Venice
July 1629, 16-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1919

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132-147

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'Venice: July 1629, 16-30', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice: Volume 22, 1629-1632 (1919), pp. 132-147. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89256 Date accessed: 20 October 2014.


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Contents

July 1629

July 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
169. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Sir [Thomas] Roe came to return my visit, accompanied by the Agent Carleton. After exchanging compliments Roe spoke to me somewhat more confidentially about his commissions. He told me that his king, beholding the deplorable condition of Germany and the progress of insatiable ambition there, had decided to do all in his power for the common cause. He had therefore sent Roe to obtain some good resolution here as well as from Sweden and the Hanse towns. It was necessary above all to invigorate the King of Sweden, who could very easily create a powerful diversion, helpful to Germany, the North and all the Baltic as well as to France and Italy. Owing to his abundant supplies of all the materials required for ships, they might call it the northern Indies. His king would afford every assistance possible, the States would concur and all those on the right side would have their share in this admirable work. If the most serene republic, which was so deeply interested, without any public declaration, should contribute a little help, nothing much (and he repeated "nothing much" several times), the King of Sweden would probably be induced to do great things for the common cause.
I thought the best reply was to tell him all that your Serenity had done in Italy. I told him that the present circumstances favoured his mission. He replied that the King of Sweden could not do everything alone, but with assistance he would not be found wanting. He asked me to inform the Senate of what he had said and to give the reply to Carleton. He said I have two other visits to make before this evening as I want to leave the Hague early to-morrow morning to go and see the queen, my king's sister. As he was leaving the room he whispered in my ear, I have spoken at great length, some weeks ago, to the Ambassador Contarini upon what I have briefly stated to your Excellency. He promised to represent it all to the Senate, and I ask the same favour of you.
The Hague, the 16th July, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
170. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The French here say that M. de Castel Nuovo has crossed the sea to England and they hope the King of England will prevent the progress of the peace with Denmark. The Duke of Rohan asked the King's permission to go to Holland, England or Venice. His Majesty preferred the last. By his Majesty's wish the duke has published his relations with foreign princes, against the king's service, namely with England, the Spaniards and the Duke of Savoy.
I hear that the English ambassador gives a different account of the peace with the Huguenots. He pretends it is stipulated that the fortifications shall be left, whereas every one else says that the king only leaves the old walls in the four towns. Wake however sticks to it about the non-publication of the terms.
Turin, the 16th July, 1629.
[Italian.]
July 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
171. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Their fears of the English and Dutch fleets increase. They keep a strict guard over their ships at Cadiz from fear that the enemy may attempt to burn them. All the ports and the coast are guarded by extraordinary troops. The galleys of this squadron are going to Italy; only three will return to Porto Santa Maria. If the ships go, the whole coast will be left without any sort of force to defend it, which shows the feebleness of the present arrangements of Olivares.
Madrid, the 17th July, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
172. To the Bailo at Constantinople.
What you wrote on the 9th ult. is confirmed by the vice-consul at Aleppo, whose action towards the English consul was obvious, as he could not ignore an offence committed in a public place. If complaints are brought to the Porte, you will defend the action of the vice-consul and the justice of our cause, showing the baselessness of the claims of that minister. When his king learns of his action we have no doubt that he will reprove him.
Ayes, 80.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
173. To the Ambassador in England.
Our merchants recently hired an English ship in this city, and the master undertook to take their goods to Alexandria, fly the flag of the republic, and to represent the ship as Venetian, not paying the cottimi to any ministers except our consul. When he reached that city the English consul told the master that he must hoist the English flag, and pay him the cottimi destined for our minister. Our merchants appealed to the local Courts. The English consul and our vice-consul appeared there, and as the Englishman made impertinent remarks our vice-consul was obliged to take the course described in his letters. We send you the particulars so that you may be thoroughly alive to all that is done, and represent that our minister was in the right, while the English one was ill intentioned and did not respond to our good will towards him. He has always shown himself most evilly disposed, and very ready, at every opportunity, to perform offices prejudicial to the quiet of nations, our own and the English, instead of rendering the services which might reasonably be expected from the minister of a friendly prince, causing the most unfortunate impressions at the Porte with danger of many scandals. We feel sure that his Majesty will be incensed at this incident, and will reprove that minister as he deserves. We shall always maintain the most perfect disposition towards the common interests, and we shall direct our vice-consul not to omit any of the signs of good will which he has always shown towards that consul, as he knows our deep affection for his Majesty.
Ayes, 80.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
174. To the Vice-Consul SALAMON at Aleppo.
Acknowledge his letters of the 4th May. He must be most careful to avoid fresh dissensions, trying to make the English consul recognise the wrongfulness of his attempt, because his sovereign has several times expressed the wish that his ministers should maintain good relations with ours, as being very helpful to the common interests, especially under present circumstances. Commend his prudence and ability, especially in the matter of the galeasses and Digby. He will assure their merchants of the protection of the state, and pass such offices as he considers advisable with the Cadi, who has shown himself so friendly, in order to confirm his good disposition, assuring him that their Bailo will always strive to obtain satisfaction for him.
Ayes, 80.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni
Venetian
Archives.
175. To the Ambassador SORANZO in England.
The Most Christian has informed us by M.della Saludie of the pacification of his kingdom, and that the Duke of Rohan and Soubise are reinstated. He told us that our good offices had a great share in this, just as our ambassadors brought about the peace with England. By that peace the two kings are reconciled, and the pacification of the kingdom removes every shadow of offence. Being united by blood and interest the two kings should unite to support the common cause in a manner worthy of their greatness. This is the more necessary because the Austrians profited greatly by the differences between the crowns and the troubles of France, and they have recently made violent attempts to achieve their old designs. They keep the Palatine down, fetter all Germany, aspire to the lordship of all Italy, conspire against all princes who do not agree with their vast designs, and move step by step towards universal monarchy. The occupation of the Grisons opens the way to send German troops into the vitals of Italy, thereby grievously menacing its liberty. Everything is moving towards war. Gold is flowing from Spain to Germany to move armies and increase them by new levies. Milan supports the troops in the Grisons. New troops are on the way from Naples, upon the unjust pretext of hunting a prince from his hereditary dominions, and we have constant alarms in Lombardy, Friuli and the sea and have to incur great expenses. The Most Christian, with an army of 60,000 men, declares that he will uphold the public cause with vigour. It is incredible that the King of Great Britain will abandon it, as he announced that he would co-operate with the Most Christian when he moved seriously.
We desire you to impart the above to his Majesty at a special audience and tell him the real state of affairs, of which you will be informed from time to time. Further, by an account of the designs and progress of the Austrians you will urge him to take resolute steps and so increase his glory. You will try and dissipate the shadows sketched by the painter Rubens to hide the artifices of the Spaniards, which you will point out. You will also try to prevent any negotiations on foot for a truce with the States, and for this and everything else you must keep in touch with the Ambassador Gussoni. You will be on the alert for what the person sent by Savoy brings, and if his offices diverge from what is right, you will try and prevent them from making an impression.
You will follow the instructions given to the Ambassador Contarini about the ships plundered by Digby.
We gladly consent to your keeping the collar presented by the States, as a tribute to your merits, as you have left nothing to be desired. That the Ambassador Soranzo be allowed to keep the gold chain presented to him by the States when he left the Hague at the conclusion of his embassy.
The last paragraph was balloted in the Collegio on the 13th July. Ayes, 12. Noes, 0. Neutral, 7.
Second vote: Ayes, 9. Noes, 0. Neutral, 10.
On the 10th July they voted again:
Ayes, 14. Noes, 1. Neutral, 3. Second vote: Ayes 13. Noes, 1. Neutral, 4.
On the 19th they voted again, adding the words "and the horses received from the Prince of Orange."
Ayes, 17.Noes, 1.Neutral, 2.
Voting in the Senate: Ayes, 100. Noes, 1. Neutral, 5.
Voting on the subject of the collar: Ayes, 100. Noes, 3. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra
Venetian
Archives
176. GIOVANNI SORANZO and ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassadors in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Last Sunday, the 15th inst., we had audience of his Majesty. I. Contarini, thanked his Majesty for his good opinion of your Serenity and myself, asking him to take my offices in good part and to continue his favours to me and all the representatives of the republic by directing his ministers in France to cultivate the confidence with us that is so necessary to the public cause. At the end I introduced my successor, Soranzo, leaving public affairs in his hands. The king replied most graciously, so that by the favour of God and the kindness of your Excellencies I have no reason to be dissatisfied with my embassy.
We paid our respects similarly to the queen, who was present with the king. I, Soranzo, presented my credentials and spoke in accordance with my instructions of your Serenity's desire to cherish the friendship of the crown, especially with the need that all princes interested in the common welfare should have a close understanding. I would cultivate good relations. The king expressed his satisfaction at the continued friendship of the republic, and assured me that he would continue to respond with sincerity. I afterwards passed the same office with the queen, and she also approved of my remarks. I have visited the ministers, so far as it is possible with the Court away, which prevents compliments as well as business.
On the Monday following the French ambassador had an audience with the commissioners. He treated with them about carrying out the matters contained in the treaty. It was arranged that the ambassador should put his proposals in writing upon each article.
On Tuesday when we returned his visit, he communicated the same to us. He said he had found them well disposed and hoped to settle everything. We are the more hopeful because we observe that the Court has a good opinion of him, and he will try to avoid disputes and to leave content.
He further informed us that the queen had told him that the king in conversing with her about the French ambassador, had remarked that this September or October she would see another one from Spain. The queen replied that the Spaniards would only deceive him once again, to which the king retorted that that was only her opinion. The ambassador told us that he declined to make any remark about it or betray any jealousy, because he suspected that the king had said this to the queen designedly, so that she might repeat it, in order to use this jealousy for the purpose of gaining an advantage in the negotiations with him. Nevertheless this report of ambassadors sent mutually corresponds with what we have heard from other quarters, and what the leading ministers, whom we have visited lately, neither affirm nor deny, namely that Cottington is to go to Spain in the character of ambassador extraordinary, and that some one else will come here from thence in a similar capacity, and that Rubens is making exceptional efforts to bring this about. It is not for the negotiation of a new peace, because of the difficulties about the Palatinate, but merely for the confirmation of the last peace made with King James, passing over the Palatinate in silence, but allowing help to the States and other friends of this Crown.
The ambassadors of France, your Serenity and Holland have taken upon themselves to say something to the leading men here about such rumours, which are not denied by the ministry. France informed us that he had spoken very plainly to the Treasurer, pointing out that Rubens and the Spaniards had no object beyond beginning the negotiations, by means of ministers, but never to finish them, merely in order to profit by the jealousy which the other princes would conceive about it. He said he had come to offer not friendship alone, but a union between the Most Christian and England, the bases of which ought to be a knowledge of the intentions of the English, if they meant to treat with the Spaniards or no, because if they did, it was his duty to prevent it, but it was necessary to await the issue of the affair. If they did not they must declare themselves and put aside these transactions altogether.
The Treasurer replied, so the ambassador told us, that France would find England excellently disposed, and he should make a point of profiting by the opportunity to wage a good war. In this he would always be well seconded by England, although the Spaniards made generous offers of the restitution of all that they hold in the Palatinate, the rest not being in their power.
Here the ambassador remarked that if the Spaniards promised to restore those places and not to meddle directly or indirectly in the affairs of Germany, and England not being able to defend them from the emperor or Bavaria, if he would not put them in the hands of the French, the Palatine might have done so, and the Most Christian would have undertaken to preserve them and procure the restitution of the rest from the emperor. That would be the proper way of taking the Spaniards at their word, although he believed this restitution would never take place and it was merely a pretext to keep negotiations on foot. To this the Treasurer replied that the same offers had been made to him when he was ambassador at Brussels. He did not trust them, and England would never make peace without the restitution of the Palatinate. The Treasurer said practically the same to us, confirming that if any one went to Spain it would be Cottington, but this would not happen so soon. In short we gather from our conversations with ambassadors and ministers that before everything else Vane will be sent as ambassador extraordinary to the Netherlands to learn the sentiments of the Princes Palatine and the States, who may not be permitted to present themselves until after the issue at Bolduch.
Meanwhile we believe that these remarks by the king and ministers about negotiations with Spain are to put themselves in an advantageous position in these negotiations with the French ambassador, who by speaking at large about a reunion with this king, contrary to what the French were willing to grant in the past, because of religious interests, and seeing that England can do nothing owing to her present weakness, would like to throw the onus upon her and excuse himself of all the harm that may befall Christendom. On the other hand, in response to this game, we feel sure that the English will tell the French ambassador that they are ready to break off the negotiations with the Spaniards and continue the war if the French will come out openly against them, promising not to make peace without each other, well knowing that the French will not make any such declaration, on the ground of the impossibility of England doing anything, and with these pretexts on both sides the public cause is endangered. Yet as opposed to this we have heard that many individuals would undertake to keep the coasts of Spain constantly harassed by ships of war, if the king would only let them off the payment of the tenth on all booty, which it is customary to contribute to the Admiralty. I, Soranzo, will do what I can in the matter, though one can promise but little without money.
The king's absence does not permit me, Contarini, to take leave before the day after to-morrow, his Majesty deciding this against my instances. I am observing the behaviour of the French ambassador so that I may the better serve your Serenity, who may perhaps command me what is best to do, now that the imperialists have designs against the republic as well as the Duke of Mantua.
We have just received the despatch of the 28th June. We have made suitable representations for the encouragement of the Swiss, for their own good as well as that of the cause. A certain Oliviero has already been here with the Earl of Carlisle. He resided some time at Zurich as agent of the King of Great Britain. He now solicits a fresh despatch to those parts, as resident, expecting some assignment for the future and recompense for the past. Present shortness detains him not a little. We find the ministers well disposed to solicit his departure, which will not occur without orders in conformity with your Excellencies' desires. We have already written about Denmark. Most certainly they do not like the peace and the Ambassador Roe will do everything to upset it. Yet the leading ministers do not regret an excuse to avoid expenditure. Upon the first advices of that minister I, Soranzo, will not fail to pass those offices, which have not been neglected even before.
In addition to handing over the ship Giona to our merchants, they have recently given judgment in their favour about it. God grant the same with the rest, because we observe some bias against them. I, Soranzo, will not fail to help them.
London, the 20th July, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
177. SEBASTIANO VENIERO, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The vice-consul at Aleppo urges me in the name of the merchants there to obtain confirmation of the sentence in their favour against the English consul about the cottimo and the flag, so that they may have no difficulty in the future. I have obtained this for them as well as the restitution of the 500 ryals which they were compelled to pay to the old Emirs for the despatch of the English ships, with very rigorous clauses, in order to show their constant good will here.
The Vigne of Pera, the 21st July, 1629.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
178. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Fortune favours the Dutch arms in the siege they have undertaken. Chance has given them the strongest fort and the best trench of the besieged. Count Henry de Bergh has attempted a division. The assembly has decided to increase their forces by 18,000 foot. This will be facilitated by the 2,500 men collected by Colonel Ferens, and the 4,000 raised by the Marshal of Valchemburgh for the King of Sweden. Colonel Morgan, who defended Gluckstadt, has also arrived with a regiment of about 2,500 English. All these will enter the service of the States, with the pay of the King of England, who is understood to be willing to help in this way so long as the siege of Bolduch lasts, though they do not believe here that the payment will continue for more than a month. Previous experience has taught them what to expect from that king, with the lack of money from which the English are now suffering in the present disorganisation of their government.
The Swedish ambassador here learns from his master that there are many difficulties in the way of an accommodation with Poland, so he feels sure that Roe's mission will prove fruitless, if its sole object is the conclusion of peace between Sweden and Poland.
They are very curious here to have confirmation of the report of the acquittal, amid universal applause, of the six members of parliament, who claimed the jurisdiction of parliament over the customs, against the king. It is reported that the king on hearing the sentence, without losing countenance, shows the best intentions and lays the blame upon some of his councillors. Thus the internal disorders of that kingdom will soon be settled to the notable advantage of foreign affairs and the total exclusion of all negotiations with the Spaniards, since the parliamentarians have always had a natural aversion from dealing with Spain for a settlement.
I have performed another complimentary office with the Ambassador Roe, who has just arrived from the camp, and I seized the opportunity to obtain more authentic particulars about the release of the six members. He said he had no letters on the subject, but had heard it indirectly from an English gentleman, with whom he had not been able to speak. He prayed God this most important news might prove true, but he could not be certain about it.
The Hague, the 23rd July, 1629.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
179. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The duke says that Cardinal Richelieu treats a great deal with the Spanish secretary, Navazzo, and speaks of the French desire to stand well with the Spaniards. Speaking to me on the subject the English ambassador said that the French would have to make up their minds whether they wanted peace or war, because their friends were arming and had to do something and if the French subsequently made an accommodation it would seem strange and would be the peace of Monzon over again. He remarked afterwards that if the Marquis of Coeuvres was going to Switzerland he felt sure the Swiss would do nothing, because they are nettled about the affairs of the Valtelline. If Dualbier or the Marshal La Force went, it would be much better.
Wake states that Sir Thomas Edmondes, the ambassador extraordinary, reached Paris on the 10th inst. The Marshal La Force was to meet him, and the Duke of Angoulême had orders to defray his expenses and take him to the king. Wake says he is waiting for the departure of Fontané, the French ordinary ambassador for England. I learn on good authority that Wake's going may be stopped and that his king thinks of leaving Edmondes as ordinary.
Turin, the 23rd July, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 23.
Consiglio di X.
Parti Comuni.
Venetian
Archives.
180. In the Council of Ten.
That the jewels of the sanctuary and the halls or arms of this Council be shown to some English gentlemen (fn. 1) who are in this city.
Ayes, 13.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
181. To the Ambassador SORANZO in England.
We have heard with great pleasure of your arrival in England because we expect abundant fruits from your abilities in that most important post. With the arrival of M. di Castelnuovo we hope that the benefits of the peace will begin to be felt, the more so because news will have come of the peace granted to the Huguenots and the pardon of Rohan and Soubise, a point of great consequence because of the Most Christian's desire to satisfy the King of Great Britain. Therefore the conclusion of the peace ought to be the beginning of decisions advantageous to the common cause especially as all causes for jealousy are removed. This is the more necessary because the Spaniards make progress daily by force and trickery, and this province in particular is much vexed by them. They propose that the greater part of the imperial forces shall descend upon it and are directing the march of fresh regiments this way, the emperor stating that this deputy to negotiate peace would be Wallenstein with 50,000 combatants.
They are fortifying various positions in the Mantuan, the first attacks being intended against that state. We are supplying money to thwart this, and we shall do all we can for the public service. At the same time they have not interrupted their sinister operations in Germany, although they are devoting their attention to Italy and are increasing their forces against the States. If the peace of Denmark is not ratified, that will be a great advantage for the public cause, and great damage to England may be avoided, notably in the navigation of the Baltic. You must studiously inculcate proper resolutions, and try to get Denmark not to sign it, through the influence of the King of Great Britain, especially as we understand that the commissioners at Lubeck overstepped their limits, moved perhaps by their own interests.
Roe is leaving with good ideas and it may therefore be advisable to support his negotiations. We hear from the Hague that Rubens has taken 200,000 florins to England to facilitate his operations. This will serve as a hint for you to find out, and you must watch his negotiations closely.
Ayes, 121.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
182. GIOVANNI SORANZO and ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassadors in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Vane, the ambassador designate to Holland, is taking leave of the ministers. He called upon us and this allowed us to learn something about his commissions. He is to find out the Palatine's views about the proposal to restore that part of the Palatinate which the Spaniards hold, but we believe he is also to urge that prince to accept less advantageous proposals, if they are unable here to uphold his claims with the necessary vigour. Vane suggested the same thing when I, Soranzo, was at the Hague, and I reported it to the States, so that they might join their interests with those of this crown and pursue the negotiations jointly. Yet he spoke to us very cautiously about the conclusion of this affair, showing that the States, being engaged in the siege of Bolduch would not listen to it, and the king here could not consent to any arrangements without security for the restoration of the Palatine.
This reason has the most weight in this quarter, but it is not sufficient to prevent the negotiations, although it is clearly known that the Spaniards have no intention whatever of fulfilling their promises. We put this to Vane and showed that time was needed to facilitate the negotiations of the French ambassador and complete the union of the two crowns. He seemed to have a lively feeling for the interests of friends, and although he was formerly of the party that advocated the Spanish marriage, which the Treasurer now supports, he does not disapprove of views which are more useful to the public cause. He told us that the ambassador should show more resolution in his proposals, as so long as he makes no demands here, they will give no answer, and we find that while they are quarrelling as to who shall be the first to speak they are putting off the advantage of decision. We therefore remarked to him and to all the other ministers whom we have seen lately that the deliberate proceedings of the French ambassador might proceed from the knowledge of the present transactions with Spain, which were utterly destructive of the hopeful indications that he might profit by his own. He himself had informed us upon occasion that if they wished to treat with him it was necessary to abandon their dealings with Rubens, and that he could not propose anything, with the risk of the English seizing upon his proposals to turn to advantage in their negotiations with Spain. He maintains that it does no harm to listen to all that may be negotiated with France, and that both may be done without affecting the merits of the cause in negotiation; that the ambassador will find the best intentions here and in any case it is necessary for him to explain his commissions.
We pointed out that the Most Christian's intentions were already known but owing to his incessant preoccupation with the affairs of Italy, it was necessary to help him there and they might remove all the ambassador's pretexts for not going on with his negotiations, as if England loses this opportunity France may seek an excuse to escape his obligations as they might be glad to do if they could lay the blame on others. England could encourage France to go on by merely keeping up what was already done, which maintained itself without trouble or expense, because the king here could make war on the Spaniards without incurring great expense, and as the popular feeling was so strong against that nation he would always find men willing to keep it up with letters of marque. The objection against these, by reason of those who obtain them acting against friends, could be provided against, but we note that the Treasurer, the sole pole star of the king's wishes and counsels, is very averse from taking up anything that may involve expense, and as he has based his maintenance upon keeping occasion for parliament at a distance, he thinks he can only do this by preserving the king from wanting money. This is so scarce at present that it is very far from supplying the needs of the royal household alone.
The French ambassador has had no reply to his first interview. He has met the commissioners once or twice, but they postpone further progress with these transactions. This is very harmful and I, Soranzo, will do what I can with my offices, but in the present condition of the government here I cannot do more, and I fancy that the accommodation between the Most Christian and the Huguenots may give an impulse to Vane and to all the pretexts for mistrust.
The Treasurer negotiated with the French ambassador in his house. The king and queen happened to be there, purely by chance. Her Majesty expressed some dissatisfaction with the Treasurer, either because of the scanty assignment of money made to her and to her dependants, or because she did not approve of these dealings with Rubens. The ambassador tried to remove the bitter feeling, and we know that through his efforts the queen seemed to have entirely forgiven the Treasurer, for which he professes his indebtedness to the ambassador. Upon this occasion they negotiated together, and from what the ambassador said to me, Contarini, the Treasurer suspected that he, assisted by the queen, might advocate the summoning of parliament. The ambassador assured him that he would have nothing to do with any such proceeding, and in support of this he pointed out that he was right not to agree so long as the people persisted in their rigour against the king (anzi per via di consideratione ha mostrato che sia ragionevole non assentirvi mentre il popolo vuole sostentar il rigore contra il Re).
This view will certainly render this minister agreeable here, and we notice that he uses every gentle art for the sole purpose of winning the favour of the Court, and possibly neglects other things which are necessary for the advancement of his negotiations and the destruction of those with Spain.
The Treasurer, however, has promised to send Cottington to him, either to show confidence or because he does not find the ambassador's ideas different from his own, especially about the Palatinate. The ambassador thinks that peace may be concluded upon that condition, suggesting that if the Spaniards give back the places which they hold in that state France may dispose Bavaria to do the same, and if there is any resistance, they may break up the Catholic league, and having enfeebled it, they might overcome all difficulties about the electoral vote. Yet he says that because Bavaria deserves well of the Catholic faith, the Palatine ought not to demand more of him than that his children should be put in possession after Bavaria's death.
The Treasurer has stated again that before the ambassador leaves they will take a final decision here, but we find this hard to believe, as there is no sign of anything upon which to base a vigorous resolution, indeed there is danger of their renewing the peace of King James. The specious ideas of the Treasurer make us believe that they will keep trying to make the French declare open war on the Spaniards, the more it is found to be difficult or impossible to make them take this step. When we spoke on the subject to the French ambassador he said very decidedly this was no time to think about it, as France was on very good terms with the Catholic. He asserts, however, that his master will supply the necessary help, though he thinks there is no great need.
We have received the ducal missives of the 1st inst. with many commissions for me, Soranzo, the chief being to try and ruin Rubens' negotiations, and to obtain the withdrawal of the commissions to Wake to proceed to France. Your Excellencies will be able to form your opinions about the first from what has been related. I, Soranzo, will seek an opportunity for performing the necessary offices upon the second, although if Wake's commissions fall through, it will follow as a consequence that he must return here, and as his credit stands high, he might do harm to the Secretary of State, Carleton, and he might easily obtain that place or some other, in which his evil intentions might do more damage than they would in France. There is good reason to believe that Carleton and others would like to keep him at a distance. Accordingly if I do not see a safe opportunity, I will not move, in order not to render him more bitter.
The peace with Denmark is considered made and they also think the king has ratified it. We have remarked that if he had some help, he might break it, especially as he now has 14,000 foot and 1,000 horse; but such good resolutions must not be expected here, and that the king knows it. If what the merchants say here is true, he has decided to sequestrate all the English ships in the Sound so as to make sure of the debts due to him from this Crown. We have no confirmation of this.
The Admiralty judge has delivered sentence about the ship as you will see by the enclosed note, confiscating considerable sums of the Genoese living in Spain, and releasing those of the Venetians and even the Portuguese living at Venice. We find much that is unbearable in this judgment, and I, Soranzo, have already asked audience of his Majesty about it. I believe he will satisfy your Serenity. I will leave nothing undone in such an important matter. But if Digby and his supporters did so well before such a favourable sentence, it is probable that it will render them much bolder. I ask for instructions if I do not succeed in preventing Digby from getting the confiscated goods. I cannot feel sure of this as they deal so hardly and Digby's favour is so great with those who have the king's ear.
Last Sunday, I, Contarini, took my farewell of their Majesties. The king desired to confer the honour of knighthood upon me. I hope to support this honour worthily, especially as it will help me in serving my country. I also went to take leave of the French ambassador and I hope he will forestall my arrival at the French Court with impressions that will favour the public service. I laded my goods on a ship for Rouen six days ago, but the wind has not served and so my arrival in Paris is delayed. Nevertheless, I hope to leave in three or four days at the most.
London, the 27th July, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure.183. On the 25th July, 1629, in London.
Summary sentence of the Admiralty Judge upon the goods of the ships Jona and St. Micael Arcangello.
In favour of Digby.
Wool, bales651 of Sig. Gio. Battista Preve.1468 bales of woollens.
" "150 of Sig. Ant. Zaretta and Battista Pagliacarne.
" "196 of Sig.Bartolomeo Spinola
" "24 of Sig. Ant. Ramiro
" "47 not claimed.1182½ baskets of ashes.
Ashes (cenere) (fn. 2) 500 of Sig. Agustin Panesi
" "163½ of Sig. Alesso. Chiappara
" "265 of Sig. Giacomo Cornari
" "250 not claimed
In our favour.
Wool, bales90 of Sig. Ant. Giamiro220 bales of woollens.
" "45 of Sig. Durazzi and Cavana
" "16 of Sig. Ant. Rodriguez Villaloni
" "32 of Sig. Ant. and Simon Mendes of Almeida
" "17 of Sig. Luis Mendes
Ashes, baskets270 of Sig. Ant. Ramiro867½ baskets of ashes.
" "167½ of Sig. Bernardo Benzio
" "150 of SS. Pietro and Agostino Durazzi
" "180 of SS. Durazzi aforesaid Hoste and Flangini
" "50 of SS. Ant. and Pantaleo Carminati
" "50 of Sig. Pantaleo Lardone.
Cramoisy barrels5 of SS. Benzio and Aysolli6 barrels of cramoisy.
" "1 of SS. Maso Aysolli and Pozzo
And in addition the ship Jonas itself.
[Italian.]
July 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
184. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador frequently has letters from Scaglia and admits it freely. Crichi expressed some fears to me about the duke intervening for peace between the Spaniards and England. Certainly Wake used to stay in the country and had no apparent business, while now he is at Turin. This week he has seen the duke three times and Crichi has also been with him more than once. I have seen him this week, but the Count of So, the marshal's son, was present, so we only talked generally. The last time I saw his Highness he told me that the Spaniards were very thick with England over the peace. I do not see how he can trust Wake's promises after his assurances that the duke alone should mediate the peace with France. I think rather that both the duke and Wake like the progress of these negotiations to be believed, because they expect to get more out of France thereby, and really the French boast so much that it sometimes harms them. Marini told me that the King of France had made peace with England to please his friends, but he did not mind whether he had peace or war with him, as he could do him but little good or little harm.
Cisa, a gentleman of the prince, went to England a while ago. As it was thought he merely took Madame's condolences on her sister's miscarriage, I am not sure if I wrote about it. It now seems that he is supposed to have had commissions for some business. Certainly he will stay in London and Wake likes it to be believed that the duke is not so closely united with France. He thinks now France is master at home, he will think he needs no one else, and it will be wholesome to create a counterpoise to his power, which he considers stronger and more suspect than the House of Austria. Such are the ideas with which he infuses the duke. They are alike in the trickiness of their negotiations, a reason why his Highness likes him, and it is probable that he takes a good deal of poetic licence with his orders from home (che si pigli molte liberta poetiche da suoi ordini della Corte).
Turin, the 28th July, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
185. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They sent a courier express to Flanders yesterday, and I understand they are sending commissions and orders about the negotiations with England. They say the Treasurer and the Councillors have been deputed to treat with Rubens; that Cottington is to come here. The Abbot Scaglia confirmed this, remarking that they would do what they liked with the English. The Spaniards also are so much inclined and peace with England is so necessary to them that they would pay any price for it, in the hope that if they broke thoroughly with France they might have the favour of that king in one way or another against the Most Christian.
Madrid, the 28th July, 1629.
[Italian.]
July 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
186. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Roe has left for Denmark after performing all his commissions with the prince and the King and Queen of Bohemia. He has received no conclusive reply to his proposals for an alliance, as they want first to hear the result of his negotiations in Poland and Sweden as well as what Vane will bring from England about the negotiations with the Spaniards. Even if they undertake anything they are determined to act separately in the manner I reported. Meanwhile they let it be understood that they mean to use all their strength against the Spaniards and Imperialists for the benefit of the common cause. Every day increases suspicion that Vane will bring word of some adjustment with the Spaniards, disadvantageous to the Palatine as well as to their own interests. That prince gathers from an intimate that he will have in the end to accommodate himself to the good pleasure of England in all that may be arranged there, so as not to lose the protection of that Crown, from which, by a turn in affairs, his drooping fortunes might once again rise to their former eminence.
The Hague, the 30th July, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
187. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I am told the couriers sent to Spain and the replies to his Highness may be for Scaglia's negotiations about the peace between England and the Catholic, as a counterpoise to the one concluded with France, but I do not find much support for this. The Ambassador Wake, after his negotiations with his Highness is to send an express to England and he is waiting for the duke's own despatches. I have written about it to Soranzo as I expect he will have reached London.
The prince told me that the English ambassador had spoken to him about his king getting a promise for the restitution of Susa and to treat of current Italian affairs. He added that the King of Great Britain would also be interested about the Swiss and the Grisons and asked me if I had heard of these particulars. I said I had not, although I know that Wake spoke about it to Crichi. It may be that Wake's despatches to England are more about this than anything else, as I find that so far on these matters he has pretended to be acting solely on his own responsibility.
Turin, the 30th July, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 30.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Lettere Re.
Venetian
Archives.
188. Carolus, Dei Gratia Magnae Britanniae, Franciae et Hyberniae Rex etc., Sermo. Principi Domino Joanni Cornelio Venetiarum Duci, amico nostro charissimo, Salutem et felicitatem.
Serenissime Princeps, Amice noster charissime, Cujus virtutes jamdudum Vre. Serti totique inclytissimae. Reipublicae aeque ac nobis innotuere superfluum foret laudes recensere. Igitur istud saltem non tacebimus, Virum hunc nobilissimum dignissimum vestrum Legatum Aloysium Contarenum, Equitem Auratum praeterquam quod magnum summa qua vestra gerere solitus est negotia, fide, solertia et prudentia meruit vestrae benevolentiae incrementum, Sibi nostrum itidem multo de pace inter Nos et Regem Christianissimum restituenda studio et ingenio parasse et adauxisse affectum et amorem. Id quod quavis occasione docebimus ita lubenter, Sicut ipse fidam nostri in Augustam Rempublicam Seram. attestabitur animi amorisque constantiam.
Datamus e nostro palatio Westmonasteriensi, Die XX Julii Anno Christi MDCXXIX. At nostri Regni Vto.
Vtrae Stis Amicus amantissimus.
[Signed:] CAROLUS R.

Footnotes

1 One of these may possibly be William, son of William Baron Hervey of Kidbrooke. Salvetti, on the 27th April, 1629, mentions his starting on a journey to see Italy. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962E.
2 Called barigliae sportarum in the Latin sentence printed below.