Venice
January 1629, 12-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1916

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474-483

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'Venice: January 1629, 12-20', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 21: 1628-1629 (1916), pp. 474-483. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89211 Date accessed: 25 July 2014.


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Contents

January 1629

Jan. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
676. To the Ambassador CONTARINI in England.
Zorzi writes to us on the 27th ult. about the two outstanding points. We feel sure that you will overcome the last traces of repugnance and bring the matter to perfection by the establishment of the peace. The more we hear of the solicitude of the Spaniards to thwart it, the more we commend your efforts for a speedy conclusion. Full powers from the Catholic have reached Flanders and there is news from Spain of considerable advance in those negotiations, as you will see from the enclosed copy for your information. Wake, however, seems to think that the business between France and England is in good train, and admits the weakness of the Spaniards and the deplorable state of their affairs in Flanders. On the other hand everything goes to show the determination of France to attend to Italy, and there is hope that the Cavalier Valanse, sent from France to Savoy, may induce his Highness to reunite with France. The Spanish ministers are very anxious about this, and the imperial commissioner has received such replies from the Duke of Mantua that he has returned to Milan, declaring all negotiations broken off. Carlisle writes from Noistot that he is continuing his journey, and the English ambassador at the Hague advises Wake that two Spaniards who crossed to Gravesend were thought to have come to treat. We enclose copies of the Turin letters giving certain views expressed by Wake. This will serve you for light and comparison, as well as his statement that he will not come back here and his satisfaction expressed to Corner.
We note that the article of peace about the restitution of Torras' ship is expressed in three ways, one of these being to refer to our ambassadors. We do not desire that on any account, and you will therefore try to get the article accepted in one of the other two ways. But if the peace cannot be arranged otherwise, we will agree to this third form, in order that the conclusion may not be delayed.
We have the orders sent to Wake about Digby, about whom fresh troubles arise daily. By the enclosed copy you will see the instance made to us on the 4th inst. by the French ambassador about a French saetta, plundered in the port of Argostoli. This will serve you for information, as we are fully satisfied with your reply to Conway.
From the enclosed memorial of Zuanne Pasqualigo you will see his most just request for the recovery of a quantity of muscat bought by the English from a ship of his taken by pirates, the English being accustomed to buy such booty. We desire you to make every effort for its restitution and compensation. We also intend to speak on his behalf to the secretary of England here and to get Corner to speak to Wake.
With respect to those who offer levies of troops for our service, we cannot give a precise answer without knowing the particular conditions. We therefore desire you to send us full particulars on the subject, the amount of pay, the cost of bringing the men here, obtaining the lowest possible quotations, and the time for which they will grant the men, as with this information we can say what we desire. If they say that they cannot wait for an answer, you will tell them that they are at liberty to do what suits them best.
That the secretary of England be spoken to in conformity.
That the Ambassador Corner be directed to perform a full office with the Ambassador Wake.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 3.Neutral, 15.
[Italian.]
Jan. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
677. To the Ambassador CORNER in Savoy.
You do well to encourage confidential relations with Wake, and we rejoice at the satisfaction and friendliness he expresses. We desire you to assure him of our affection and esteem, and that though we regret his going away from us we rejoice in the assurance of his good will, wherever he may be. We tell you for information that we are having the usual chain prepared for him and his secretary which will be presented to his wife by our Collegio, when his departure is ascertained. We shall also be able, through Vidman, to obtain the passport for his wife from Bavaria.
You will ask Wake to write recommending the restitution of the wine of Zuanne Pasqualigo, about which we have written to Contarini in England, and we shall be much gratified by any good results that may ensue.
That 1,000 crowns of 7 lire each be expended upon a gold chain for the English ambassador Wake, to be consigned by our Collegio to his wife here when it is certain that he will not return to his embassy here. That the usual sum be expended upon a chain for his secretary, who is now in this city.
Ayes, 138.Noes, 1.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Jan. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
678. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Chevalier de Valanse left on Monday. The duke told the Ambassador Wake at length of the proposals made to him by France. He said that Valanse had contradicted himself in many ways, as on the one hand he said his king could not allow Casale to belong to the Spaniards, and on the other that he would allow Casale to fall rather than lose the friendship of his Highness. So the duke thought it was all a pretence. The duke said they spoke to him about restoring the treaty of Henry IV. It may all be an artifice of the Ambassador Wake, but I have an indication from elsewhere that it is true.
The English ambassador had his despatch from London brought by a member of his household. He had audience of the duke forthwith, and I believe that in order to restrain this prince from any decision to reunite with the French, Wake is changing his prognostication about the French breaking thoroughly with the Spaniards.
The Earl of Carlisle has received orders, which found him at Cologne, to proceed to Brussels. They publish the command in order to check the murmurs which arose about his treating with the infanta when he went to Italy. Wake says he has orders to thank the infanta in his king's name for the welcome accorded to him on his first passage; and if the Cardinal della Queva or Colombo make any proposals, he is not to answer but merely to report. Wake also says he hears from England that no negotiations whatever for peace are on foot with France, and that since the fall of La Rochelle they find that the cardinal no longer cares anything about it.
Porter remains in Spain, and the English wish, if they cannot make peace with France, to see if they can make one with the Spaniards, and they publish hopes of the restitution of the Palatinate.
Turin, the 13th January, 1628 [M.V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
679. AGOSTIN VIANUOL, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The son of the Earl of Carlisle arrived in this city to-day. He stopped at Leghorn and Pisa for sight seeing.
Florence, the 13th January, 1628 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
680. PIETRO VICO, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I will try to obtain the passport as your Excellency directs for the English ambassadress, so that she may pass freely through his Imperial Majesty's dominions; but I have no opportunity of obtaining one from the Duke of Bavaria, as he has no minister at this Court at present, and because Munich is at least fifteen days from here.
Vienna, the 13th January, 1628 [M.V.].
[Italian; copy.]
Jan. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
681. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Last Thursday Carlisle's secretary reached the Hague from England with royal despatches ordering the earl to return home as soon as possible. He was in the assembly on the following day to return thanks for his reception. He assured them of his master's affection for their interests. He concluded his leave taking of the ministers yesterday. He says he will not stay here to wait for a wind, which is now contrary. He will go to the coast where the States have ships ready to take him over. I have seen him frequently of late, and I had the opportunity of entertaining him at the embassy as well as Roe, the princes here also being present, hoping that this would help me when I go to take up my new charge. When he took leave we had a long conversation in which I tried to dispel all bitter feelings and to make him see the need for peace between the two crowns. I was much better satisfied with him than the first time, as he spoke less sharply, and although he did not refrain from railing at France he protested with many oaths that he desired that union and that his king ought to set it before any other if the French would devote themselves to the public cause. He remarked that the republic must believe their words, as although they have declared that Chrichi, the Marshal d'Estre and the Duke of Guise are to pass to Italy, yet they have not decided to do it. I told him that I heard from France that the king really meant to assist the Duke of Mantua, remarking that peace was necessary in order to take away every pretext from France for not doing so, as while they had to defend themselves against England there was some fear that they would not attend to Italy or would only do so feebly. He said that the Most Christian would not assist the Duke of Mantua in any way, and even if peace was made with England, they would always have the pretext of the Huguenots. I said there was not much fear on that score as they are so crushed at present, and when peace was concluded Italy would certainly receive help. I told him the advices from Spain, the resolute proposals of Botru, the dismay of the Spaniards at hearing that the Most Christian meant to intervene in Italy, where the Spaniards pretended that he had no interests, and that after this advice they had decided in France to recall Botru, cut short all negotiations and appeal to arms. He merely repeated several times: Don't believe it: remember the Valtelline, Mansfelt and many other deceptions. I said he was too severe on them and thought that a person who acted ill once would never do anything good. Italy required a remedy where it would get one, and at present to look to any but to France was loss of time, an allusion to what he said last week that Christendom could be put straight without France. I know that he builds a great deal upon these resolutions of the Most Christian for Italy, and I am afraid that the English may build yet greater hopes on their progress, seeing France occupied, but fearing that she may not act in earnest, while they recognise the danger and see themselves engaged in war with them.
The Earl complained to me about the demonstrations of contempt for his king and country at Paris at the entry of the Most Christian, remarking that such actions raised bitter feelings and would make peace more difficult. I said I knew nothing about it; such demonstrations were usually made to please the people. He spoke also of some pictures representing the defeat of the English. I replied that it was better they should be on canvas than real. He said it was all bad and the demonstration showed great hatred.
He went on to speak of the Duke of Savoy in the highest terms. He said that if your Serenity and the pope had chosen to help him when he announced his claims to the Monferrat he would not have put himself in the hands of the Spaniards, and now he had got what he wanted he did not propose to do any more. I replied that when the Duke of Nevers took possession of the states, proposals were made to the Duke of Savoy which he did not embrace as he possibly hoped to gain more by arms than by negotiation, while your Serenity had always exerted yourselves for concord and unity among the princes of Italy, and you would not depart from your usual custom to the prejudice of the Duke of Mantua. It was permissible to believe that the Duke of Savoy intended to draw close to the Spaniards, which causes no little disturbance in this province. That could always be remedied if the peace between the two crowns was made, because the duke would return to his former ideas. The earl said that his king would always approve that he should be the friend of his friends and the enemy of his enemies. I retorted: Then His Majesty cannot be pleased at the duke continuing his confidential relations with the Spaniards, with whom his Majesty is at open war. The earl apologised saying it was compulsory, as the French had deceived the duke too often, and he could not trust them.
After my first visit to Carlisle I also passed a confidential office with the Ambassador Roe, communicating in substance what had passed between me and the earl, or rather what the earl had said to me. I enlarged especially upon the interpretation put upon the reception given him at Venice. This was the more to the point because Roe himself has always assured me how much the earl valued it. He seemed much astonished at what I said and repeated several times: If this is true the earl is deceiving me. I, however, always represented these ideas, told me by the earl, not as his own but as the views of others. I found Roe very anxious that your Excellencies should not be advised of such ideas, so that it may do the earl no harm. That personage recently gave me a long detailed justification of what he had said, repeating several times, that after the interests of his king he would always give precedence to those of your Excellencies, to whom he professed himself infinitely bound. He assured me that he would allow no opportunity to slip for showing to your ministers how much he valued those honours, which he knew were cordial and disinterested. I record this so that your Excellencies may see that these ministers frequently retract and unsay what they find has not been well said or done.
However, I have spoken to the earl in such sort that he was completely satisfied, and I am sure this will be helpful in confirming the opinion of the candour and sincerity of your Excellencies.
With great confidence he informed me that he heard there were great hopes that the Queen of England was enceinte. He swore that he had not told any one but me, and I believe it especially as the news will not afford much satisfaction to the Princess Palatine here, who up to the present has lived in great hopes of that succession, for which she is the more anxious because she has a numerous offspring and not much hope of providing for them honourably.
The Hague, the 15th January, 1628 [M.V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
682. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A report comes from the French embassy that peace between the English and Spaniards is announced at Brussels, though the terms are not known, the only thing certain is that the Palatine is not included; that nothing is said about the peace with England at the Court. In confirmation of nothing being said about the peace in France with the English, Carlisle's secretary, who has come back from England, brings word that nothing was said of the accommodation and they did not know anything about the alleged agreement between the Most Christian and Rohan.
Bad news comes about Glucstat. It is in some danger which was not foreseen, owing to disputes between the Colonels Morgan and Ranzou, in which their troops share, for superiority and the chief command. The States are meeting now in order to find some remedy for this, because the great importance of that place makes them anxious.
The Hague, the 15th January, 1628 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
683. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I continue to hear about Valanse's negotiations. I understand that the duke told him that if the Most Christian made peace with England and declared war on the Spaniards, he would then know what he was to do, and would place more confidence in France.
Turin, the 15th January, 1628 [M.V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
684. To the Ambassador CONTARINI in England.
On the 12th we sent our wishes about Torras' ship. By your letter of the 22nd December, received yesterday we gather the damage done by the delay of the reply from France, yet we trust that when it arrives you will be able to show that the delay arose from the Court, the ambassador and the king being far from Paris, and thus bring matters into good train again, as the difficulty is not so very terrible. We are much pleased with the punctuality of the advices in your letters and the coinciding with those from the King of Denmark, especially communicated to you; the fact that the fleet will not get to Spain this year and that the Spaniards will have to make great efforts next year to convoy it, is a very important reason why his Majesty should not think of treating for peace with them, and why he should incline the more to one with France, which has so many interests in common with his realms, and is now all intent upon the affairs of Italy. Their forces will soon arrive on the frontiers of Savoy and Italy, as we hear from several directions, and by letters of the king to the Duke of Mantua. This all goes to show how void of foundation are the suspicions about the intentions of his Majesty and the cardinal.
You have rightly interpreted our wishes about the pirate Digby, both in your conversations with the Secretary Conway and also about the paper printed on the matter, in speaking on your own responsibility, without committing the State. We now send you a copy of the letter of our Proveditore of Cephalonia of the 6th November about the capture of a French saettia by that pirate in the port of Argostoli. You will observe how badly he behaved and make use of this when the opportunity comes.
Ayes, 155.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Jan. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
685. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
Your offices with the Palatine and the English ambasador Roe were very prudent and proper. The immediate information sent you by the Queen of Bohemia of the birth of her daughter as an argument of confidence and courtesy, and we desire you to make a suitable response with congratulations, wishing her every other prosperity, on behalf of the republic to compensate for her past woes. There is great hope from what the King of Great Britain recently wrote to her, assuring her that he would never abandon her and would always prove a good brother, and also from the remark of a leading minister that Carlisle's visit to Brussels was merely in order to make the French jealous. You will try and penetrate as far as you can into the negotiations that may be on foot for peace between Spain and England and what they expect from them, remarking on the hurtful consequences to the right side, and the advantages of the one with France. You have done well in keeping the Ambassadors Zorzi and Contarini advised of all you know, helping them in their labour of reuniting the two crowns.
Ayes, 155.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Jan. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
686. SEBASTIANO VENIER, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Sig. Salomon, who is acting in place of the Consul at Aleppo has behaved bravely in repairing the prejudice which the English tried to cause with the ministers there because of what the captains of the galeasses and galleons were obliged to do against their ships. I refrain from sending a report. Salomon has sent me several papers, notably of the ministers to the Porte on the subject, in which is registered a cozzetto previously obtained by the English ambassador here, which I enclose. The moment I heard of the business I informed the Caimecan, though taking care not to offend the English consul or merchants at Aleppo, considering this necessary because of the friendship with the English Crown. When the Caimecan asked the dragomans if the consul or merchants were to blame, they answered no, as instructed by me, and I spoke to the same effect. They responded very ill as you will see from their mendacious and injurious account, and the clause they have inserted for the restitution of the money. This may provide an opportunity for the ministers here to involve our merchants in trouble and expense. I am sure the Caimecan did not grant them this cozzetto to molest the Venetians but only to relieve the English, and that the narrative and clause were inserted insidiously, though with great imprudence, because although they have troubled the French consul, the same thing has happened to them, and must have increased their expenses and damaged their repute. Our consul tells me, however, that ours are free, and my letters to the Cadi there must have helped this greatly ; so I hope he will act differently from what he has done in the past. He tells me he has heard that the English are contriving something else to our prejudice. I also was afraid of this, because the ambassador has been in close conference with his merchants, and because they have bought some of our silk, of a certain value, to make presents. Accordingly I sent the dragomans to the first Vizier. Those of France and England also appeared. Ours were called first although the French pushed themselves forward, and they told the Vizier that I had recently received letters from Aleppo, which informed me, to my great astonishment, that by virtue of some cozzetto obtained here, they were molesting the Venetian consul and nation, when they ought to praise us, and they told him what had happened at Alexandretta. The Pasha said this was so and seemed to appreciate the fact. They asked if any other cozzetto should be attempted to our prejudice that he would not grant it, or if he had any doubts, that he would hear me first. He replied: I will have any one beheaded who asks such cozzetti of me. The English had committed three faults, they had violated the Sultan's ports, prejudiced the interests of the Sultana mother, who is mistress of the duties, and tried to injure the merchants who came to the Sultan's states. He knew the Venetians were true friends of the empire, and he dismissed them with friendly words.
The French were afterwards introduced, probably about the same business, because the ambassador spoke to me about it when I went to see him later. He complained of the attempt made by the English against their consul and merchants. He assured me he had never treated about this business or tried to harm them, as he might. But as he was very hostile to Roe and friendly to the present ambassador, he wished to excuse the latter and lay the blame on Roe, although he left here more than a month before the incident happened, as he himself knew. The French at Aleppo confess that the captain of the galley acted rightly, but they want to make out that they were not sufficiently protected and suffered great hurt.
I do not know what request the dragomans of England, made, but they will accomplish a great deal, if with some new outlay they stop what has been done so far. They have behaved very badly to those who have treated them as friends. They have tempted the Cadi, who was stopping at Alexandretta at the time of the fight, to bear witness that the fault was on our side. If the Ambassador Roe had been here things would not have happened in this way, as he was a very prudent man. I fancy the fault lies not so much with the present ambassador as with those who advise him, who lack prudence, even in their own interest. However, if an opportunity occurs I will speak to the ambassador in a suitable manner, pointing out that nothing has been done against their merchants even now when they had given us most just cause.
The Vigne of Pera, the 20th January, 1628 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Enclosure.687. Translation of Cozzetto made by the Cadi of Aleppo to inform the Porte.
By the hand of Tomaso son of Cotto, English consul at Aleppo, to Mehemet Pasha, Beglerbey of Aleppo, as follows:
The English ambassador has informed the Porte that the King of England, being at war with the King of Spain and others, has sent many armed ships against them, and given leave to divers of his nobles to wage war on those enemies but not to hurt his friends. He thus sent forth his valiant Captain Sir Kenelm Digby, who on the 18th of Seval arrived off the imperial dominions. He sent to Alexandretta for water, but when he wished to enter the port some Venetian galleys there fired on him, saying he ought to lower his flag. Although he harmed no one yet the Venetian consul at Aleppo, to cover their fault, falsely stated that the English ships had attacked the port and plundered the ships there. As you did not know the truth, you arrested the English consul and stopped his merchants from trading. To obtain his release the consul had to pay 50,000 thalers. After this great wrong the Cadi of Bairas, from the testimoney of many Musselmans and Christians, gave a cozzetto that the Venetians were the first offenders, and the English did no harm to the Turks. You also found that the Venetians were the culprits, which the Naippo of Aleppo confirmed, and so you ordered the money taken from the consul to be restored, Mustaffa Zans being sent for this purpose. A tribunal was set up before the Beglerbey, before whom the English Consul, Mustaffa Zans and Luigi de Pari, the French consul, appeared.
The French consul said that on the 18th of Seval, 1037, five armed ships entered Alexandretta to fight three ships of his nation there. The merchants fled to shore and 150,000 ryals in money and 12,000 ryals in goods were plundered from their ships, for which cause this Luigi has taken 11,000 ryals from me, which I ask may be restored. This Luigi denied everything. Tomaso had no witnesses but said he gave the 11,000 ryals by the hand of the consul's chiecaca. The French consul presented a cozzetto under the seal of Mehemet son of Ali then Cadi of Bairas, relating the entry of the five ships and that the Venetian galleys fired on them, the English ships replying, and also firing on three French ships in the port. For this cause the men deserted those ships, and all the goods thereon were taken away. Tomaso denied that the incident had happened in that way. Mehemet di Abdi and Carahan d'Abdi, honourable merchants, said they had seen the five ships enter the port, flying the red flag and playing their instruments of war, and the Venetian galleys merely fired to make them keep away, but they took no notice, entered the port and plundered three French ships there. Thus the English ships were entirely to blame; the French never lifted a finger to fight. Tomaso said the English had fired on the French because the Venetians fired first, and therefore the Venetians were to blame.
Given in the middle of the moon of Rabuilachir, 1038.
[Italian.]
Jan. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
688. SEBASTIANO VENIER, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I will make use of the suggestion made by your Excellencies that the Turks should consider the question of the English ships frequenting the mart of Leghorn. But it will be difficult if not impossible to make any impression upon them, as they are not accustomed to take long views but only to look for immediate and manifest advantages, of which they stand in great need.
The Vigne of Pera, the 20th January, 1628 [M.V.].
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
689. AGOSTINO VIANUOL, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The son of the Earl of Carlisle, whom I called to pay my respects, told me that a courier from England had met his father on his way with orders to go to Brussels for some negotiation, an indication that that king is more inclined to come to terms with the Spaniards than with the French.
Florence, the 20th January, 1628 [M.V.].
[Italian.]