Venice
December 1629, 1-15

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1919

Pages

244-253

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: December 1629, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice: Volume 22, 1629-1632 (1919), pp. 244-253. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89264 Date accessed: 19 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Contents

December 1629

Dec. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
306. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The reports about the coming of Scaglia and Cottington have died away and it is apparent they were artfully promulgated to gain some advantage. They say the Duke of Bavaria is arming against France and is incensed against the Most Christian for urging the King of England to take the Palatinate. The Spaniards assure the duke that they will have no negotiations with the English contrary to his interests, and in case of rupture they promise him open assistance.
Madrid, the 1st December, 1629.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
307. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Colonel Morgan, after expressing his regret that he could not at present serve the republic owing to very important private interests to which he must attend personally, both here and in England, sent his lieutenant colonel and a number of his officers here, who have expressed their willingness to serve your Excellencies with their men, numbering about 2,000, now in the pay of the States, and very well seasoned and disciplined troops. Colonel Heim, also, who engaged in the wars with 1,800 Scots, has been to offer himself and his men. After many meetings we agreed that the contract should be the same as that under which the Ultramontanes serve. If the peaces are made they will accept it in its entirety. Two points could not be settled; they insisted on having major officers, and they demanded 45 lire for the levy and 50 for bringing the men. They admitted the price was extravagant but said they knew that the shipowners, who are merchants at Amsterdam, would not undertake it at a lower rate, and they could not take up the contract without the merchants. Thus the greed of the merchants spoils all. Colonel Ferrens, although he asked more than any, would accept less than the other colonels, but he will not accept any terms other than those made with the Duke of Candale. This point was overcome with all the others. I have tried to persuade the shipowners that if these ships are powerful and adapted for war they may easily be hired for the state, but they will not abate their exorbitant terms, at which the colonels are greatly displeased. They have suggested that the republic should undertake the cost of hiring the ships and food. They say the merchants have no conscience in their demands, and lament that this is the sole reason why they cannot go to serve in Italy. In other respects the state's requirements were admirably fulfilled, in the quality of the troops and the experience and bravery of their officers, while they promised to be embarked at the Texel within eight or ten days at most. All these troops, although veteran and seasoned, are being paid off by the States so the colonels have done their utmost to beat down the Amsterdam merchants, but their excessive desire to go to Italy may only have prejudiced their intent.
The Hague, the 3rd December, 1629.
[Italian.]
Dec. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
308. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The negotiations of Vane with the States have turned so far upon two points. The first, a long disquisition that so far England had not taken a step with Spain contravening the king's obligations to these States, and a promise not to take any steps soever without notifying them beforehand. Secondly, that the interests of the Palatine shall be comprised in their negotiations here with the Spaniards.
They have recently dismissed their extraordinary colonels here, with all their men, Scots, English and German with some companies of Irish, amounting to 6,000 good soldiers in all, I have been told. They go the more reluctantly because, as they cannot stay on here, they lose the hope of being employed in large numbers by your Serenity. I have hinted to some of the most experienced officers that they might go to Venice, but they do not want to abandon their men, and they hope to repair their fortunes in Sweden, Denmark or England, although they might go to Halberstadt, where Wallenstein is beating the drum and there are rumours of great levies.
The Hague, the 3rd December, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
309. To the Ambassadors SORANZO in England and GUSSONI at the Hague.
The governor of Goito was imprisoned because the duke learned that he could have resisted longer, and his excuses showed his cowardice. Our Proveditore General had succour ready. He has been declared infamous and condemned to perpetual exile. The troops stripped and beat him, following him with their imprecations.
The Imperialists continue to press Mantua. Fierce and bloody fights have occurred frequently on the counterscarp of Porto. Colonel Durante resists bravely and the Germans fear and hate him. They are building engines to serve on the lake, but it is hoped they will prove useless as our brave Albanians have some armed barques there. The besieged have made several sorties, always inflicting great loss on the assailants. At Vergiliana they burned the bridge built by the Germans for their communications, and many were drowned. The besieged also burned a mill and carried off the grain there, killing many Imperialists. The Imperialists are diminishing rapidly by death and hardship, but fresh troops are constantly pouring through the Grisons, chiefly owing to the instigation of the Spaniards, who have declared that they will sacrifice everything for this part.
We have repulsed numerous attacks on our territory. The papal ministers try to open negotiations, proposing an armistice and a congress to arrange an accommodation. The Imperialists keep up the pope's hopes, but only want to prevent him from declaring openly against them. They expect great advantage from the publication of the approaching peace, as they think it will cool France and stop their plans. They try to keep the French ministers filled with such hopes, although the Most Christian well knows the truth. He showed his feelings by tears and sighs. He declared his wish to help Italy powerfully, as he has always promised. The Marshal of La Force is advancing on Savoy if the duke disputes his passage. Reinforcements are being sent to Crichi, and they sent M. de Meos to him with special orders. The command was offered to the king's brother, and in default of him, the cardinal or the king himself will take charge. His Majesty is much inclined to this, telling his councillors that the negotiations were all deceitful. This news will serve you to contradict false reports and obtain what advantage you can for the public service.
To England alone:
We enclose a copy of the Consul Gritti's letters from Aleppo about the imprisonment of the English consul there and the death of his dragoman. You will see that the chief reason was the carrying off of forty Turks and because the dragoman spoke too boldly. You will be able to contradict false reports, with this account. We have your letters of the 16th ult. with news of important events, upon which we shall expect to hear more. We commend your prudent offices with the ministers and ambassadors and even though the results desired were not obtained, you will repeat them when opportunities occur and we know that you need no incitement.
We also commend what you have done about the Golden Cock. The interested parties will supply the necessary information, and you will back their interests and try and secure advantages for them.
Ayes, 87.Noes, 1.Neutral, 11.
[Italian.]
Dec. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
310. SEBASTIANO VENIER, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I went to see the Captain Pasha on his return from the White Sea. He spoke about the prize taken by the English ship. He maintained that the goods had been sold at Zante. He said the vessel belonged to Apulians. It appeared to be hired by the community of Corfu; they had found on board over 2,000 ryals with woollen cloth and silk. I think I succeeded in satisfying him by my explanations. I assured him that the goods had not been sold at Zante, indeed we suspected that the master of the ship, supposing that they belonged to Venetian merchants, tried to get them into his power. He would not land, but took the goods into his ship and fled, because all goods have to pass a long quarantine at the Lazaretto, which does not permit of their being concealed. However, he persisted, and the dragoman said the matter must be decided between the English ambassador and me, because he meant the king to have compensation. I asked what action they would have against us even if the goods had been sold there, especially as they knew who sold them and had the money. He did not know what answer to make, but when I left he said I must give an account of the circumstances to the English ambassador. I do not think I shall have any more trouble over the matter.
The Vigne of Pera, the 8th December, 1629.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
311. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Vane has not been able to hide the advanced state of the negotiations between England and Spain from the deputies appointed by the assembly, indeed they consider the affair irretrievably arranged so far as England is concerned, and, what is worse, Vane betrayed such an extraordinary desire for peace between those two crowns that he asked that the interests of his king and the Palatine might be included in any treaties which might perchance be arranged here with the Spaniards. He also let slip that the Spaniards aim at concluding both the treaties, with England and the States, simultaneously. I gather that they will raise no objection here about the interests of the King of Great Britain, but although they offer to obtain advantages for the Palatine they will not consider that this binds them not to come to terms with Spain without including him, as that question belongs more to England for several reasons. The Palatine neglects no offices possible to prevent himself from being abandoned by one side or the other or perhaps by both. He presented a written remonstrance in the assembly, where his partisans are, and the general inclination is favourable to him. With this behaviour on the part of England the Spaniards may easily obtain the truce with the Dutch which they desire so much. It is clear that their High Mightinesses are more inclined to satisfy England by a common accord with Spain than the negotiations with France, of which they say either that the cardinal will not fall in with the terms which they desire, or that the French will not keep their promises. I do my utmost to point out the dangers of the first and the advantages of the second.
We understand that Vane has also come about the Amboyna affair, in which the English insist upon some declaration and punishment for the atrocities committed. But this is an old affair involving much controversial matter and they do not seem disposed here to take any measures to satisfy the English, because they say they cannot take back what has been done or punish a whole company.
Carleton is about to leave, but he says he will come back, although there is no sign of his return here. It seems that Vane will act as ordinary, though with the title of extraordinary, as the king does not wish to prejudice his claims that his ambassador shall have a vote in the assembly, as they used. Since the States refused to renew this privilege Great Britain has ceased from sending ordinary ambassadors to this Court. Burlamachi, who went from England to Amsterdam, has finally concluded the business he had in hand with the merchants there, to conclude the sale of the English crown jewels, already pledged to those merchants. He has given these merchants reasonable satisfaction by the sale of a quantity of guns and artillery, transported from England to Zeeland, with which the king will have an opportunity of making money and afterwards recovering the jewels.
The Hague, the 8th December, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
312. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Extraordinary demonstrations of honour towards Cottington, who is said to have arrived in Galicia. A cavalier has left by the king's order, though secretly, to meet him, and to defray his expenses on the way. They offered no sign of esteem to the nuncio extraordinary all the time he was here.
The Spaniards publish many exploits of Don Federico di Toledo with his fleet. They say in particular that he fought the hostile fleet, capturing many ships and sinking others, but there is no authentic confirmation of this news. One may fear that it is a device to facilitate these negotiations in Flanders and with England.
Madrid, the 8th December, 1629.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
313. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
After the greatest efforts I have found it impossible to arrange the matter of the levies, and so I have been obliged to abandon the affair. I could not bring the claims of the merchants down sufficiently. The colonels could not accept my final offer of 34 ducats. The leading officers have asserted that no colonel who had ever seen war would ever lead a regiment without majors, whom they claim to be absolutely necessary. The soldiers have already been dismissed by the States and think of leaving, some to try their fortunes elsewhere. I confess to my deep regret at seeing such a fine force disbanded, when ships were all ready for it and it could have been embarked in eight or ten days. The difficulties about majors and the capitation grant were the only ones with M. de Berveruert, Colonel Heim and Morgan's lieutenant colonel, but there were others with Ferens.
In dismissing the extraordinary troops the States have informed all the colonels that if they choose to go and live in neutral countries, they will be retained in the service of the States, and if they will not, they must consider themselves dismissed. Those who have no other resource, like Ferens, have accepted the offer, though all dislike it exceedingly, as they fear they will not obtain enough for their support. Some have had their men disbanded, rather than consent, some have set out for other countries, for Sweden, Denmark or elsewhere.
The Hague, the 10th December, 1629.
[Italian.]
Dec. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
314. To the Ambassadors SORANZO in England and GUSSONI at the Hague.
The Imperialists were disappointed in hoping to stop relief for Mantua by taking Goito. Our general succeeded in introducing a large number of men, with rope and powder, without loss, so that the Imperialists have lost hope of taking the city. Count Bartolommeo Soardo, who conducted the relief, took many prisoners. Our cavalry stopped near Goito, but the Imperialists did not dare to come out, and the convoy returned without opposition. This has encouraged the duke and depressed the others. All our captains wished to serve for the relief, and our Proveditore allowed the Greeks who had garrisoned Goito to take part. With the breaking off of the negotiations introduced by the papal ministers the French have raided the Monferrat and defeated some Spanish horse near Lomellina; Spinola has sent 500 horse in that direction to prevent worse harm. The Imperialists are perishing and deserting. Collalto will have to look to himself. The French Council has decided that the cardinal shall go towards Susa within ten days with the army of the Marshal La Force, which is well equipped and provided with money for six months. The king will proceed to Champagne a fortnight later, to arrange his brother's affairs, offering him the command in the army of Champagne, as he has not had that of Italy. When that is settled the king will come here in person or will take up a position to help either in Italy or in Germany. The cardinal said he would not stop more than two days at Susa. He has sent to the Duke of Savoy for a more explicit declaration, and it is supposed that he will not be unwilling to keep his promises. Bassompierre will leave soon to execute his commissions with the Swiss. You will try to obtain all the advantage for the public cause that you can with these advices.
To England:
The example of the Most Christian will serve to incite the King of Great Britain to more worthy resolutions for the good of the common cause, in which he has so large a part. You will try to procure the fruit that is desired, by your prudent offices. We have no letters from you this week.
Ayes, 120.Noes, 1.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Dec. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
315. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The delay of the coming of Don Carlo Coloma, after Cottington's departure, upon the pretext that he had not received the necessary instructions from the Court, have caused the king and council no small misgiving that the Spaniards do not mean to respond. They therefore sent a barque with letters to Cottington to stop him from proceeding until further order. The king himself spoke very indignantly to Rubens, who sent a courier express to Brussels. In the reply to his letters he was assured of the coming of Don Carlo, that he would be at Dunkirk on the 20th inst. and cross the sea forthwith. They have already prepared his house, and he has sent the remittances necessary for the provisions. No one doubts but that he will be here at the time agreed. He has written to Rubens of his excellent intentions, upon which Rubens has enlarged publicly, in order to pave the way for him, as the generality do not regard this business favourably. The talk is always uncertain as to whether he is to make proposals or merely to listen. But as they have stated that he has not received his commissions it is thought that they will keep postponing in order to see what Cottington does. That person, I am assured, has been despatched upon the mere show of good will while the Spaniards have committed themselves to nothing more than that they will do everything that they can for the satisfaction of England. At the outset his coming will be merely complimentary.
It is certain that here they cherish more than ever their customary thoughts of peace, and so far as one can see at present, there is no accident that is likely to hinder the conclusion. The inducements of trade are removed, it being practically permitted already, upon the foundation of a previous assurance that the agreement will ensue. The mere certainty of avoiding expense when it is arranged is sufficient of itself to render fruitless all offices that might be performed to the contrary. I have done my best up to the present, but I have achieved nothing from all my representations to the king and ministers. Your Excellencies must understand that they shut their ears to the strongest and most patent reasons.
With respect to the affairs of Italy, the greater the danger the more certain they feel that the Spaniards, being involved in affairs there, will more readily agree to peace. They also rejoice to see the Most Christian thoroughly committed, not because they want his arms to assist the public cause, but because they hope they may suffer some reverse. They want to see the glory of that nation diminished, seeing that it has gained so many advantages over theirs, and by way of revenge they are anxious for the victorious progress of the Spaniards, as if in this way the reputation which their arms have lost in the past conflicts with France would be re-established. Such are the ideas which predominate at present, and out of them arises a firm determination not to commit themselves further. The French ambassador is so well informed about all this that he speaks of nothing else and I imagine that he writes of nothing else to France; so that your Excellencies may judge what is the state of affairs and how much may be expected from this kingdom in present circumstances.
The advices from France in letters of the 3rd ult. bring word of the necessary and generous resolution of his Majesty to send the Cardinal Richelieu to Italy, with other particulars. So soon as I had the news I decided as a sign of confidence to see the French ambassador, and I did not neglect to perform those offices that are likely to prove useful on such occasions. I communicated to him at the same time the advices I have from Spain, and the evil intentions of the Spaniards, who never cease urging the Imperialists to attack his Majesty in Champagne. I wanted to make an arrangement with him to perform a vigorous office with the ministers here, so that with this favourable opportunity provided by the Most Christian they also might rouse themselves. I was especially anxious to ask that a subsidy of 100,000 crowns should be given to Sweden. He did not take up the suggestion, assuring me that it was superfluous to suggest any such thing, not only because the lack of money renders such ideas useless, but because they are insensible, as he puts it, repeating all those ideas which I have so often recorded. Although this suggestion was not well received, I think it will at least have served to show the diligence with which your Serenity endeavours to secure advantages from every quarter.
Among my advices from Spain is the arrival of the French ambassador at that Court with a very full account of the honours shown to him, and that up to that time he had not negotiated anything about the affairs of Italy. When I communicated this to the Ambassador Preo merely in the course of conversation I noticed that he seemed alarmed lest I might be suspicious and he took great pains to remove my doubts, which I certainly had never entertained until I noticed he was concerned about it.
In his negotiations about navigation the ambassador has brought the part concerning Canada to a mutually satisfactory position, as the Council has decided upon a complete restitution both of the island and the goods, although the English concerned complain bitterly. For the rest, concerning the trade with Spain, about which he shows his usual ardour, they hesitate to give him satisfaction here. If he does not receive it before, it will follow as a necessary consequence of the peace with Spain.
Nothing more has been said about those leading nobles since they were sent back to their houses with the obligation to submit to the judgment of the Star Chamber when required, but the opinion is confirmed that their punishment will be pecuniary, as I stated.
The members of parliament refuse to have their case settled, claiming that they are subject to no tribunal except parliament itself, from whose favour they look for reward rather than punishment.
It has not been possible to do any more in the matter of the ship Golden Cock since the sequestration. I try to prevent anything prejudicial arising, and with your commissions, which should reach me very soon, I shall act as I am instructed.
The ducal missives of the 8th and 16th ult. reached me four days ago, with the advices. I have not failed to publish the powerful assistance which the Duke of Mantua receives from your Serenity, especially the last relief introduced into the city by the General Erizzo, with all the other successful operations, in order to cut the bottom away from the harmful reports to the contrary. I suppose that the ducal missives of the 8th are duplicates.
London, the 14th December, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
316. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Vane continues his negotiations with the deputies appointed for him. They have brought out quite clearly that England has gone so far in the negotiations with Spain that it is all but impossible to draw back. That king would like the States to be included and a common peace made between Spain, England and Holland. Vane continues his operations which are so manifestly prejudicial to the public cause, and there is no doubt that his most pernicious offices make more opportune offices very difficult as well as the adjustment with France. I keep a close watch on everything, for the service of the state. I may add that if the French move in earnest with some effective, generous resolution against Spain I hope we may obtain what is so much desired, not only the breaking of the truce but an armed alliance between the French and Dutch against the Spaniards, dissipating the designs and machinations of this Englishman.
The Hague, the 14th December, 1629.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
317. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
No one questions the peace between the King of Great Britain and the Catholic, and it is considered to be settled or nearly arranged.
Rome, the 15th December, 1629.
[Italian.]
Dec. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
318. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The minister of Archduke Leopold has been here over two years asking for the payment of the debt due to his master by the King of Spain over the Valtelline. He suggested that his Majesty should give the archduke a part of the Palatine's state for this debt, as the princes of the empire did not like any but a German prince having it. They told him it was not possible to alienate that state at present, as by means thereof they were offering satisfaction to the King of England by restoring it to the Palatine. Thus they want to pay their debts with the property of others. It is impossible that the English should not know of these transactions, though the Spaniards will know how to hold them back by promises and hopes.
Two couriers have arrived, one from England to Cottington, who has not yet reached the Court. I am told he is secluded and they will not allow the letters to be delivered. All the circumstances of this affair are conducted with so much mystery that I cannot feel sure of anything. The opinions one hears about Cottington's coming are so various that one withholds all credence. Some one went to meet him, but the tricks of the Court are great.
Madrid, the 15th December, 1629.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]