Venice
August 1629, 2-13

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1919

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147-158

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'Venice: August 1629, 2-13', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice: Volume 22, 1629-1632 (1919), pp. 147-158. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89257 Date accessed: 20 August 2014.


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August 1629

Aug. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
189. To the Ambassador GUSSONI at the Hague.
Your negotiations with Roe forestalled our orders, but you did precisely what we wished. If the English agent is anxious for our reply about helping Sweden, the best one to give him will be a statement of all the republic is doing for the cause. You will know what reasons to advance why we cannot at present contribute to the States, and you will prevent and answer in like manner all other instances. What you said to Roe was perfectly adequate, and it will be advisable to say the same in similar occasions.
Ayes, 117.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Aug. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
190. To the Ambassador SORANZO in England.
We have your letters of the 13th ult. and we are entirely satisfied. If M. de Castel Nuovo is at Court, you will disabuse him of various ideas with your customary address. The Imperialists have occupied the Grisons to subjugate Italy, not to get better terms in the peace. They refuse to treat. Savelli urged the pope to interpose, to gain time, but Ecchemberg told the nuncio, that the emperor was not a party but lord; it was his business to do justice, not to treat; the French must evacuate the Monferrat and Susa and the Duke of Mantua must deposit Monferrat and the Mantuan; if they do not, force will be used. They talked this way when M. de Sabran arrived at the Court from the Most Christian. Before hearing him they ordered Wallenstein to march to Lindo on the way to Italy. He is expected to arrive at the same time as Spinola with money for the troops. It is vain to hope that they will not be able to live in Italy, as they can stay long enough to do irreparable harm, unless the Most Christian prevents it. Mantua is fortifying with our contributions, but time is pressing, and it would be unfortunate if it were necessary to reduce forces to defend it. The Imperialists do not make the Spaniards jealous, indeed Don Gonzales urges them to march. Villani has urged Gonzales for prompt dispatch. He hurried to Milan in 7 days and has been despatched thence to Spain, so that all may be done in concert.
Cardinal Richelieu is right about preserving the glory won, but it is in danger if Italy is not promptly succoured. The Austrians are content if they gain time. They are now expecting execution, and the armies are marching in that direction.
The Duke of Savoy has repaired his losses by promises and papers. But his past dangers and the clemency of the Most Christian have not taught him the right course. He plays with the fire, and though he sees the Austrians strengthened he says he will remain neutral, being determined to remain at one with the House of Austria. He aspires to command Cæsar's armies. He is thoroughly alienated from France and has moved a long way from the maxims he used to profess.
You will devote your efforts to destroy the operations of Rubens, and to stir England to proper resolutions, and we could not provide you with better incitement for this than the foregoing considerations.
With the termination of the affairs of France the Duke of Rohan has proceeded to this city. He has arrived, but we have not seen him yet.
That a copy of the above be sent to the Ambassadors in France for their information.
Ayes, 117.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Aug. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
191. GIROLAMO SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In the Council held on Sunday last the Treasurer related that they had received such overtures from the Spaniards by means of Don Carlo Colonna from Brussels, that they might decide on sending Cottington to Spain, especially as in response they would send from Brussels here Don Francesco Zappata, a captain of cavalry. When the question was discussed, some difficulty arose about the person whose rank does not correspond with Cottington's, who belongs to his Majesty's Council of State, and in other respects ranks high as an official of the Crown. But by arrangement made between the king and the treasurer before they entered the Council, the moment the proposal was made, the king declared that he approved of it, and so not one of the councillors ventured to oppose. Accordingly it was resolved that Cottington should leave here on the 10th prox., new style, and Zappata should start from Brussels on the same day.
The French ambassador, who has been to visit me, talked to me at length on this subject. He told me that he had spoken about it to the king, from whom he professes to have extracted the confirmation of the resolution taken. He endeavoured to make suitable representations, pointing out, not only the deception that might take place from this business, but the harm he would suffer, because he could not go on with what he proposed. He told me that the king replied that there was no occasion for alarm, as most certainly he would not enter upon any negotiations unless he was previously assured of the restitution of the Palatinate, and if Cottington did not obtain this assurance in Spain within a month, he would return. He might pursue his negotiations, because he would always be listened to by commissioners, and he would always act for the best.
The ambassador retorted that he could not take further steps while negotiations were proceeding with the Spaniards; but from what I can gather, he is not so sorry to have this pretext, and I venture to say that if it was not so powerful, he would go about for one, hat in hand (lo anderebbe mendicando). All the same, it cannot be denied that England is taking on her shoulders the entire blame for things going wrong, because both now and in the future the French can make the most of this very irregular procedure, as while they have sent an ambassador here to ratify a peace and establish new alliances for the public advantage the English have sent an ambassador under the very nose of their ministers to negotiate a peace at a moment when they ought rather to be sending a herald to declare open war. However, my opinion has never changed, and I have expressed my view to the ambassador, that he ought to make his overtures despite these negotiations with Spain, as they might render substantial assistance to affairs and prove profitable to the public cause. At the same time I have pointed out to the Lords of the Council here what good grounds the ambassador has for not making any proposals while they are negotiating peace with Spain. They all answered me to the same effect, that the ambassador could make his proposals, and from his reluctance they take occasion to say, either that he has not the commissions he goes about claiming, or that he is on the look out for pretexts for taking no further steps.
I have negotiated with the Dutch ambassador about this business, so that he may give credit to my offices through his own so as to afford the French ambassador the better opportunity of entering into negotiation. This minister has great experience in the affairs of the government here and realises how difficult it will be to make any progress, because while the French ambassador remains so unbending those who now govern will not desire to abandon the negotiations with Spain, unless they have something better than words to go upon for the improvement of their relations with France. He therefore believes that the French ambassador is bound to open himself more than he has done hitherto, and he told me that he would like to lay the whole matter before him. He seems to think that there is time to intervene with offices, because, although it is decided that Cottington shall go, he has not started, and he maintains that the matter may easily die away, especially as his masters have not so far received any communication about it, and he has received the most ample assurances from all the ministers here that there shall be no negotiations without their participation, a thing they have promised and sworn more than once. He is stuffed with good opinions, and will never adhere to these negotiations, knowing that the Spaniards desire nothing but a show of treating in order to profit by causing jealousy to the friends of this Crown, without the slightest intention of giving any satisfaction to the king here. I have encouraged these views so far as I might, and thus make an effort through him to divert this resolution.
Huen has not yet left for the Netherlands. The ambassador thinks that he will not be leaving so soon. He suggested to me that from this mission and from what he negotiates we may make our conclusions about these dealings. This serves as a further confirmation of my idea that the States are willing to open negotiations for some accommodation. A more certain judgment, however, must be deferred until after the result of the siege of Bolduch, because if that place is not taken, one may assume as a necessary consequence that negotiations will be opened from that side also, with the decision to come to terms, either by way of peace or a truce. I will keep my attention fixed in order to discover more, especially as I am again charged to do so by the ducal missives of the 13th ult. which have reached me this day.
The French ambassador has informed me that he has announced to several Lords of the Council, and notably to the queen, that Wake will not be acceptable in France, because he is known to be a dependant of the Duke of Savoy, a man of turbulent ideas, who will readily quarrel with the cardinal. This provides me with a very welcome opportunity of fulfilling the earlier instructions of your Serenity, as it enables me to act, without affectation or meddling, on the plea of backing up the ambassador and to represent how proper it is to satisfy France over this first embassy. I have already begun my offices, and chiefly by means of the Dutch ambassador. Although I have not betrayed any particular bias to him, he has promised to broach the subject to the ministers who are confidential with him.
I will not neglect any means offered me by so auspicious an opportunity.
I am also keeping my attention fixed upon the operations of Rubens, although I find that there is little foundation for his negotiations, because I am assured that he has had no part in this mission of Cottington, as the matter was arranged solely between the Treasurer and Don Carlo Colonna. But since the decision was taken I know that he tries to keep them to it and the French ambassador told me that the king himself had said to him that Rubens and Baroccio, who are supporting these negotiations, were afraid that he might hinder this mission. I should have thought this an excellent opportunity for the ambassador to bring forward considerations in order to dissuade the king. To my astonishment he told me the exact opposite, declaring that he would not make any answer, saying that he realised more and more every day that they were trying to make him jealous in order to gain an advantage at the expense of his reputation.
Contarini has left for his new appointment in France, taking with him the universal applause for his high merits and the ability he has shown in the discharge of his functions. He has received the most ample demonstrations of honour and esteem from his Majesty, who has expressed in every way the satisfaction he has received from his high qualities. This makes me desire to imitate so perfect an example. I only wish I had more ability but I will serve with all the good will I have shown in the past, feeling assured of your paternal assistance. But I lament the weakness which I observe in the present government. Private interests predominate, and the king inclines to follow the advice of one man alone, and this will always tend to the disservice of the state, because he will necessarily have his own maintenance constantly in view. This was seen in the favour bestowed on the Duke of Buckingham, and the same thing is seen now, although it is not so strong in the case of the Treasurer.
London, the 3rd August, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
192. GIROLAMO SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Sunday, the 29th ult. I had the audience of his Majesty which I had asked for to speak of the grievance inflicted by the judgment delivered against our merchants, and also, in conformity with my instructions, to renew the request that the business of the ships should be administered directly by his Majesty's authority and not be subject to the ordinary judges. I stated that at the beginning of my charge I felt myself obliged to perform this office, not only in order to procure the relief of so many interested persons, but to remind his Majesty of the perfect confidence which your Serenity had always had in him that this affair would be subject to no other direction than that of the royal authority. The judgment delivered could not affect adversely reasons of state, and I hoped to have the satisfaction of advising your Serenity that this affair had passed off quite satisfactorily.
The king replied that my predecessor had made the same representations on previous occasions. The reasons which led to their first decisions had not altered and he could give me no other answer except that while it was necessary by the laws that such cases should pass through the ordinary courts, he had given instruction that this should be done in the manner most favourable for the relief of our merchants either by curtailing delay or by giving time for the interested parties to send for their proofs, an unusual concession, upon which the king enlarged, making the most of the favour. He said he knew nothing of the merits or particulars of the judgment, but from the ability and integrity of the judge he was sure that justice would be done. The laws could not be changed, and he felt sure that your Serenity would be satisfied with what he had been able to do in this affair. He had certainly neglected nothing where his authority was concerned, though always with a regard for justice, and he knew that your Excellencies desired no more.
I replied that your Serenity had never desired anything but justice, but from his own royal hand. I proved by good arguments that the nature of this affair did not admit of any jurisdiction except between prince and prince, and reasons of state could not possibly be injured by what had been the practice here up to the present, as that left unaffected the claims of your Serenity and your obligation to see to the indemnity of your own subjects. But by way of consideration, as from myself in order to cause no prejudice even by words, I touched upon the irregularity of the judgment delivered, and proved the corruption and criminalty of the evidence which was the sole basis of Digby's claims, as proved by public attestations conflicting with his statements. I enlarged upon this as much as I considered proper, although I could not express myself as I desired in this great and complicated affair, as from the very beginning of the audience the king showed impatience at hearing me speak of a matter which he considered decided, not to speak of the leaning he betrays to favour Digby. He remarked to me that if the merchants complained about the judgment, Digby had no reason to congratulate himself, and then referred to the small portion of the goods which has been released. It was therefore necessary to cut the thread, and confining myself to the more weighty matters, I tried to make him see that the judgment was not in accordance with good justice, and that Digby had obtained a portion of more than 200,000 ducats, with which he was very pleased. I insisted so strongly upon this that the king was induced to promise me that he would order the judge to put in writing the reasons of his judgment and to consign it to two or three of his Council, so that I might see the basis for the sentence and make my comments, if there was any occasion. I accepted this in the name of the merchants, largely because I could not at the moment make all my remonstrances or bring forward all the arguments with which I was so abundantly supplied, as I have said above.
On the following Monday I went to see the Secretary Carleton and discussed the matter at length, speaking in more resolute fashion. I pointed out the affront to the state and the strong feeling of your Serenity on the subject. He told me that after I had gone his Majesty had informed him of my audience, and instructed him to impart to the judge what his Majesty had promised me. But he went on, as if from himself, to point out that it was impossible to go any further in the matter, because the king had contributed much more than he could. He repeated what his Majesty had said to me, and said he had interested himself as a partisan for the release of the ship Giona, because it was confiscate by the strict letter of the law, which is very explicit on this subject. He tried to convince me that in the present case your Serenity had nothing to complain of except the consequences, that everything has been remedied by the decree issued, and in the future English ships will not pass through the Strait with letters of marque. The best course for the moment would be to let the judgment pass, and if the interested parties object to it they may obtain relief by way of appeal. This view of the king and the ministers renders the matter hopeless, and the merchants will have to give in, although by countless weighty arguments they proved before the judge that the sequestration ought not to have taken place.
In my determined efforts on their behalf, seeing that they base the sequestration upon the nature of the trade, as condemned by the laws, as done in Spain, I have brought to light a patent of the king himself, dated the 28th April, 1629, of which I enclose an abstract, and your Excellencies will see that it permits a company of merchants to trade everywhere, not excluding the dominions of the Catholic. I made the most of this with Carleton and commented upon it. He excused the transgression by asserting that notwithstanding the patent the merchants traded at their own risk, and if they had been taken by the Dutch they would not have escaped the penalty. I replied with numerous arguments, but to no purpose and with the more mortification to me because I perceive that they are proceeding by force and not by argument, and in order to uphold the interests of an individual they are doing violence to friendship and good relations. I have tried to discover upon what grounds the judge justified the sequestration, because the king promised to make him declare it in writing, but despite all my efforts I have not obtained anything so far. Thus when I sent yesterday to Carleton to have it, he feigned to have almost forgotten the king's promise, confirmed by himself, and instead of affording me that satisfaction he repeated that nothing more could be done in the matter except that the merchants could appeal to the commissioners of the Admiralty. From this it is easy to deduce that the king does not intend to intervene.
The fear that this response means the withdrawal of the promise given to me prevents me from operating as I should desire. Thus I feel sure that the redress which the interested parties claim must come to them by your Serenity's hands, with such steps as the case requires. When I hinted at this, in order to charge my remonstrances with warmth, Carleton said that you could not claim any advantage at sea, like the English. This means that if their merchants suffer any harm at Venice they will be protected by hostilities. I report all this so that your Excellencies may see in what spirit they respond here, and that this may influence your deliberations.
London, the 3rd August, 1629.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.193. Copy of Letters Patent.
His Majesty has granted on this 20th April, 1629 to Robert Oxlbicke, for special reasons laid before him, licence for 50,000l. sterling and licence to two others for the same sum of 50,000l. sterling, each one to be able to trade in any part of the world soever, without hindrance from his lieges, letters of marque, reprisals, or orders of the Admiralty, to transport merchandise, fish, lead, drugs, grain, and any kind of cloth or textile goods of this realm and his dominions, notwithstanding any proclamation or order to the contrary, and it shall be valid until July, 1630.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
194. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The West India Company has sent to levy 1,500 foot covertly in France and England, to complete the numbers in their fleet, which were depleted from their having to send their men to serve under Bolduch.
The Hague, the 5th August, 1629.
[Italian.]
Aug. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
195. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I crossed the sea to-day in a few hours. Before I left London, the King of Great Brtain gave me the ordinary present of silver gilt, with a chain for the Secretary Agustini. The day I left he sent me a ring as a token of his appreciation of my services in concluding the peace, with the enclosed letter for your Serenity. The queen gave my nephew Vicenzo a small diamond as a memento. I beg the Senate to allow us to keep these presents.
Calais, the 6th August, 1629.
[Italian.]
Aug. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
196. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English resident Carleton at audience recently announced that the king did not intend the 2,000 English under Colonel Morgan to serve under his pay any longer, but the States might employ them if they wished. Although this withdrawal of the subsidy does not please them here, yet in their present necessities they have decided to pay these men themselves. Letters arrived a short while ago from England confirming what Joachim wrote, that the king and ministers assured him with one voice that they would not conclude any agreement with Spain without the previous knowledge and consent of these States, and they would send Vane with a full account of all Rubens' negotiations. I have also found out that in the same letters Joachim states that they have sent a courier from England to the infanta about these same affairs, and Vane's departure will depend upon his return, which might mean some delay. He said they were expecting the French ambassador extraordinary. He had made a proposal for an offensive and defensive league, to comprise the Palatinate and Germany, so they might easily change their opinions, give up the Spanish negotiations and alter Vane's commissions to these States.
The Hague, the 6th August, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
197. FRANCESCO CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador has really been to his Highness and drafted papers which he had sent to his king, declaring that they will be embraced here if the King of Great Britain approves. Wake has not spoken to me about it; I found it out, and I fancy he would like his king to get a promise for the restitution of Susa from the Most Christian, with which they would negotiate the withdrawal of the Imperialists. Wake told Crichi about it, who sent word to the king and cardinal.
Turin, the 6th August, 1629.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
198. To the Ambassador SORANZO in England and the like to the Ambassador GUSSONI at the Hague.
M. de Sabran began his negotiations at the imperial Court with prudent reserve. As he expected, they answered him very resolutely. They insist upon the French evacuating Italy and that the Duke of Mantua shall leave things to the free disposition of the emperor. They refuse to be questioned about withdrawing from the Grisons. We send you copies of Sabran's paper and their reply. The second offices of the papal nuncio had no more effect than the first. The Spaniard put Italian affairs first. They urge that the weight of the forces of Germany shall fall upon this province. They ask for Wallenstein's troops. The delays are not voluntary but due to the necessity for various provisions which require time. Wallenstein has prepared a great quantity of provisions. His quarter master has reached Meminghem and arranged for the army to pass. The Commissioner Ossa has gone to confer with him. Wirtemberg, the Engadine and other Protestants are threatened. It is said they will be forced by the passing troops to restore church goods and obey the laws given them. They are treating more mildly with the Swiss, entertaining the colonels sent to the imperial commanders, and promising not to molest them. By such arts they weave the nets in which they mean to take them. They make the Grisons submit to this yoke, prescribing a term for the ratification of the treaties that will make them slaves for ever, threatening them if they venture to resist the demands. On the other hand it is announced that they are voluntarily affording a passage to the Austrians through their country; but the passes which they pretend to be granted freely are being fortified.
To the Ambassador in England alone:
We have no letters from you this week. We hear that the members of parliament have been released and that the evil humours of that realm are being dissipated. This increases our anxiety to have the confirmation from you. We hope that it will come without delay. We sent you what we hear from Turin in a serious and important affair, so that you may find out what is taking place in the matter, and we shall wait to hear from you.
It will be very advantageous to confirm the King of Sweden in his excellent disposition towards the common cause, by suitable observations to his ministers. We charge you with this.
Ayes, 39.Noes, 3.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Aug. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
199. GIROLAMO SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have received the ducal missives of the 20th ult. with the enclosed copies of letters from Vienna and Zurich etc., nothing being missing. Your Serenity charges me to take audience of his Majesty to set forth the true state of affairs, not only in Italy but in all Europe, with suitable comments upon the importance to the public cause of the peace with France being established, followed by vigorous resolutions which will increase his Majesty's glory. I will do this at the earliest possible moment, but as the king is away hunting, passing from one country house to another, I cannot promise that I shall be admitted by his Majesty. Meanwhile I will study the powerful arguments with which your Excellencies have supplied me, so that nothing may be left undone on my part, and so that you may look for those results from my offices which the importance of the matter requires. I should write at length about the scant hopes of success if I had not enlarged upon it in my preceding dispatch. All these things keep me in continual agitation, and but for the blindness of those who at present control the government and the king's will I could promise that I would not fail in my part. I will show that all the evidence is contrary to the course which they are pursuing, and will try to procure remedies so that the evil may not go on. I only lament that all efforts are vain, and the best advice that can be offered is so much disliked that one would lose all hope of moving them by discussing things, but for the constant obligation of offering good advice, which cannot lose its credit even if it is not adopted. So I shall not lose heart or resolution, and if, as is the case, I cannot hope for success, I feel sure that your Excellencies will excuse me.
Cottington's mission to Spain is stopped, as I advised; that of Ven to the Netherlands is not withdrawn, but has been postponed, I am told, until September, to the disgust of the Dutch ambassador who would like full information about the king here to reach his masters before Cottington starts. I believe, however, that if the good news is confirmed about the retirement of the Spaniards from Lisel with the loss of a thousand horse, and the movement of the Prince of Orange towards the fortress of Bolduch, their High Mightinesses will pay little heed to the negotiations in these parts. If they succeed in capturing that place they will be much stronger than the enemy, who will have to beg for some sort of settlement. The same reason will compel the Spaniards to pay more attention to the affairs of the Netherlands, and they may possibly be obliged to slacken those designs which they seem to have not only sketched but coloured, although with false and unsubstantial pretexts. I keep in daily communication with the Ambassador Gussoni, and I will continue this course.
The painter Rubens is doing nothing here beyond trying to keep them to the decision to send Cottington. Baroccio, the secretary of Savoy assists in this, and the French ambassador, with whom I recently had a long conference, complained about it to me, but in such sort that I gathered his feelings were not very deep. He may think that the duke can do very little to injure the interests of France, but, as he told me, it is well to know what he means. The ambassador is trying to discredit his offices, announcing the union he has with his master. As Baroccio contradicted this the ambassador has been obliged to explain the formulas of the engagements made by himself at Susa and signed by the duke. This is possibly the best office that this minister is performing here, because he persists in his determination not to make further overtures while they maintain their intention to negotiate with Spain. I have had occasion to perform new offices upon this, and I have spoken very strongly. He wanted to gain ground, of which I did not approve, for reasons which I have given. He speaks openly about the commissions he holds to conclude a league, and that France wants nothing more from England except that she shall apply herself to the affairs of Germany, because with respect to Italy, the Most Christian is fully determined and strong enough to bear the burden alone. I may add that the assurances upon this are most abundant, and if only their deeds correspond, the Most Christian will take up his share of the burden most courageously. God grant that the results will meet the need.
The merchant Burlamachi is about to depart for the Netherlands. He is going for the purpose of redeeming the jewels of the Crown, which are pledged at Amsterdam for the sum of 300,000 ducats. As the money is not ready he is to make a proposal to the States, and if they are willing to supply money for the major portion, the king here will give them in exchange a corresponding number of pieces of ordnance. For the rest I gather that there is some idea of selling those of inferior value.
With respect to the ships taken by Digby I have so far made no progress whatever, though I have kept pressing for the fulfilment of the promise of the written paper from the judge. I hope to get it in two or three days, but I do not expect to derive from it arguments strong enough to make them withdraw their decision about the sequestration, because they will try to take the edge off the arms which they will be placing in my hands. The merchants are negotiating on their own account, as Digby wants to take possession of the sequestered goods and dispose of them, and they consider it a lesser evil to buy them from him at arranged prices. I have nothing to do with this but think it right to advise your Serenity about it.
I have received the ducal missives of the 18th with particulars about what took place between the Consul Salamone and the English consul at Scanderoon. I will only use the information when provoked, as so far the intentions of the state have been fully realised.
I owe to the beneficence of the state the permission to keep the chain I received in the Netherlands from the States, and the horses given me by the Prince of Orange. Both will enable me to sustain my character with more dignity, and I shall always endeavour to uphold it, even at the cost of my entire substance.
London, the 10th August, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 10
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Mantova.
Venetian
Archives.
200. MARC ANTONIO BUSINELLO, Venetian Secretary at Mantua, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Count Ferdinando Gonzaga (fn. 1) left a day or two ago. He is going to England to pay his respects to the king there in the name of his Highness.
Mantua, the 10th August, 1629.
[Italian.]
Aug. 13.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
201. The Proveditori of the Artillery have made a contract with Martin Gaceau and Alvise Dubois for lead of England in suitable naveselle for 100 thousand at 52 ducats the thousand in current money, to be paid upon consignment after the Senate has approved.
That the contract be approved.
Ayes, 130.Noes, 2.Neutral, 10.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Second surviving son of Charles, Duke of Nevers.