Venice
June 1628, 1-10

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1916

Pages

110-117

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: June 1628, 1-10', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 21: 1628-1629 (1916), pp. 110-117. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89185 Date accessed: 30 July 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Contents

June 1628

June 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
147. ZORZI ZORZI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
To-day, the eve of the Ascension, I arrived at Estre, and have been able to see and speak with the cardinal. My conference with him lasted two hours. I forgot nothing of my instructions, and spoke of the ambitions of the Spaniards. I said that the enterprise of La Rochelle might be postponed to a better time, and for the good of Christendom no delay or impediment should be interposed between the reunion of this crown with England. I pointed out that the more France was involved internally, the more the Spaniards took advantage of it to develop their ambitious designs.
The cardinal heard me most attentively. He said that with the arrival of the English fleet all his time had been taken up, or he would have seen me before. His king was firmly resolved to assist the Duke of Mantua. He would be at Lyons in the middle of July. Nothing stayed him except the taking of La Rochelle, which the king would certainly have by the 10th of July at latest. It was certainly not the moment to speak of the Rochellese, or of the peace with England. The English have not yet properly settled their humours. Buckingham has let it be understood that he will never give up the lordship of the sea over the fishermen, and I have made him turn back with scorn, with all his fleet of Argonauts. We shall see soon who was the better advised.
Estre, the 1st June, 1628.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
148. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Marini has received letters from the king of the 21st ult. with the news that the English fleet have gone out of sight of La Rochelle, recognising that they could not relieve it. The English have complained that the deputies of La Rochelle brought them there when they could do no good, and they told them that they had no orders to fight the ships of the King of France. Indeed they gave signs of a reconciliation between the two crowns, as the English released some French prisoners whom they had taken on the way. The king ordered that bonfires should not be lighted here but should be reserved for the news of the surrender of the town, which he hopes to send soon. I have made a show of rejoicing in order to encourage confidence, and sent to thank the ambassador for the communication.
Turin, the 1st June, 1628.
[Italian.]
June 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Svizzeri.
Venetian
Archives.
149. GIROLAMO CAVAZZA, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Duke of Lorraine has returned to Nancy from Paris. It is not known when the Earl of Carlisle will arrive at that Court. There is no news of his arrival in Flanders. It is even considered that he will not cross the sea until the English parliament is closed.
By news from Brussels of the 6th ult. I see that Don Carlo Colombo's journey to Dunkirk was merely in order to keep the Dutch busy in that quarter.
Zurich, the 2nd June, 1628.
[Italian.]
June 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
150. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Many remarks might be made, and the French ministers here have spoken to me, about the English showing that they bore no ill will to their king, and so, under the pressure of present circumstances, one may believe that at the surrender of La Rochelle, which they expect soon, peace will ensue between the two crowns.
Guron is anxious about the journey of the Earl of Carlisle; if he will come here and what he will do. He says that the war was taken up by the English in order to break Cardinal Richelieu. They declared in England that the world was ill content with France, your Serenity in particular and the Duke of Savoy, as we know. Accordingly the English and the cardinal's enemies thought that the king would be forced to recognise the harm done by that minister's rule, and to remove him from the saddle. But your Serenity stood fast by France and the Duke of Savoy may possibly change his views and so the English have found their plan unsuccessful.
Turin, the 3rd June, 1628.
[Italian.]
June 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
151. ZORZI ZORZI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Mirabel has again offered his king's assistance against La Rochelle and the English, but he said his king meant to have Casale and was acting in accord with the emperor.
We learn here that after the departure of the English fleet from before La Rochelle, the large ships all proceeded towards the coasts of Spain, while the less powerful ones cruised along these coasts, inflicting much damage. In Britanny alone they had taken 25 or 30 small ships laden with wine and food, on their way to this army. This force, if not exhausted, is at least suffering, and everything is paid for, not with gold but with blood.
Estre, the 4th June, 1628.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Zante.
Venetian
Archives.
152. PIERO MALIPIERO, Venetian Proveditore of Zante, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have reported the proceedings of these English, who are scouring the waters of Sicily and Sardinia, plundering the ships which fall into their hands under the pretext of war, and then bringing them to these islands where they try to sell the goods. I try to prevent this by sending the ships away, except the one with wheat, which I allowed to discharge owing to my necessities.
I have now to report that five armed bertons have newly arrived from Cephalonia. One of these has the Commander Kenelm Digby on board, said to be a knight of the King of England, with patents for privateering. Through some English merchants here he begs hard for free intercourse (la prattica), and complains bitterly about the hesitation in granting it. I have conferred with the Commissioner Ciuran on the subject, and we agreed that we must try to get him to go away. As the man who came to express the general's desire expressed it in a very unseemly manner, he was dismissed as his behaviour deserved. But we did not refuse permission to supply himself with the necessary refreshments, as required by the friendly relations existing between your Serenity and their king.
I must add that while these bertons were here, on the 23rd inst., they sighted two ships coming from the Levant and boarded them in the sight of the fortress, but did not find what they wanted, as one was Flemish and the other from Crete for Venice; so they turned back. The commissioner remonstrated sharply with the English merchants about this, as it did not correspond with the satisfaction which the general had said he would give us. However, he promises he will leave to-morrow without fail.
The Spanish consul here keeps a sharp eye on all operations. I am told he promised to send a faithful report of the admirable determination of your Serenity not to receive such persons.
Zante, the 25th May, 1628, old style.
[Italian.]
June 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
153. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
We have heard that the English fleet arrived off La Rochelle and sent forward two fire ships to burn the stockade, but these burned out before reaching the place. There was no further loss, and every one is anxiously awaiting the result of this attempt upon which the fate of the Huguenot party depends. Here they fear the worst and blame England for having so long delayed the provision. From this arose the report that the Duke of Buckingham has an understanding with the French, and that is why they did not make provision at the proper time. Such ideas arise from passion since it is known that the king did not have the means to make more haste. Some say that until the commissioners of La Rochelle in England freely delivered that place into the king's hand he would not let the fleet go, and now it is believed that they have given themselves to England absolutely, which has undertaken to uphold them. The means of doing this is doubtful, although it is stated that some barques entered with relief; but this is not certain.
We hear on Carlisle's arrival at Antwerp, where he seems to have met with no signs of confidence. On the contrary, when he wanted to go to Breda the governor sent word that he could not admit him without orders from Brussels. He offered to send for them, but Carlisle declined and proceeded on his journey. He stayed eight days at Antwerp. I know on good authority that he was in constant negotiation with Rubens. The pretext was pictures, but from past events one must fear that they went on with their negotiations for an accomodation or a truce.
Spinola is eagerly expected here by those who look for a truce as the result of his visit. I recently spoke to the Prince of Orange about it. I fancy he did not like the subject to be discussed, for fear of its being disturbed. He desires it more than ever, because he sees the affairs of this state constantly growing worse, owing to the disorders of the government and the lack of foreign help, chiefly due to the continuation of the war between the two crowns.
The States have withdrawn the suspension of their assistance for Gluckstat and Cremp, but have declared that the money and other munitions must pass through the hands of their own commissioners, as they have heard that the Danish ones only think of filling their own pockets. This is stated by Colonel Morgan, who has arrived here with the usual reports of disorders in those parts.
Carleton has not yet crossed the sea owing to contrary winds, and several despatches to Contarini are detained for the same reason.
The Hague, the 5th June, 1628.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
154. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Particulars have just arrived of the attempt of the English fleet to succour La Rochelle. It was announced here that the succour had entered, but the ambassador steadily denies it, and says that on the 19th ult, the English sent forward some fire ships, to be carried by the tide, set fire to the place and prevent the French defending, following themselves in smaller boats, but the ships burned out before reaching the channel, and the others were repulsed with the loss of men and ships. However, the ambassador has not yet received definite advices. I fancy that the ministers here have corresponding information and understand that La Rochelle will fall into the hands of the Most Christian in a brief space. This increases their fear of the French turning towards Savoy.
Madrid, the 7th June, 1628.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
155. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The news is that the English have left France with their fleet, highly disgusted with the Rochellese, who represented relief as easy, very different from the truth. The town has therefore no other hope and will have to surrender. The issue is awaited with mixed feelings, as they believe that negotiations for peace between the two kings will also be well advanced.
Madrid, the 7th June, 1628.
[Italian: deciphered.]
June 8.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
156. The secretary of the English ambassador came into the Collegio and spoke as follows:
The ambassador, in his anxiety to meet with every wish of your Serenity, so soon as he heard at Padua of your representations to me, came straightway to this city and took the most exact information from the merchants here. Although he discovered no improprieties on the part of ships of his Majesty's subjects, yet he wished to proceed to a mandate which should confirm every shipmaster and other official in his own sphere. The secretary then handed in a copy which was read, and is entered below.
The doge replied: The information given to the ambassador through you about English privateers using our ports needed no enquiry as it is a matter of fact which has reasonably caused the republic great concern. We expect the ambassador to take the steps necessary to prevent the occurrence with its necessary consequences.
The secretary said that the ambassador would do everything possible; the ambassador took this opportunity to beg his Serenity to recommend to the heads of the Quarantia Civil Vecchia the decision of the cause pending before them of Captain Christopher Volton, an Englishman, against the firm of Vendramini about the hire of his ship, which has been before that Council a long while. The doge said he would not fail to do so, and the secretary took leave and departed.
(fn. 1) We, Isaac Wake, knight and ambassador of the King of Great Britain in Italy, Helvetia and Rhetia, to all cavaliers, gentlemen, adventurers, captains, shipmasters and other subjects of his Majesty, adventuring and trading in the state of Venice greeting.
On the 27th ult. the most serene prince by order of the Senate made representations to me affecting our nation, a copy whereof you will find annexed. Although they make no special complaint in this office, yet it contains some ambiguous words, such as "in our channels," and so we called together all those of our nation at present in this city, both merchants and ship masters, to obtain information from each of them of what has taken place up to the present. They all informed us that no excess had been committed. However, seeing that the Senate desires to avoid future inconveniences, and knowing that my king desires their friendship, while it would be impertinent that the good understanding between his Majesty and the republic should be disturbed by quarrels between private individuals, we therefore hold it our duty by these presents to notify and ordain that none of the aforesaid and no other who shall have occasion to come into the Venetian state shall bring or send any prize into their ports without express licence, much less molest any within their channels and coasts.
Dated at Venice, the 2nd June, 1628.
Walck.
Thomas Rowlandson.
[Italian.]
June 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Svizzeri.
Venetian
Archives.
157. GIROLAMO CAVAZZA, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the DOGE and SENATE.
We hear of the withdrawal of the English fleet, without relieving La Rochelle, which can hardly hold out a month.
According to an announcement issued by the King [of France] to his ambassadors, the English were forbidden to attack his Majesty's ships or attempt anything except introduce their convoy of food for the Rochellese. The Earl of Denbigh remonstrated with the townsmen for their bad faith to the King of Great Britain, engaging him in an enterprise which they represented as easy, so there may be no great difficulty of our introducing peace between the two crowns at present.
When the Earl of Carlisle has been to Lorraine, it appears to me that he will come on here, possibly in order to represent the friendly disposition of his king towards the Swiss Protestant Cantons, and that he will then turn towards Piedmont.
Zurich, the 9th June, 1628.
[Italian.]
June 9.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
158. The French ambassador came into the Collegio and spoke as follows:
I have received letters from his Majesty directing me to inform your Serenity of his success at Rochelle, and I do this the more readily as you rejoice at the prosperity of the realm and the glory of the king. He read a translation of the letters, dated the 20th ult., and then handed them over. They run as follows:
From the camp before La Rochelle the 19th May, 1628.
The English fleet, which was prepared long ago to succour La Rochelle arrived off Cape Baye on the 12th inst. composed of sixty sail including 7 or 8 roberghe (fn. 2) and twelve large men of war; the others being barques or light ships, mostly laden with provisions. This fleet was commanded by the Earl of Eneby, brother-in-law of the Duke of Buckingham, who had with him Captain Brinaut, admiral of the Rochellese. They waited eight days in that place in sight of La Rochelle. During this the springtide occurred, accompanied almost always by a strong wind, favourable to the English, so that nothing better could be desired for their design; yet the English saw with their own eyes that the Rochellese had deceived them about the ease of entering the town, the channel being blocked by stockades and ships floating and sunk, besides the stone mole, while before they reached the stockades they had a good number of ships of war to fight and towards Rochelle there were countless armed barques full of soldiers and gentlemen volunteers, admirably prepared to fight, while not a night passed during those eight days that his Majesty did not personally visit all these. The English perceived the impossibility of the undertaking and told the deputies of Rochelle that they could not attempt it, reproaching them with their bad faith to the King of England in involving him in a design which they represented as easy. The English weighed anchor at the first or second hour of the night on the 18th, after attempting to enter with a ship of 150 tons full of fireworks, managed by three men; this was welcomed by 25 or thirty gun shots, so that it leaked in every direction, and the men were compelled to fire the ship, to see if the current would carry it in; but instead it ran aground on the side of Cape Baye. On the 18th they sent another ship with seven engineers and numerous fireworks in the form of petards, which they hoped would go off when the vessel struck but fortune caused these to go off sooner than they expected, and the men were scattered in the sea. Perceiving this, the English, who had their sails all spread, withdrew towards England with their whole fleet by the opening of Antiochia. Before leaving they released some French sailors captured on their voyage, who reported the above particulars about the English and the deputies of La Rochelle.
After the reading the ambassador said: Owing to the return of the English fleet, the rebels, despairing of succour, will doubtless implore his Majesty's clemency, and this news will herald that of the surrender of the place. The return of the English fleet is a fresh victory for my king, greater and more glorious because with so little bloodshed, the mere aspect of his Majesty's forces turning back those who came to fight them. His Majesty's care was unceasing and one cannot say enough for the vigilance of the Cardinal Richelieu in seeing the king's orders carried out.
The doge replied: We thank his Majesty warmly for informing us of his success. We congratulate him and wish him every success that he can desire.
The ambassador continued: The King's letters also state that owing to this success he hopes soon to be able to go where he likes and attend to the other affairs of the kingdom while affording succour outside. Although the letters do not mention the place I feel sure it can be none other than Lyons.
[Italian.]
June 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
159. SEBASTIANO VENIERO, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The consul at Smyrna writes that he notified our merchants about not paying cottimo to the English and they promised to obey. We shall see if they will do so, as I fancy the English are determined on this advantage. He also told them about not lading on foreign ships, but I fancy they are not only lading the English one already hired but hiring others from the Greeks.
The English ships arrived recently from Alexandretta to lade the goods of the wrecked ship and others. The captain brought me a note of hiring dated the 1st March and signed by Gio. Pietro Arrigoni, arranged with the English merchant Simes. The captain and the Venetians have prayed hard for permission, but I have resolutely refused. The Englishman complains bitterly at being fetched here at so much trouble and expense. He asked me for redress. I told him the matter was not in my power but justice will be administered at Venice. The Venetian merchants tell me they will be obliged to pay for the ship and their goods will run great risks. I tell them I must obey the decrees of the state. I must say that I am astonished that an old merchant like Arrigoni should make this bargain without writing here or knowing the state's will, deluding the captain, who grumbles greatly as do all his countrymen. I have thought of sending him to execute the orders about wheat, in the general absence of other ships and thus relieve the merchants of paying for an empty ship at the rate of a full one, but I have refrained as I have no instructions.
Bisitas on the channel of the Black Sea, the 10th June, 1628.
[Italian.]
June 10.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
160. To the Secretary at Florence.
Order to send word of the number of Flemish and English ships that frequent that mart, their burthen and quality and how they are armed, with whatever else he discovers worthy of notice about those nations and their trade or other matters; obtaining this information with due caution.
Ayes, 17.Noes, 5.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 A copy of this order signed by John Wilkinson is preserved. S.P. Foreign, Venice. On the 9th June Wake wrote: "I have sent this week into the College by my Secretary the paper of which I sent your lordship a copy, scorning to go thither myself upon so poor an errand. If their ambassador doth speak anything there to that purpose your lordship will see that I have given as good order to prevent future inconveniences as they could require, and if they dare to tax our nation for anything passed this year I have enough in my hand to justify the English and to make them ashamed that shall accuse us before any who doth understand what doth belong unto mare liberum." Wake to Conway, the 9th June, 1628. Id.
2 The Mercure Français (vol. xiv, page 608) gives ramberges, defined by Cotgrave as a fashion of long ship, narrower than a galley but swift and easy to be governed. Cotgrave: French Dict.