four others are expected which travelled in their company. Some English merchants, who were here, of those who withdrew from Marseilles, have gone post to Nice to see the bills of lading and give a good start to the affair. Many orders have been printed about the freedom of the port, of which I enclose a plan.
Turin, the 11th October, 1627.
[Italian.]
Oct. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Comunicazioni
dal
Consiglio di X.
Venetian
Archives.
526. In the Council of Ten.
That the letter of the Podestà of Malamocco of the 5th inst. about the firing of the guns of an English ship be referred to our councillors to decide as they see fit.
On the 13th October:
That the matter referred to in the enclosed letters be referred to the Avogadori di Commun.
Ayes, 2.Noes, 1.Neutral, 2.
That it be referred to the Sages of both sides.
Ayes, 5.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.527. ZUANE ORZO, Podestà of Malamocco, to the Chiefs of the Council of Ten.
On the 16th August last, under my predecessor, Francesco Pasqualigo, it happened that an English ship called the John and James, Captain Hugh Nivigian, (fn. 3) while in this port, at the 24th hour, fired two guns with shot, one of which passed right through a fishing boat in the canal of la Canpana, and a fisherman named Liberal di Francesco, of Murano, was drowned for lack of help from Madalinq Pollo, a fisherman in another boat. I report this so that process may be made.
Malamocco, the 5th October, 1627.
[Italian.]
Oct. 11.
Consiglio di X.
Parti Comuni.
Venetian
Archives.
528. That the letters of the Podestà of Malamocco of the 5th inst. about the firing of guns from an English ship to the hurt of a fishing barque be referred to our councillors, so that they may decide as they see fit.
Ayes, 15.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Oct. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
529. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassadors of Denmark after four useless audiences of the king and Council at length decided to cross to France, having already taken leave of his Majesty. By every reason they ought to be entrusted with some confidential power about the peace, but I am assured that they obtained no other reply, save that the first to give offence should also be the first to make overtures. Further, the confirmed reports of a Catholic League require all Protestants to move cautiously now, lest they commit themselves more than necessary. They purpose trying whether the ford is easier in France, as for his own ends and in order to lull the English to sleep Cardinal Richelieu is covertly somewhat concerned in their despatch. I find, however, that this affair of the peace will be but accessory, the matter being so involved, independently of its having been referred to Savoy, that their chief object will be to obtain some sure continuous assistance for their master which may serve as an example to this side, so that meanwhile by gaining time they may do the best they can for their own interests.
From the results of this negotiation your Excellencies will perceive that the English will not be the first, believing their movements beneficial for the public cause, with which they veil the other more secret mysteries; while to a king related to this crown and an ally, who is in great danger on their account, they deny his request to press for peace. From this it may be inferred that Wake's proposal at Venice is as yet unsupported by any orders, as also Montagu's ideas, based it is supposed here upon suspicions of Savoy, as that young man undoubtedly acts under the direction of Buckingham, whose only pole star is his passion for worsting the cardinal's party and also saving himself, as he hopes to do by taking the islands and through the profit to be derived from the salt and wine and other merchandise of the Loire and Garonne.
Everybody speaks of this Catholic League as of a monster, should the French join it, and it is said that doing so they will in the end be deluded. The Dutch ambassador told me that the English exaggerate the matter more than anyone else and Carleton in particular, to interest all Protestants in these movements of theirs, but the States will do their utmost to remain neutral, for the peace between the two crowns, as the Dutch were quite as much injured by the English through maritime reprisals as by the Spaniards themselves, with whom the United Provinces were at open war. He told me besides that the king and the Court, whither he went lately about the affair of his ships, laid great stress, with regard to this Catholic League, on the determination of the Turks not to adhere to the peace of Hungary without including their friends, the Princes of Germany, and that Sir Thomas Roe (Ros) wrote that the Ottoman ministers complained to him that whilst he was so urgently dissuading them from this peace, his king had never contributed the promised supply of money to Gabor, whereupon it was proposed in the Council to send the remittances to Venice, the ambassador having made a promise to that effect.
Upon this last point, which would be very important, I have no confirmation that Burlamacchi, the Levant Company or any other merchants have orders about such a remittance, nor can I convince myself of it at the present moment, when money is so very scarce. However, I will keep on the watch. Meanwhile this will serve as a light, and I will encourage the support of affairs there, always bearing in mind the republic's interests, as in the present fluctuations of Europe a diversion in those parts is considered the safest and most useful of any.
The despatch to the islands of this reinforcement being delayed, some Irishmen have gone over, and the Scots begin to enter this kingdom on their march to the place of embarcation; they are the troops originally destined for Denmark.
It is confirmed that the fort has been succoured. The commander of the landing, Colonel Boros, the best soldier in the English army, having been killed, his body has been brought hither accompanied by letters from the duke, in consequence of which they say the king will give him a state funeral. (fn. 4) The more a good result is delayed, the more does hope languish, and the Puritans here speak ill of the duke, as if through him the perils of la Rochelle and the league with Spain must give the last shock to the Huguenots.
The Dutch ambassador cannot obtain the release of his Indiamen, which for their better security were lately taken into Portsmouth harbour, but as they wished to take away their sails, the consignment was refused. Meanwhile, they await replies from Holland, and if these do not produce some disturbance they will at least contain serious complaints.
I wrote that transferring the port from Leghorn to Villafranca as Savoy designed, was not easy, as all the merchants extol the good treatment they received at Leghorn, where the factors of the wealthy Genoese purchase their goods immediately, and owing to the facility of sale the vessels are unloaded at once, increasing both trade and profit. It is indeed possible that from its closeness the business now transacted by the Levant Company at Marseilles with Syria and other Turkish ports, might be transferred to Villafranca, on account of the present misunderstandings with France, but as yet I do not hear of any decision. I will attend to this and second the project as directed, but I suspect that all do not quite trust the Duke of Savoy.
Secretary Coke having chanced to return from the Court, I carried out my instructions about Roe's courteous offers to our Bailo about the Turk killed by one of your subjects. He promised to tell his Majesty, and this still further increases the mutual good will. I also spoke to him about the adjustment between the two crowns to prevent additional mischief, urging him to lend a helping hand to good intentions and to the need of Denmark. He answered with the usual phrases, especially as he is the creature of the duke, whose will directs the whole affair, as during his absence the king decides on nothing, and for this reason Savoy caresses Montagu.
I have not sent my packets by France since the seizure at Calais of those dated the 6th August. I keep an eye on all the other roads, and so far no letters have gone without mine. However, as they depend on the winds and other chances, they will no longer arrive weekly as heretofore, but many will come on the same day. I will do what I can to prevent such trouble.
London, the 13th October, 1627.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
530. ZORZI ZORZI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I can discover nothing about the letters which reached the Resident of Savoy. He may be expecting the Count of Moretta to bring some reply about the reconciliation between the two crowns. I have little hope and much fear. Half a word from the cardinal might have engaged the count, and he may have committed the duke to an affair of which the issue will not be for the general advantage or in conformity with his views.
Buckingham was in danger of his life through the attempt of of a Frenchman sent by Toras, according to a report current here for several days. But it has died away, and was not generally credited as being incompatible with the noble and generous nature of Toras, well known to every one. However, this report is now circulated again with more vigour than ever, corroborated by documents and printed papers. The English lay the blame on a conspicuous personality, to wit the Cardinal Richelieu.
Paris, the 13th October, 1627.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
531. To the Proveditore of the Fleet.
Owing to the scarcity of wheat, we desire a good quantity brought, and seeing that only Albania, Dragomestri and Candelle are open to our subjects, which have been frequented for some time by western ships, we direct you to see that western ships are not received or allowed to lade in those places, always taking care not to offend the Turks. If you come across foreign ships with wheat from the Turkish dominions going to other states, you will conduct them hither, assuring the purser that they shall receive reasonable satisfaction and hire for the ship. You will put experienced men on board to see that they obey your orders.
The like to the following:
The Captain in the Gulf.
The Governor of the Galleys of the Condemned.
The Captain of the Guard of Candia.
The Captains of the Great Galleys.
Ayes, 71.Noes, 1.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Oct. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
532. ZORZI ZORZI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Toras could not hold out beyond the 8th. He informed the king of this at the very moment that he arrived at Saumur. The king sent back, I know not how, to hold out another twenty-four hours, when he would make every effort to relieve him. If that failed Toras could do what he thought best. On the night of the 8th the king issued his orders, entrusting the enterprise to Desplan, Beulieu and other brave leaders. These set out in 35 pinnaces, laden with picked men, munitions and food, at the darkest moment. As they went silently forward they came among the English sentinels, who at once gave the alarm. A valourous but blind contest took place resulting in the French forcing the hostile pinnaces so that 22 of their own reached Toras without great hurt under cover of the night. The provisions will last for six weeks for the garrison. Six hundred men, mostly cadets and nobles, entered the fort. I enclose a letter communicating this event, which was brought hither in two days. It was afterwards confirmed by the arrival of Botru, sent by Monsieur to the queen regnant. The letters add no more, except that the eleven remaining boats were either sunk or taken by the enemy, and two, very roughly handled, were with great difficulty got to land. Here they believe that this has saved Toras and the fort and rendered Buckingham's task hopeless. They predict from this single event the disappearance of the Huguenot party, the fall of La Rochelle and the final ruin of the King of England as well as every success for the royal arms. They think that Buckingham will be compelled to withdraw owing to the season. Moreover, the king's fleet is now collecting in the port of Morbihan and is beginning to take shape. They therefore think that with the Rochellese shut in, the Huguenots in the rest of the kingdom without leaders, money or assistance, and the French fleet commanding the sea, they will be reduced to great straits. In addition to this, the Spanish promises still pertain, and it would not be remarkable if the Spaniards, seeing the game was not dangerous, appeared in these waters, fascinating the French by their friendship and confirming their command over this monarchy.
Paris, the 14th October, 1627.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.533. Copy of a letter from Niort.
Sir:—I must communicate the good news which has just reached this town. On the night of last Thursday and Friday, MM. d'Esplan, Beaulieu, Persac, Cusac and several other gentlemen and picked sailors, to the number of 700, entered Ré in 35 barques, of which some eight or ten were wrecked on our shores. Twenty-five have entered laden with food. There was a very great fight. We do not know the result, but M. de Thoras has shown by the fires he lighted that he has received the relief. This has given the king extreme joy on his arrival. The French fleet is all assembled at Morbihan. We think that the Spanish one has now arrived there.
Niort, the 9th October, 1627.
[French.]
Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
534. To the Ambassador in France.
The scanty progress of the English arms and the changed feelings may make peace between the two kings near. We hear from England to-day that they do not expect much from the attack on the fort. The king made a temperate reply to the offices of the Danish ambassadors. You will see what Carleton writes about negotiations between the Spaniards and the Dutch. This will enable you to discover the truth, though it may all be artifice.
Ayes, 82.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
535. SEBASTIANO VENIER, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ships S. Gio. Evangelista and Pesce Brun are leaving this port on Monday. I have ordered them to go together and at Castelli to await the English ship, which is about to leave. The master has promised me to make the voyage in their company and treat them so that they may give a good account to your Excellencies and render him worthy of the favour of the state. I have promised him nothing, but have urged him to act thus, and if he does so he will certainly deserve recognition.
The Vigne of Pera, the 16th October, 1627.
[Italian.]
Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
536. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
As my last despatch of the 13th has not yet crossed the sea, I add these present in the hope of their profiting by an opportunity which does not often recur. The ambassadors from Denmark have not yet gone, being short of money, as they came with limited funds expecting their expenses to be defrayed and to make a short stay. They insist upon having a certain sum from the king on account of their master's credits, or on that of interest for a million florins previously lent to this crown, as no merchant will undertake to supply them. For the rest they think little about peace, the fruit not yet being ripe at this Court.
Beblitz formerly Mansfelt's servant, having returned from Denmark is to go to the fleet, being summoned by the duke. He reports that the King of Denmark has withdrawn to a safe position which can be flooded all round, and if aided with a little money he would defend himself vigorously, especially as the Margrave of Baden with his forces has joined him by way of the Baltic, while the two imperialist armies certainly cannot subsist long in the duchy of Holstein, on which account they will not attack any fortified place.
I understand that the galleon St. Esprit taken unawares in the Texel by his Majesty's ships, has been brought into Harwich. I do not hear any great uproar about this event despite its importance, as the English know they have gone too far in forcing harbours, and the Dutch who are thus injured, cannot take their revenge without doing just what the Spaniards desire. Four Dutch men-of-war have made their appearance, it is said to convey the three East Indiamen which were seized. The ministers are suspicious of this and remonstrated with the Dutch ambassador, who apologised saying he had not heard of it and did not believe his masters would show violence although they were dragged that way. In the course of conversation with me, however, he said that he made the pilots of these ships come to London and they assured him that leaving port, especially at night, was very perilous. I conclude that he contemplates effecting their escape, principally because he has sent his secretary to Holland. He also told me he would rather they had been sunk than seized because of the inevitable consequences. I do not know if he speaks from bravado but I know full well that everything is being done to bring about a rupture, as I reported, and that the Spaniards could not be better served. He added that having often shown his suspicion to the ministers about the negotiations of Gerbier and Rubens in the Netherlands, under the auspices of Carleton and the Abbot Scaglia, the king gave him to understand that he had recently desired Gerbier to interfere no more in the matter, I believe because he does not meet with the reciprocity he expected from the Spaniards, now they find matters going so evidently to their advantage. However, I will keep on the watch in case there be anything more abstruse as I understand that the English took advantage of these negotiations to divert the new league of the Dutch with France.
Through the gentleman sent by the Queen of Bohemia to announce her confinement, I hear that Carleton asks leave to return home but he will not get it. He fills that post at extraordinary cost without maintenance from home; he sees things going daily from bad to worse and that there is not much chance of his transacting any important state business at that Court.
The reinforcement has not yet started owing to the usual want of money, and for the same reason I hear that they are unable to make the remittances to Venice for Gabor, the Ambassador Roe having pledged him to this much to prevent the Turks from making peace with the emperor.
London, the 16th October, 1627.
[Italian: the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
537. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The gentleman sent to France with news of the promotion of Cardinal Berulle has returned with letters of the 30th ult., reporting that Fort St. Martin has been relieved two more times and the English are in a very bad way as they have nothing more to hope from the weather, the season or reinforcements, and the means by which they profited at first now inflict more harm upon them even than arms, and the strong winds and bad weather force them to attempt nothing further and to think of withdrawing. The ambassador confirmed this in stronger terms, saying that the lack of men and food, if nothing else, would compel the enemy to withdraw, as they could not receive the least help from La Rochelle owing to the fort built by Targoni. The Duke of Guise had a greatly strengthened fleet and with the 40 Dunkirk ships promised by the Spaniards they would have more than 110 large men-of-war, with several smaller ones. This would make the English want to get away, and they might be too late and repent of ever thinking of the enterprise. Buckingham, so he said, had decided to send a kinsman accompanied by the Castellan of Fort St. Martin to the king, doubtless to offer peace, but his Majesty declared he would listen to no proposals for an agreement before the English withdrew their forces and ceased hostilities. The king was going to join the powerful army encamped under La Rochelle. He meant to subdue the rebels. The Rochellese had proved their disloyalty by the help they gave to this English force. This would be a favourable opportunity to deprive the Huguenots of their fortresses while leaving them the free exercise of their religion.
He went on to state that the States of Holland and the Duke of Savoy were actively engaged in trying to reconcile the two kings. The English had begun the trouble. It could have been prevented before the mischief became incurable. Despite this Montagu, the first time the duke referred to it, said he had not sufficient authority to withdraw the forces, and promised to write for it; this delay might do harm as once the English force was defeated there would be more matter and he could not say what his king would decide; now he is strong by land and sea. The ambassador spoke frankly, very different from his usual reserve, he has done so only since receiving his last letters.
Bethune goes about the Court claiming credit for his master for making peace with his foreign enemies in order to introduce it into his own state. Too impatient to wait two days for the ordinary he had a long audience of the pope on Wednesday, though the gentleman only arrived on Tuesday night, and so imbued his Holiness with his views that at present to hear the pope amounts to the same thing as listening to Bethune.
Rome, the 16th October, 1627.
[Italian.]
Oct. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
538. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I enclose a plan of the works about La Rochelle and a very biting reply to Buckingham's manifesto. Buckingham has received a fresh fleet and has posted more small boats in such a way as to prevent further relief of the fort. But Marini says that they cannot resist the winds and the sea and they will have to sail away. But he also fears the fall of the fort and the loss of the island, though he hopes that La Rochelle will be shut in, and that the Spanish ships will create a great diversion in England. He says they will sail with the French towards that kingdom. They will not give battle, but will play for safety. We hear they are already on the way to join the French. The queen mother has sent a gold chain to each of the captains, and one of diamonds to the Commander Toledo, perhaps by the advice of Cardinal Berulle.
News has reached Montagu that a courier has been found dead between Brussels and Lorraine. He thinks he was coming to him, although he has no commissions. He has sent to England, and they say that Embresem has gone thither, as the cardinal wishes to negotiate an accommodation in the name of the king and not of Buckingham. I fancy that Scaglia has orders to go to England, so that some one may have a hand in the peace on the duke's behalf, even if it is not negotiated here.
Turin, the 17th October, 1627.
[Italian.]
Oct. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
539. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
When Montagu asked me for a passport, I evaded the question by a general reply, trying to divert him from the idea. I have not written to Milan either to have a passport asked for him, but have merely notified the request, adding that orders will come from your Serenity.
Turin, the 17th October, 1627.
[Italian.]
Oct. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
540. ZORZI ZORZI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Since I have been in France I have become so used to see things contrary to all reason and since that I do not believe I shall ever have pleasing news to send. The Count of Moretta goes back to Piedmont laden with fair words. The stiffness of the Dutch over renewing the alliance has again roused Cardinal Berulle and his party who desire an offensive and defensive alliance between the two crowns. The cardinal cannot hope to conquer La Rochelle without a fleet, and cannot for a long while gather a naval force sufficient to meet Buckingham. He would not entrust the matter to the Dutch even if they were allied to France. He has therefore set on foot negotiations once more through Berulle and Mirabello, and for this reason Rambouillet has been confirmed for Spain.
The French wish the differences of the Genoese with Savoy to serve as a diversion and to bridle his Highness in the negotiations of Montagu with England and Lorraine. The queen regnant favours this alliance.
Meanwhile, the rumour persists that the Spanish galleons will soon appear. The queen regnant publishes it, Berulle asserts it and Mirabello adds that they will have 6,000 men on board. The French believe it and are already thinking, with this help, of giving battle to the English; so they are now offering public prayers in the churches of Paris. A single Spanish pilot of Biscay has been to see the king and went on practically at once to reconnoitre the position and Buckingham's fleet.
We hear of no considerable progress with the French fleet, though the mother and wife of the Duke of Angoulême told me yesterday that the Duke of Guise had written that he could not build anything upon it for a considerable time yet and the Spaniards have let it be understood that until the French can show twice as many ships as their own, they will not make any advances, to avoid the risk of being left alone.
Paris, the 18th October, 1627.
[Italian.]
Oct. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
541. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The prince arrived here on Monday night, and on the following day I went to pay my respects. He expressed great regret at this last act of the English, as it increases the difficulty of the States in maintaining their neutrality. This is the point upon which all their debates turn, and they have been very numerous and lengthy this week. The French ambassador has been to audience ten times, demanding satisfaction. To one he took the captain who escaped from the ship captured by the English, to make deposition upon the fact. Carleton told me the day before yesterday that he heard from the Queen of Bohemia that the French ambassador complained the prisoners had been ill-treated. He said we must not credit such announcements because he knew otherwise. He promised to show me an account of the affair, but it has not come yet.
They have tried to get the French ambassador to moderate his demands for revenge and compensation, pointing out that they do not wish to make the English think they are biassed. He assured them that he would do everything to obtain satisfaction for his master. I hear it is proposed that the English shall replace the ship in the port, which the ambassador would accept. He wanted, however, some demonstration against the English ships arrested at Texel after the others had taken their booty to England. He tried hard to have them fired on (battuti), but this was considered too violent a step. Carleton objected, adducing a similar action of the Dutch ships in his king's ports, and also an article in the alliance granting liberty to pursue against enemies on either side. The French maintain that their interests are reserved in this particular, and I fancy that this applies also to all other allied and neutral powers. In any case the matter is a very difficult one, and the prince and all the ministry, who desire the conclusion of their alliance with France, regret the event deeply. The English ambassador, on the contrary, is delighted, especially as news arrived from France last Thursday of the capture of Fort St. Martin. I have received no confirmation from Zorzi and so I am reserved about announcing it. The Queen of Bohemia, with the usual curiosity of ladies, asked me about the news, saying that I ought to be glad as it would give a favourable turn to affairs. I told her my advices were only rumours from Paris, and I could not wax warm over an event from which the common cause could not, to all appearances, receive any advantage. Carleton, who was present, said he thought that if it had not fallen it must be very near it. The Earl of Holland had left England for the island on the 5th. He would be in time to garrison the fort, as they had to hold as well as to capture it. From all appearances it seems that the English also mean to rase Fort St. Louis and that will make the contest more fierce than ever. However, the arrival of the Earl of Holland will probably lead to the duke's return to London. Until then they may not do anything here about the despatch of their ambassadors, who are not yet nominated. They delay in the hope of finding some adjustment in order to give satisfaction to the French in this matter of the ship.
Scaglia has embarked twice for England but had to return owing to contrary winds. He goes with the idea of forcing France to an adjustment. On Saturday, the last time I saw him, he said there was no one in France who knew the real state of affairs. Richelieu knew that it was best for the crown and himself to make a good peace; but Berulle, Arbo, the Garde des Sceaux and Fiat formed a separate party, which, while ostensibly united with him did not want peace on any account, as these commotions serve their private interests, for example Berulle has obtained the red hat through his invectives against the Huguenots.
The Hague, the 18th October, 1627.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
542. To the Bailo at Constantinople.
We send you a copy of the letters from the ambassador in England of the 15th ult., with papers from the Council there about forbidding the English merchants to take the cargoes of foreigners without paying fees to their consuls. When we have received the necessary information from you we will inform you of our wishes. In the meantime this will guide you as to what you shall inform us.
Ayes, 78.Noes, 2.Neutral, 7.
[Italian.]
Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
543. To the Ambassador in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters; the advices agree with those from other places. Send the Senate's decision of the 12th September last year about hiring, to serve until fresh instructions arrive from the Five Savii alla Mercanzia. For the rest, where all appearances are so deceptive it is necessary to wait for the event. Commend his actions with respect to the Mantuan ambassador, Strozzi,
Ayes, 96.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Oct. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
544. ZORZI ZORZI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On the slippery foundation of the number of fires lighted on the island they concluded that the relief had reached Toras. Every one now remarks that although twelve days have passed since this occurred, no confirmation has arrived, there are no further particulars and no courier has come. Thus the general opinion now is that although the fort was certainly relieved, the amount was much less. Yesterday morning I saw two letters, one from Baron Scenese, who is with the king, confirming the common view; the other from the Marquis of Rhoni, master of the ordnance, stating that only seven barques got to St. Martin, and all the rest were destroyed or captured by the English.
In order to see the English fleet the king went on the 13th from Dampier to the port of il Piombo, with a good number of men. The English guessed or discovered his presence and received him with an earthquake of artillery in his honour, more for display than hurt. Toras's brother, the Bishop of Nimes, writes this, adding that the king and those with him admired the large number of ships and the order and discipline with which the force was drawn up, but the salutation they gave him kindled his wrath and poisoned his mind, as being a sign of disrespect.
Paris, the 20th October, 1627.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Philip, born on Thursday, the 7th October. He was Elizabeth's tenth child, but Louis, who died in 1625, is probably not counted by the ambassador.
2 John Ashburnham; but see Birch: Court and Times of Charles I, vol. i, page 271.
3 His name should be Hugh Treveghan, and he had letters of marque issued to him on the 11th August, 1626. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1628–9, page 289.
4 He was buried in Westminster Abbey near the tomb of Sir Francis Vere. The funeral took place on Tuesday, the 2nd November, with great pomp. Birch: Court and Times of Charles I, vol. i, page 281.