Venice
November 1628, 11-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1916

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386-404

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'Venice: November 1628, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 21: 1628-1629 (1916), pp. 386-404. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89205 Date accessed: 20 September 2014.


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November 1628

Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
548. To the Ambassador Corner in Savoy.
With respect to Wake's request for pardon for il Provaglio, we have to say that he was banished for a very serious crime, and the manner of such concessions has recently been very much restricted by the laws, requiring extraordinary strictness in the voting. You will tell the ambassador this, assuring him of our esteem and desire to gratify him in every way we can.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
549. To the Ambassador Zorzi in France.
We do not know what credit to attach to the report, which arrived from Bergamo on the 9th, that peace had been concluded between the two crowns and that La Rochelle had submitted to the Most Christian. Scaglia, Porter and Rubens heard of Buckingham's death with tears and Olivares was much grieved. Now is the moment to push forward the peace between France and England, without allowing time for fresh dealings with Spain. This affair has been already carried so far by the ability of yourself and Contarini that we feel sure you will carry it to a successful issue, to your own praise and the public satisfaction.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
550. ZORZI ZORZI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Montagu returned here from England, and after conferring for several hours with the cardinal, without any basis, he left the day before yesterday and went back to his fleet, without settling anything. It thus appears that he merely came to interpose himself in the negotiations of Contarini and myself and to prevent the union of the two crowns. However, I have not given up hope, as the cardinal assures me that he will stand by his promises, arranged between us, although I foresee that the intrigues of the Abbot Scaglia at Turin with the Ambassadors Carlisle and Wake may injure our honourable projects not a little, by getting the adjustment of the differences between England and France referred to the Duke of Savoy. But his efforts may fail and easily dissolve in air since his Highness has no credit here, and the abbot has already been found out in England as a man perverse in his affections and of a turbulent and misty disposition.
This is St. Martin's day, and as I write the English fleet is hoisting sail and moving from the position where it has fruitlessly frittered away two whole months.
La Rochelle, the 11th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
551. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Bethune remarked to me that he did not know what to prognosticate about the Duke of Savoy, but he thought once the duke had secured his gains in Monferrat he might easily break with the Spaniards and make terms with France.
He informed me that Carlisle, who was said to be summoned back to England with all speed, was still staying at Turin with Wake and they were negotiating together. This excited suspicion because of past misgivings about negotiations for peace by this intermediary between the English and Spaniards. However, he thought this would be difficult in any case, because of the Dutch, who would never trust the King of Great Britain again. Even if it all came about, the Spaniards, by joining the English, would give occasion to the Most Christian to unite with the Catholics, to balance them, with the help, not only of his own forces, but with the justice and protection of God.
Rome, the 11th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
552. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Against the news from Turin of the defeat of the English fleet, is that said to come from Flanders, that it has relieved La Rochelle with a powerful reinforcement, though with heavy loss; but this is not credited, because of the calculation of the time, which does not fit in.
Here they resent greatly that the cardinal of Savoy, though an ecclesiastic, takes such pains to ingratiate himself with the English ambassadors, vying with his brother and the prince in showering festivities and honours upon them.
Rome, the 11th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
553. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I am informed that the Count of Olivares communicated to the ambassador of Germany letters from France. They tell me these were from Cardinal Richelieu, in which after having informed the Conde Duque that everything was ready to meet the English, the only thing that might be wanting being the junction of the Catholic's fleet with that of the Most Christian, with some other jests on this subject, he goes on to speak of the Monferrat and Casale and tells him plainly that whether La Rochelle falls or no the Duke of Mantua will not be abandoned by his king.
Madrid, the 11th November, 1628.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
554. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Numerous advices which have arrived simultaneously from France and Italy have aroused no little perturbation in the minds of his Majesty's ministers. A courier from Flanders reports the fall of La Rochelle, and adds that the negotiations for peace between the French Crown and the King of Great Britain have made progress, points which may change their original decisions about the affairs of Italy.
The Marquis of Mirabel reports that a special person has been selected by the Most Christian to proceed to England. The Count of Olivares regrets this bitterly, as it seems to him that the game has slipped from his hands.
Madrid, the 11th November, 1628.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
555. AGOSTINO VIANUOL, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
An English ship has arrived at Leghorn of 900 butts burthen, with 40 guns. It comes from Constantinople with a cargo of 1,000 sacks of cotton, 16 hides of Constantinople, 500 buffalo hides, ten bales of silk, a number of bales of cordovans, and many other things. They sent it to Portoferaio for quarantine, treating their assurances scurvily.
Florence, the 11th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
556. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The French ambassador has recently been in the Assembly, raising the most thorny questions. He first asked for the ratification of Langarach's treaty. The next demand concerned the ship taken by the English last year in the Texel, and was for restitution or payment. The third was that the Most Christian claimed that all goods of any kind soever and for any persons, including the Spaniards, might be carried in his ships, and when found there, even if in the ports of Holland or in Spanish waters, they should not be subject to confiscation. This completely traverses their decision here as well as their practice for so long a time. The fourth was a complaint about a ship of this country which had taken grain into La Rochelle. The fifth was that the Most Christian would never agree that the accommodation received by these provinces from France by the trade in wine, salt etc., should pass through England.
The Agent Carleton has declared on the other hand that all ships found voyaging to France should be considered lawful booty. Your Excellencies will see how these States are put to it to satisfy both parties.
One Lopez, a Portuguese, has come, who was here previously for the Most Christian, for ships and guns. He presented a demand to the Assembly for 350 guns and ammunition and eight ships of war besides the two called The King and The Queen, which never leave the Texel for lack of convoy, being always stayed by the offices of the English. When the English hear about it they will doubtless protest loudly. (fn. 1)
The Amboyna affair still makes trouble with England, and although they recently released the two East Indiamen which Joachim recently brought here, yet the affair seems more raw than ever, although the Prince of Orange told me that deputies had been chosen to procure an adjustment between the two companies, where the difficulty lies. The Agent Carleton recently told me that we should yet see violent resolutions of his king arise out of this affair, because they give nothing but words here and have abused their patience for seven or eight years. He remarked in particular: We shall see France and England accommodated, but the king will certainly never have an adjustment with these States unless they give him satisfaction. The Ambassador Joachim said that it was unreasonable to speak like that, as they could do no more than they had done to please the English, perhaps unjustly, he added. In general I may say that there is no need for these disputes, and the States, seeing how unfortunate they are in their alliance with these two crowns, may decide to take the step I have so frequently indicated.
The Hague, the 13th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
557. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
There have been some signs of rejoicing at the surrender of La Rochelle. I am told that the duke is waiting for the news that the Rochellese have definitely handed over their town to the king. I have heard that Carlisle sent yesterday to congratulate Madame.
The Earl of Carlisle remarked to me: I do not know if the Most Christian may be depended upon to remain good and steadfast towards Italy. To which I replied that every one who was interested in the common cause had desired that France should consider the service of her friends, and I now wished that we should hope solely for the good of those things which the most serene republic must desire equally with the Crown of England, professing that it was a question of the common cause. These English ministers asked me if I knew that Montagu had been introduced to the king by the Ambassador Zorzi, as stated by Marini in a letter to his wife. I replied that I did not. These gentlemen are anxious as they consider that an unsuccessful attempt by so numerous a fleet after the failure of the others will be an unlucky memory with which to saddle their king's enterprises (stimando che un tentativo suanito di flotta cosi numerosa doppo li mali successi dell'altre sia di memoria infausta alli avvenimenti del suo Re). They have frequent audiences of the duke and prince. They have sent his express to England and pay little attention to the rumours circulating at this Court of peace between France and England.
There is talk of Barozzio, the prince's secretary, who was in England a short while ago, going back to that Court, and I also hear from a quarter that professes sincerity and confidence with me that Scaglia is going to Spain.
The Earl of Carlisle has received leave to return to England. I understand that he will start on Thursday and travel with all speed, while Wake will remain here until he hears of the earl's arrival.
Turin, the 13th November, 1628.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 13.
Cons. di X,
Parti Comuni.
Venetian
Archives.
558. In the Council of Ten.
That the jewels of the sanctuary and the halls of arms of this Council be shown to the Sig. Odoardo, an Englishman now in this city, and the other gentlemen with him.
Ayes, 16.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Nov. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Napoli.
Venetian
Archives.
559. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Naples, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Owing to the preparations of the Duke of Guise to sail from Marseilles with his fleet, the Genoese are getting together as many galleys as they can in order to observe the proceedings of the French and Spaniards. They do not know where the English fleet may be, and they grow ever more fearful of the renewal of friendship with France, which is rumoured.
Naples, the 14th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
560. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Since the news of the fall of La Rochelle all has been so quiet here that many cast doubts on it. There is no lack of reasons for great anxiety. The fears about the safe arrival of the fleet increase as the time of its appearance is delayed.
I am told they have sent orders to the Count of Monterei to stop all his negotiations at Genoa, give up his visit to Turin and to go on to Rome. The decision is not known for certain.
The sea forces are in poor condition. Only the Dunkirkers can serve with any profit. They are very anxious about the decisions of the King of England, whose fleets are terrible to the people of these realms and to the king because of the traffic of India and the treasure fleets.
Madrid, the 15th November, 1628.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Ceffalonia.
Venetian
Archives.
561. FRANCESCO PIERO MALIPIERO, Venetian Proveditore of Cephalonia, to the DOGE and SENATE.
While I was visiting the islands, on the 29th ult., about the second hour of the day a small French saettia with eight men, master Francesco Rimondo, from Marseilles for Smyrna, sheltered at S. Iodoro at the mouth of the port of Argostoli. In that port there were fifteen merchantmen, English and Flemish, who had laded currants in these islands and were about to depart. Immediately the saettia cast anchor these ships sent two boats and fetched the captain and some of the men to their flagship, removing a part of the goods. At this moment pirates came up and the French master was allowed to return to his ship and warned to defend himself from the pirates, as the merchantmen were not alarmed. The master went further in, but the pirates came up and fired two shots. The merchantmen then made the Frenchman put himself for safety under the poop of their flagship, though in an insulting manner, and they took away what they could. The pirate then came up and conferred with the captain of the fleet. Showing his patents he had the cable, by which it was moored, cut and brought it under his ship. He took possession of it together with the remainder of its cargo and money, amounting to 5,500 ryals. This pirate is named Kenelm Digby, knight.
When Sig. Lippomano heard of the scant respect shown to your Serenity's ports, he went to Argostoli to make enquiries. Owing to the importance of the ships of friendly powers being safe in your Serenity's jurisdiction he induced the English merchants living in these islands to make representations to the pirate captain and get him to make restitution, since it was impossible to use force, there being no fortress to defend the port, a matter which your Serenity might consider. The captain, thus approached, refused to make restitution, declaring that he had patents from his king to take all the enemies of the Crown. The French could appeal to England.
When Lippomano perceived that this audacious pirate was determined to give up nothing, he arrested three of the English merchants, detaining them in his house, where they were very well treated in order to get the other merchants to repeat their offices, adding that he knew the king's affection for the republic did not comport with wrong being done to her ports. The pirate finally agreed to give up the saettia to the representatives with all the tackle necessary to navigate it, though he persisted that he had acted legitimately.
Lippomano did not settle anything, but informed me of the circumstances. I told him to receive the saettia so that the French may see how much your Serenity's representatives have at heart the interests of the subjects of friendly princes. The French are greatly relieved by this concession, granted expressly at the instance of the republic, and have expressed their thanks.
The pirate asked for access, but this was refused, as well as permission to take water, as he did not come in the usual manner of his countrymen, who are welcome and well received throughout your Serenity's dominions, as if they were Venetians, as the merchants themselves can testify. The Captain of War had orders to set two squadrons of the ordinanza to guard the port. The pirate complained of this, but was told that if he had come in a proper and not a hostile manner he would have been treated with the courtesy shown to the English. He left the port to-day with his consorts, giving chase to a ship of no great size which was going towards the West. After a chase of twenty miles, he took it and brought it east. I have not yet heard what the ship was.
This pirate had two large consorts and a tartana. He had 90 men on board his ship and 26 iron guns. One of the consorts had 50 men and 20 guns and the other two 50 men and 18 guns each, all picked men and well disciplined. The captain seems to be a man of lively spirit, very valiant and greatly esteemed by his men.
Cephalonia, the 6th November, 1628, old style.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
562. To the Ambassador Contarini in England.
The continued activities of the pirate Digby cause us to send you the enclosed letters of the 13th October from the governor of the convict galleys from Dragomestre. You will note his scandalous operations, and make every effort to secure his recall without delay, or worse may happen.
We hear from Savoy that Montagu landed and after negotiating with the Rochellese he returned to the fleet with a draft of articles for peace. We have no certainty of this, however, and Zorzi, in letters of the 15th and 16th October, tells us all about the peace and the intentions of France, with only a slight difference in a single article. Your prudence and ability leave us nothing to add; we need only remark on the eagerness with which we wait for news. The Senate has confirmed its satisfaction with you by selecting you for the embassy in France.
Ayes, 127.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
563. To the Ambassadors in England and at the Hague.
The difficulties of Italian affairs increase daily, as do the designs and arms of Spain. The passes in the Valtelline and the Grisons are closed more and more strictly, and only opened to Spanish troops. Even the Duke of Mayenne was turned back, though he was only going with a few men to his father. The Catholic is determined to have Casale. Since the attempt on Casale Don Gonzales has sent to require the Duke of Mantua to hand over Casale to the Catholic promptly, and not in Caesar's name. Our interests are so united with those of Mantua that we may be said to be negotiating for ourselves at the same time; thus our very heavy expenses keep increasing, while others profit by the diversion.
News of the fall of La Rochelle has reached Turin, but has not been confirmed yet. Genoa has been alarmed by the French galleys which have sailed from Marseilles with some galleons of the Duke of Guise, rumoured to have designs on Corsica. News has come from Spain by way of Florence that the Dutch have taken a very important port for harassing the Spaniards on the way to the Indies. This may divert them from their other plans. It is necessary to find out and report all about this.
With regard to the peace negotiations with Spain we hear, since the report of Carlisle's urgent recall to England, that he is still at Turin with Wake, negotiating. Thus the earlier suspicions about this peace and the truce are reviving. We send this for your information, adding that those ambassadors do not seem to enjoy staying at that Court, owing to the variations they meet with from day to day in their negotiations with his Highness.
Ayes, 127.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
564. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The mission of the Abbot Scaglia to Spain is confirmed, and that the duke wishes to feel the pulse of that Court by a minister of ability in order to secure himself against any move which the French may make against him.
Turin, the 17th November, 1628.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
565. To the Ambassador Corner in Savoy.
Your letters brought us the first news of the surrender of La Rochelle, which was despatched on the 11th and received on the 14th. The Secretary Maggi has only confirmed it to us to-day in the name of the French ambassador.
You will make every effort to discover the real objects and ideas of the journeys of Carlisle, Barozzio and Scaglia, if they take place, and why Wake is staying on, as this is all of considerable importance in the present serious circumstances.
Ayes, 132.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
566. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I write this rather to accompany the enclosures than because there is any great occasion for it. Five weeks have passed since I received letters from Italy, although much is said about leagues between your Serenity, the pope and the Italian princes. The merchants have received theirs by way of Dunkirk down to the 20th October, while my last are of the 29th September. But to tell the truth all correspondence has been delayed of late by very ill-timed storms. On the other hand, nothing certain can be heard about La Rochelle. One may not question the despatches of the Dutch ambassadors, but it is strange not to have had news from any quarter for twenty days. I hope that on the appearance of that advice the peace will proceed favourably, as I think we are very near it. If I can succeed in these last proposals of mine, we shall see the result in a few days; if not, I hope at least that in France they will remember that they are the victors. I confess that they are tired of the war here. They want peace, and it will be made, but with respect to a prompt decision, there are a thousand objections about dishonour, since they have had so much the worst of it. Some of the more astute see that some bargain may be made, based on the negotiations with Spain. I am aware of this, and have no other thought than to prevent it, because of the evil consequences that such a root may produce. I am already warned that so far there is nothing authentic about Porter's negotiations. It is reported indeed that Rubens, the painter, who went with him to Spain, is dead. He was the dragoman of the whole affair. However, I do not yet despair, as I know well that if the French care to cut this thread they will be able to do so by means of overtures, as here they wish for peace, but they want it with some honour, after so many dishonours and losses. I try hard to remove this punctilio.
The Earl of Arundel is recalled to the Council and seems to get very near the king's ear. The treasurer, who used to be his creature, now supports him to strengthen his party and advance in authority. These two will have a good share in the government. They are downright Englishmen, who care little for foreign affairs, following the example of King James, and would willingly make peace with everybody. The treasurer is suspected of belonging to the Catholic party, so he ought not in reason to wish for parliaments. By cutting off the cause of expenditure he will keep the king out of want, while if this continues, his Majesty will never obtain money without augmenting the privileges of the people, which in the end lessen those of the Crown. The effects of this are already visible. The merchants have taken a number of bales out of the custom house without paying duty, saying that they are not bound to pay it unless it is confirmed by parliament. Some of them were put in prison, but were set at liberty subsequently by the judges in ordinary, in virtue of the memorial conceded to the last parliament. The case is really an ugly one, as it affects the essence of the king's revenues, and the necessary remedy can only be applied by using violence. I think that the hatred between the king and the people is so rooted that it can only be eradicated with difficulty, especially as they talk of resuming the affair of the duke, although he is dead (il necessario rimedio non puo esser che con violenza et io credo che l'odio tra il Re et li popoli sia cosi radicato che difficilmente potra suedersi, tanto più che parlano di ripigliar il negotio del Duca ancorche morto).
Commissioners and money have been sent to the principal ports of the kingdom, where the fleet will probably arrive, that they may immediately pay and dismiss the soldiers and the crews as well, so that they may not live in idleness this winter, burdening the king as in former years. This is a great sign of a desire for quiet, as well as of keeping his Majesty out of want as much as possible.
I wrote in my last that the Danish ambassador had been promised 1,200 foot, to fill up Morgan's regiment, but as the treasurer has turned all his thoughts to paying the fleet, he has withdrawn this promise, under the plea that the season is too far advanced. He mitigates this by writing to the Netherlands for the States to contribute to Morgan five soldiers out of each English company, with a promise to give as many more in the spring. The ambassador, who had perhaps pledged himself to his king, was in despair and made up his mind to depart, but his Dutch colleagues urged him to remain, and prayed me to back their suit. I did so, remarking that the fleet would soon return, with troops on board, with which he might be better supplied than with those promised him. He has decided to stay and be patient for some weeks longer, to see the result of the peace with France, and something definite, as promised him on the return of the fleet. I believe this may prevent the catastrophe to which the King of Denmark might easily have been led, by the cheerless impressions of his minister. You will already have heard of the meeting of the commissioners to treat about the peace at the instigation of the Hanse towns. Colonel Ferez, who came here to take the recruits, has left without them, and will proceed with Morgan's troops to Gluckstadt. But unless he receives greater assistance he will hardly open the way for himself by force to succour Crempe, which is their chief care.
The Marquis of Hamilton has come from Scotland. He has married the niece of the late Duke of Buckingham, so the king has made him master of the horse, which is the best post, although with a reduced salary.
The merchants who trade in the Levant have made some arrangements with the pirates of Tunis, Algiers, Oran and Salee. In virtue of this a proclamation has been issued forbidding the English to molest or fight them at sea. (fn. 2) This declaration in favour of such a faithless race seems very strange and indecorous on the part of a great king. The Dutch have never done anything like it, as, although they made certain arrangements with pirates, they never published them by proclamation or authority, to their disrepute with other powers.
This Levant Company sent the usual ships to Zante for currants, where they are supposed to have arrived by this time. They gave orders for purchase at the rate of from 35 to 40 ducats the thousand, as usual, but it was subsequently decided among the merchants that after Christmas purchases should be made not at a higher rate than 20 ducats the thousand. Although this pertains to the parties concerned, who will doubtless have more exact information, I have referred to the subject, as it may benefit your Serenity's poor subjects to be forewarned.
The day before yesterday the merchants trading in the Levant presented a petition to the Council remonstrating upon the great loss sustained by that trade through the number of ships which cruise in the Mediterranean under pretence of attacking the enemy. The chief cause is the temerity of Digby, owing the 50,000 piastres which they had to pay for the release of the consul. I hear that another person has been sent out in his place. He is reproached with not having remained a prisoner, to give time for negotiation, instead of being in such a hurry to free himself and so consenting to such a heavy ransom. (fn. 3) After much debate they have decided not to grant similar patents for the future, and I hope that those already granted will be cancelled, as the necessity for doing so has long been foreseen and suggested.
London, the 18th November, 1628.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure.567. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in England, to ZORZI ZORZI, his colleague in France.
My last was forwarded on the 3rd inst. I have since laboured to divert any idea which might delay the negotiation. I hope that for the present they will keep to the sole point of the peace. Although the king told me that he had written about it to Savoy, I have no confirmation that this has been done yet. Even the best intentioned of the ministers request me not to insist about the queen's household, as the king will grant nothing, and the more he is pressed the worst he will act. If peace is made and passion soothed, the ambassadors followed by the queens, may be tact obtain all they desire. I know from my acquaintance with the king's character that they are not speaking for the sake of advantage, but because it is really the case. Nevertheless, despite their twofold obligation, in the marriage treaty and Bassompierre's I repeat what you will see below.
Meanwhile the Dutch ambassadors have heard that Rochelle capitulated on the 28th October and the king made his entry on the 1st November, and so forth. The news is remarkable and anticipated. Nothing further has been heard since Montagu arrived here and its announcement to the king and the ambassadors. I lost no time in urging the ministers to transmit some communication to France immediately, as the king always declared that he would go on with the treaty after the result of La Rochelle, whatever it might be. They replied at once that the Dutch news was not credited, as twenty days had passed without confirmation arriving by any other channel. They have nothing from the fleet, which causes surprise and fear lest it may have suffered in the late violent storms. They must first know for certain and they place great reliance on your Serenity's advices. They further tell me it is necessary to wait for your reply to know whether the French are still inclined to peace after this victory, how they will treat the Huguenots and if they will give up the point about the queen's household. They asked me very earnestly when your answer would come, so I inferred that the Rochelle disaster does not diminish their good disposition. For other reasons also I thought fit to insist, in order to cut short all delay; so I proposed to a minister in my confidence and of most authority, that when the loss of La Rochelle was confirmed his Majesty should promise me to sign the enclosed agreement, without alteration, which is similar to the one already sent. You would do your utmost to get the article about the household omitted, but in any case you shall be authorised to adjust it as it stands.
I then suggested that the two kings should sign idential copies on the appointed day, one in France and the other here, to be handed to us and delivered to the ambassadors extraordinary, who will be sent. On receipt of the advice announcing the nomination of the ambassadors, peace will be proclaimed, the re-opening of trade and so forth. I thought this a good way for getting everything settled in a fortnight, as the cardinal wishes, and to remove all questions of punctilio which might arise between the two kings, and which are as difficult to remove as the business itself.
The ministers are very well satisfied with these proposals, and I hope that the king will agree to them. They add that they must first be sure of the news about La Rochelle, and they will then set about winning the king, who cannot be very well disposed owing to this defeat, especially in the first heat, and because he, more than anyone, hoped that the place would be relieved. I might have waited for the decision, but I avail myself of the opportunity of someone crossing the Channel, to acquaint you with what is passing, so that you may hasten your reply to my last, as they are expecting it here, and that you will let me know the feeling of the French, and how they mean to treat the Huguenots. That is the only way to meet with a good correspondence on this side. Then with the information, with which I have supplied you, you will be able to arrange the matter over there, so as to prevent rejection, or else gain the point of proposing it to me, either as it stands or altered, so that if the king raises any difficulty, it may be more easily overcome. The French ought to consider that now they have gained La Rochelle, which was their sole object, they ought to soothe his Majesty and not expect advances from him, especially after these first shocks. The reason why I urge so much haste is the suspicion of some malign Spanish influence, as it is already announced that the Catholic will give England every satisfaction even by ceding some portion of the Palatinate, to prevent this re-union with the French. As the peace is not settled it is subjected to much criticism. Some approve, while others find obstacles. The Earl of Arundel has re-entered the Council, is united with the treasurer and has no little influence with the king. I cannot say that he rejects the peace, because they are weary of the war, but they will facilitate this one with Spain also if they have the means, as they have inherited the maxims of the late king.
All the circumstances require speed, and I am told that we must move quickly in order to avoid merchandising. I am working heart and soul to this end, but as the king is undermost and not afraid of the victorious enemy, he cannot, with double dishonour, both speak and lose. The victor must make some advances, especially at this crisis, which may mean so much for France, Italy and the common cause. So long as things were doubtful all proposals came from here: I hope to advance these last, and give them the finishing touch, when there is some certainty about La Rochelle. In that case I will immediately send off an express. If this loss occupies the king's mind for some little while, which I should regret, but do not anticipate, the French are bound in reason to do as he did by them. Perhaps by this time you will have found the true way either by overtures of your own or by these of mine, and that you will at least be able to meet me half way. Send all your letters by way of Calais, as now there are not so many restrictions; and keep the affair always on foot. Some advantage will be derived from the accompanying news letter.
London, the 18th November, 1628.
[Italian; the parts in italics deciphered; copy.]
Enclosure.568. Articles of the Peace between the two Crowns of France and England.
(1) That friendship be restored between the two crowns, as required by uniformity of interests, ties of blood and alliances, both sides forgetting all causes of offence.
(2) Both kings shall find a means to satisfy their subjects for the prizes taken at sea, without either requiring restitution from the other, owing to the difficulty of striking a balance.
(3) With regard to other alterations, things shall return to their condition before these troubles began, and the same shall be understood to apply to treaties, agreements and alliances existing between the two crowns.
(4) Commerce and trade shall be re-established between the two kingdoms, exactly as before the troubles.
(5) That as regards the question of the household of the Queen of Great Britain, the satisfaction to be claimed in the matter shall be referred to the said queen and the queen mother.
(6) That all old friendships, alliances and good understandings shall remain unchanged.
(7) The two kings, being reunited and rid of the quarrels between them, will employ their forces in assisting their friends and allies. The ambassadors of both will be charged to treat more amply of this, and to make proposals for the advantage of the common cause, for which they declare their devotion.
(8) On the establishment of the above, ambassadors extraordinary shall be sent by both with the ratification of the present agreement and the nomination of ambassadors in ordinary also, who will reside at the Courts to advance and foster this reunion and prevent occasions which might disturb it.
(9) As many ships are already at sea, far away, with authority to attack hostile vessels, which cannot so soon receive news of the peace, and the orders to abstain from hostilities, it is agreed that nothing that takes place within four months from the signing of the agreement shall derogate from this peace or the good intentions of both crowns.
[Italian; copy, translated from the French.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
569. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I had audience of the pope yesterday about the articles of peace between the emperor and Mantua. I approved highly of the views he propounded and expressed my belief that the reports from La Rochelle were true, and further that peace between France and England was already concluded, and that would undoubtedly bring peace to Italy. The pope remarked that he was not assured of this accommodation, although many circumstances seemed to confirm it, and Zorzi, your Serenity's ambassador in France, had worked hard to bring it about. I fancy that the pope did not seem to rejoice whole heartedly at the union of these two crowns, as he referred to it very tepidly, although at the end he remarked that if a peace of this nature had been made to the advantage of the Catholics, as he hoped, he would rejoice greatly.
I replied that this might be presupposed, as even if the union of the two kings brought no other advantage, it would benefit the Catholic faith wonderfully owing to the relief it would afford to this province.
Rome, the 18th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
570. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Bethune confirmed the truth of the resolutions taken to England by Montagu, but I could not extract from him the special points. He merely told me that the Most Christian would not have his subjects mentioned or included, and he meant to make himself master of La Rochelle before signing. The Venetian ambassador had greatly assisted this peace, which would stop the negotiations for peace between the English and Spaniards, if it did nothing else, and it would also prevent the Dutch from inclining to a truce.
Rome, the 18th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
571. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Earl of Carlisle left on Saturday; the senior prince gave him furnishings of gold brocade for two rooms, and the duke a jewelled sword. These gifts are estimated to be worth from 15,000 to 20,000 crowns. Before he left he spoke again to me of his indebtedness to the republic. He told me that he had got Wake to make a diary with a record of all the honours received from his entry into the Venetian state to his departure. (fn. 4) He would show it to the king, who would certainly make some great demonstration in honour of the Ambassador Contarini.
Carlisle also desired to speak to me at length about current affairs. He remarked that it was a maxim at Venice that nothing good could be done without France. As their opinion was different he did not know how to negotiate with your Serenity. He for his part did not see how Cardinal Richelieu would agree now to the Most Christian making war on the Spaniards, a thing he had never seemed to approve, and the reports they spread now about taking La Rochelle are merely to encourage others and invite them to the dance, while they alone stand apart and play the music. It was indeed true that they have too many frontiers to wish to break with the king of Spain, and they will never want to declare war on that Crown. If they did so he knew they would find companions and allies; his king would do his part fully, and would offer, as he had done in the past, to help them to recover Navarre from the Spaniards.
I replied that your Serenity esteems the strength of the King of Great Britain from the resources he commands and his own wealth; but there is no doubt that France, which has the same interests in the common cause as England, is a desirable ally and associate for good resolutions, and the republic would like to see peace and concord reign where objects and interests are uniform. If it is possible to do well without France it follows that much more can be achieved with her, and the union of the two crowns will counterbalance the Austrians. I therefore considered that our best interests would consist more in efforts to reconcile and reunite the two crowns than in speaking of a union apart from France.
Carlisle replied, laughing, that under the present king and ministers France would never take the necessary decisions. To stand and wait for them meant depending on them, owing to the lustre of their reputation, and experiencing the deception and desertion which they practice on all who preserve their friendship: while those objects for which they put up with all this are never attained. He spoke of the forces formed by the Duke of Guise and the Marquis of Coure, laughing at these fine commanders who have always shown themselves the most thorough Hispanophiles in France.
I believe personally that both England and Savoy intend that France shall not call a concert before moving against the Spaniards. They believe that this is a trick and a device in order to get others to move. They would like them to make the move, in the assurance that interest, their own service and the very genius of the princes would make them follow the French bravely and without hesitation about concerting a powerful reinforcement to their efforts for the common cause. Carlisle said he knew that if there was not the name of the Catholic league in Germany, which had joined Bavaria with Cæsar, Bavaria would be the first to break with the emperor.
Turin, the 19th November, 1628.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
572. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
There is no news of the peace with England. The Agent Carleton, who has letters of the 11th from London, says that things will be more discordant than ever, and that the king has written on purpose to let him know that the French mean to deceive him. I do not attach much importance to what he says, because I have not found him very trustworthy in smoother affairs, and when his master's wound is so fresh he may speak with great passion. But one must not refuse to listen to those who sometimes speak at haphazard. One should be on the watch to see what two great events like the capture of the Spanish fleet and the surrender of La Rochelle may bring forth; they might easily make the Spaniards more inclined to some accommodation with the English, and although those negotiations are damped by the duke's death, yet I have discovered latterly that when the King of England sent the news to Porter there were also letters for the Abbot Scaglia, who was about to return to London to assist at the negotiations begun, as since the duke's death there was no one more capable than himself to direct matters. This agrees with what I wrote last week as letters of the abbot have been seen saying that he must return to London and perhaps go on to Spain. I have sent word of all this to Contarini.
The French ambassador has not yet received a reply to what he advanced in the Assembly. They have also postponed satisfying the demands of Lopez. He will obtain something, but it will be of slight importance, as the English have intervened. Carleton stated that the English could not suffer the French to make their Arsenal here. The neutrality of the States avails them nothing because they assert that there is an offensive and defensive league with them, and they are quite outside the treaty with France. Thus the English put every difficulty in the way of the renewal of the alliance so long as the present troubles last.
In the Amboyna affair, in addition to the deputies to arrange an agreement between the companies, I fancy that the King of England desires an apparent satisfaction, consisting in making the judges who sentenced the English confess their transgression. It may be possible to find some way of settling this by negotiation, and it is very desirable.
The Hague, the 20th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
573. ZORZI ZORZI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
With respect to the peace between the two crowns, the cardinal, to tell the truth, remains most steadfast and I cannot but praise him. We agreed upon nine articles, and with respect to the difficulty of the queen's household the cardinal agreed to rest content with only six more than Bassompierre arranged. He told me frankly that he could not increase the reputation of a person in the king's favour and not an intimate of his own, especially after he had several times declared openly that he neither could nor would abide by his treaty. He wanted two other very reasonable things, that the peace should be at once, and that England should make the first move. As the English do not make up their minds about these points one is forced to conclude that they do not want peace with the French, and that they mean to unite with the Austrians, fascinated possibly by the hopes and negotiations of the Spaniards, who by nature are never in a hurry, which is always the way to win, not merely to reach the end but even to arrive in the middle, and by moving slowly they make princes grow old and grey and die while they attain their ends, point by point.
La Rochelle, the 20th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
574. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Abbot Scaglia's journey to Spain is covered under the pretext that he is going to ask for the release of an English ship, which discharged at Villefranche and went for the duke to lade salt at Evizza, and was stopped by Don Federigo di Toledo. But the abbot is not a minister to go on such business, as he is the best the duke has.
Wake has heard of the arrest of Porter in France on his way from Spain. He pretends to think nothing of it and blames Porter because he never negotiated by the king's orders, but Buckingham's alone, so that no one need fear that his proceedings would damage the cause. I know, however, that Wake is sending the news to Carlisle.
I have told Wake of the difficulties over the release of Provaglio. It was suspended between the desire to honour him and the observance of the law. He said nothing except that when he was at Venice he thought they intended to give him hopes that the difficulties would be overcome. I replied that the republic was so friendly that at the first request they desired to gratify him, but when the matter was taken in hand they realised the difficulties.
Turin, the 20th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Proveditore
in Dalmazia.
Venetian
Archives.
575. ALVISE ZORZI, Proveditore General in Dalmatia, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Vice Captain Mocenigo on the 12th was at the Bocche of Cattaro. He may bring news of some consequence, as we hear that Digby, the commander of the English ships, since the affair at Scanderoon, is at present in the Levant sea between Zante and Cephalonia with a quantity of booty and a good number of ships.
We hear that after the Scanderoon affair he proceeded to the Archipelago with five other vessels, and near Candia he took two French saettie, laden with rich merchandise for Leghorn and Genoa, the men on board escaping to land. Another saettia chased by them shortly afterwards took refuge at Calus Limiones. In the same waters they plundered a French polacca, which came from Marseilles and near Tripoli had laded silk, cotton and potash to a very great value.
After that they had been in the port of Zante, where they were refused access, biscuits and other things, and had to go to Curzolari to repair and careen, and then to accompany towards the Strait this fleet of a good number of vessels which were cruising about in that neighbourhood. The union of so many powerful well armed vessels under the command of a man of doubtful good will cannot fail to excite much uneasiness.
Liesena, the 20th November, 1628.
[Italian.]
Nov. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Aleppo.
Venetian
Archives.
576. BERNARDO SALAMON, Venetian Vice Consul at Aleppo, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Since the affair at Scanderoon the English consul has been very bitter both towards the Consul Pesaro and me. He refused to visit me on my taking up the charge. I have done my best to encourage confidential relations with the foreign ministers here. I have tried to find out what his designs might be. I find that he has obtained from Constantinople a command under the king's hand ordering the Cadi to restore to the English nation all the money expended to adjust the Alexandretta affair. He was not satisfied with the command which reached him and sent it back for one more distinct, naming the ministers on whom the money was spent, and myself as the representative of your Serenity, who began the fight and were the original cause of everything.
I have obtained from the Turkish ministers here, under colour of other matters, some cozetti or attestations, which will be very serviceable for the defence of your Excellencies' interests. I also fortified myself with some particulars and so I hope to destroy the pretensions of this Englishman and to prove how praiseworthy was the work of the ships I sent word at once to the Bailo Veniero.
Aleppo, the 20th November, 1628.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Dudley Carleton writes of the arrival of Lopez and his business on the 31st October, o.s. S.P. Holland.
2 Proclamation of the 22nd Oct., o.s., to forbear hostility towards persons, ships or goods of Algiers, Tunis, Salee and Tetual. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1628–9, page 356.
3 The meeting of the Company on this subject took place on the 6th November, o.s., and the petition mentioned in the text is most probably the paper calendared on page 401 of the Dom. Cal., 1628–9, vol. cxxi, no. 103. The dismissal of Potton, the consul at Aleppo, was discussed at a meeting held on the 1st Oct., but was not then carried. Potton was appointed in 1627 for four years, and John Wandesford was nominated to succeed him on the 3rd March, 1629. State Papers, Foreign. Archives. Levant Co. Court Book. Epstein, The Levant Company, pages 98, 215.
4 This is preserved at the Public Record Office among the S.P. Foreign, Savoy.