Venice
July 1630

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1919

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364-383

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'Venice: July 1630 ', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice: Volume 22, 1629-1632 (1919), pp. 364-383. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89272 Date accessed: 21 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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Contents

July 1630

July 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
446. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Prince Palatine came to see me before leaving for Rhenes. In speaking about sending his agent to the Diet of Ratisbon he seemed to believe, what is actually the case, that the intention expressed by the Spaniards to revive some negotiations about his interests at that diet is merely a trick for the benefit of their negotiations for an accommodation with England.
A difficulty over the securities has delayed Colonel Suynton in beginning his levy. He has gone to London and undertakes to have the men ready within three weeks of the first payment, which has already been made. He has to make the levy in distant places as the States will not allow the enlistment of any troops actually in their service. This occasions delay. I will try to get him to increase his regiment as much as possible, as I know it will not be easy to get anyone else to undertake such a levy upon such advantageous terms. He seems more and more anxious to serve your Serenity and all his previous military experience has been against the House of Austria.
The Hague, the 1st July, 1630.
[Italian.]
July 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
447. To the Ambassador in England and the like to the Hague.
Most Christian more determined than ever to go to Italy. Waiting for the fall of the fort of Chiarbona without which army cannot cross the Mont Cenis. King raising more forces. Duke of Savoy surprised Vigon near Pinarol, but hard pressed by French. Spinola pressing Casale, but Toiras defending bravely. Proveditore General failed to introduce relief into Mantua, but hopes to do so and save the city.
To the Hague add:
You will hasten as much as possible the despatch of Colonel Sinton's troops and conclude the negotiations with others also. With respect to Colonel Sinton's sureties, you will not allow them to delay the departure of the troops in any way.
To England:
Your letters of the 14th show us your diligence and afford us complete satisfaction. We are very pleased at what you assure us about the levy of infantry, because the need is great, and we enjoin upon you the utmost diligence so that the passage may be made while the season is favourable.
You will pass the usual compliments upon the birth of the king's son.
Ayes, 103.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
448. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ducal missives of the 6th ult. have reached me telling me of the advance of Spinola against Casale. I have not failed to inform the French ambassador about it, with such comments as the occasion requires, pointing out the danger of that important post. In reply he showed me an extract from letters he had recently received from the Court, relating all the victories of his Majesty in Savoy up to the 9th ult.
I must not omit to state that these last days there are more and more reports with details about the engagement between the forces of the republic and the Austrians, not without comments on the incident. This has caused me great anxiety, as I have not that detailed information that I could wish to enable me to make a well grounded rejoinder. To those who have spoken to me about it I have made use of the particulars sent by your Excellencies in your letters of the 6th, because it may be imprudent to deny absolutely things which are actually true, as well as disadvantageous, especially as an account of the whole action has been published, issued by the Duke of Candales. I call it a manifesto, because it is clearly his object to justify his actions. They deduce from this that there may have been great disorder, because he discreetly hints as much, to show that he had no share in it. I obtained a copy of it from Sir Henry Ven, and enclose it herewith, as it is only fitting that you should know what it published concerning your interests, to be taken into consideration by your infallible prudence.
I have nothing to add about the levies. I have received a letter from the Master of the Posts at Antwerp this morning, from which I learn of the despatch of the express courier, and I imagine he will have arrived at Venice before the 8th inst. I may repeat that I have not as yet made any overtures to Colonel Morghen, because he would certainly disdain them, because he has held the position of general of the English twice in Denmark with a salary of 4,000 rix dollars the month. Although this was not paid and the King of Denmark owes him more than 24,000 ducats, yet such people feed themselves on these shows and will not derogate from their titles. I think, however, that if he was to command 8,000 to 10,000 infantry we might treat with him and he would listen to proposals, but a single regiment is not food enough for his fame. However, I will not forget to obey even in this, and before next week has passed, if he is in London, I shall be in possession of his views. I am prepared, supposing he embraces the proposal, to hear the most extravagant suggestions, especially about the treatment of himself personally. I certainly shall not accord him more than is suitable for a simple colonel, because I imagine that your Excellencies value the soldiers.
If you wish to obtain officers, I venture to say that Morgan, although brave and esteemed, would not be compatible with the style used at Venice. He has two special characteristics: he is very greedy for money and he has a quick and choleric temper, which generally make him imprudent in his actions. He is therefore considered better adapted to carry things out than to command. When I was in Holland I devoted some attention to him and spoke about him confidentially to the Prince of Orange, who admires and esteems him greatly. He also spoke about his avarice and quick temper and remarked that he would not succeed in the service of your Excellencies.
With respect to what may be expected from the levies which the Duke of Rohan expresses his intention to make through M. de Soubise, his brother, I may say in general that if they have ready money they can have as many soldiers as they please. In order to send you particulars I tried to find out if Soubise had any notification or commissions from the duke for this purpose, but as he is sixty miles away from here I have not been able to obtain a reply. If he has orders to do anything of this kind he will have to come to London, and I have no doubt that I shall know all the particulars, because he may have need of my assistance. Besides this, he is very friendly with me, as he frequently advised me after the duke, his brother, was at Venice, with the purpose of advancing his interests to the end they have attained. I fancy he may think of coming to serve himself, and if he makes any overtures to me about it I shall not fail to inform your Excellencies.
Since I have been at my post here it is too true that I have noticed with mortification the unequal treatment that the ambassadors of your Serenity receive from those of France. As you direct me to inform you in what this difference consists, I may say that I have noticed it more in the exchange of visits than in anything else up to the present, because there has been no other occasion. When I arrived here and received the information from my predecessor, we paid visits to the Lords of the Council who were in London, before being visited by anyone. No one ever responded to this, and if by any accident we happened to make any other compliment, no response was ever made. This was the case with the Lord Chamberlain, the Earl of Montgomery, about the death of his brother, the Earl of Pembroke, in which instance they promptly responded to the French ambassador. This obliges me to keep very retired, in order to avoid similar slights. Some visits were paid to the treasurer, the late Earl of Pembroke, the Earl of Montgomery, the Earl of Arundel, the Earl of Holland and the Lord Keeper, from whom I never received a visit.
The Earl of Carlisle, who was the last to come to London, appointed me an hour in which to see him, but when I went not only did no one come to meet me, but when I reached his apartments someone told me that he was not in the house, while others said he was resting, so that in the end I had to go away without seeing him, although I expressed my sentiments in a proper manner. When I returned home after making other visits, they told me that a coach had been in which they said the Earl of Carlisle was; but he only made it pass before the door of the house at a time when he knew full well that I could not be there. Shortly afterwards we met on neutral ground, but the Earl of Carlisle did not make me any apology or perform any act of civility, so that I thought it right to treat the matter with greater strictness than I should have done had he not shown such great insolence. I have not said anything about this incident to your Serenity because I have always hoped to obtain satisfaction, especially as the Ambassador Castelnovo interposed, who obtained a promise from the earl that he would come and see me and arrange to satisfy me, but he never did so, and I believe that Carlisle sought for this opportunity in order to show himself more interested with the Spaniards. I have not failed to make suitable complaint to those with whom I have had occasion to speak, but they have paid scant attention.
I do not think that the ambassadors of the republic obtain satisfaction so promptly as they should, and the reason for this, as I have suggested before, is because they do not trouble about distant interests, and especially those far removed from this nation, which is separate from all the others by its situation and manners. For this reason they display great haughtiness and a contempt for all civilities, so that there is no remedy, especially for those of us who have no faction to support us.
When the French ambassador arrived here he received visits on the very day of his coming from the Earl of Carlisle, the Earl of Holland, the Earl of Dorset and other lords as well. It is true that after his audience of the king he went first to visit the treasurer, but his visit was promptly returned. Montgomery and the Earl of Arundel did the same when the ambassador visited each of them recently, the first on the death of his brother and the second for that of his mother. (fn. 1) No doubt, if there was any business it would be necessary to put aside these matters of punctilio and see both of them as might be necessary, but the case would be more endurable, because visits made about affairs do not require such a prompt response as complimentary ones, to which attention is due. In this matter I have conducted myself with such tact as I consider necessary in the present state of affairs, and I will continue to do so.
With regard to your instructions to me always to keep near the Court, I need only say that I shall always be ready to do everything possible to serve you promptly, but as his Majesty generally makes his progress through the realm it is impossible to be always equally near him if one does not follow the Court, because he takes shorter or longer journeys as the visiting of the country requires, and is sometimes thirty and at others a hundred miles away.
No progress has been made here in the peace negotiations with Spain beyond what I reported, because Cottington's secretary, who came with the last resolutions from Madrid, is still here. I learn. however, that he is to leave in two or three days and with him a gentleman of the Ambassador Colona. This activity merely serves to colour the evident lack of zeal in the public service, but really the affair is considered as good as settled in the manner I reported.
I communicated to the French and Dutch ambassadors the report that the Spanish ambassador is about to enlist troops here to send to the Netherlands. Both of them will help in preventing it. To-morrow the ambassadors are to see the queen for the first time since her confinement. An audience has been arranged for me also and I shall not fail to congratulate her Majesty as the occasion deserves. The prince is to be christened the day after to-morrow according to the rite of the so-called reformed faith, no regard being paid to the terms of the marriage, which they claim has been broken and annulled in every particular, especially those concerning religion.
No reply has come from France yet from Montagu, who took the news of the birth and the invitation to the christening. This may be for two reasons, which are mutually contradictory, the one that as the ceremony will not be after the Catholic rite the king may refuse the invitation, the other that if he accepts he may send someone on purpose to take part in the function in his name. Those deputed by the king here are the Duke of Lennox for the Most Christian, the Duchess of Richmond for the queen mother and the Marquis of Hamilton for the King of Bohemia.
The ducal missives of the 14th ult. have just reached me with news of the engagement of the Duke of Rohan and his undertaking to raise a levy. I have no particulars on the subject of what I am directed to do here, although new letters of credit should have reached me. I will await your commissions in response to the despatch I sent by express courier.
London, the 5th July, 1630.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 6.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
449. That permission be granted to Giovanni Donato, going as consul to Alexandria, to take with him for the greater security of the capital of the merchants and of his person the English ship Peter Andrew, (fn. 2) besides the Venetian ships destined for his escort, though this shall not in any way affect our laws about the prerogatives of Venetian ships.
Ayes, 112.Noes, 2.Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
July 6.
Cinque Savii
alla
Mercanzia,
Risposte, 148.
Venetian
Archives.
450. In respect to the petition of Zuane Donado, appointed consul at Alexandria, we think he should be allowed to take with him the English ship Peter Andrew, of considerable esteem, in addition to the Venetian ships chosen for his escort, in order to render his voyage safer from the attacks of pirates, but this must not affect the prerogatives of Venetian ships.
Dated the 6th July, 1630.
ANTONIO BASADONNASavii.
LORENZO CONTARINI
ZUANNE MORESINI
[Italian.]
July 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Mantova.
Venetian
Archives
451. MARC ANTONIO BUSINELLO, Venetian Secretary at Mantua, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Yesterday I reviewed the Ultramontane troops, excluding those of Durante's regiment. I enclose the muster list.
Mantua, the 7th July, 1630.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.452. Extract from Muster on the 7th July.
Captain Christopher Paiton, sick 3; dead, 6; missing, 0; efficient, 28.
[Italian.]
July 7.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
453. The agent of the King of England came into the Collegio and spoke substantially as follows:
By his Majesty's command I have two offices to perform with your Serenity this morning, both full of gladness and content. Firstly, I am to assure your Serenity that his Majesty has heard of your election with great pleasure. He rejoices at your private content and also that God has granted to the republic a prince of such ability and prudence during the present troubles of Italy. He hopes that those troubles will terminate with increased glory to the republic and advantage to all. He hopes that God will give you a long and happy term of office.
As the second office his Majesty wishes to inform your Serenity that early on the morning of the 29th of May the queen was taken with the pains of labour. These lasted until the sun was high, when she brought forth a new sun for all Great Britain. By the 11th ult. her Majesty was in perfect health, and so far as can be known in such a short time the babe promises to be a most grateful pledge sent to secure the succession. His Majesty believes that his friends, allies and confederates will rejoice with him for these favours, and as he desired the true and permanent friendship of this republic he has ordered me to inform you specially.
The agent then presented the following letter:
Charles, King of Great Britain &c., to Nicolo Contarini, Doge of Venice.
Congratulations on the doge's election and imparts the birth of a son. Thomas Rolandson will communicate all. Request that the doge will give him credence until circumstances permit the coming of the ambassador appointed.
Dated at Westminster, the 7th June, 1630.
The doge answered that his Majesty correctly gauged the feelings of the republic at the birth of his son, as they always desired the greatest prosperity for that kingdom, as is only right seeing the old standing friendship and community of interests between that Crown and the republic. He asked the agent to assure his Majesty of this. The agent promised to do so, took leave and departed.
[Italian.]
July 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
454. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I hope the Spaniards will be buried in the ruins which they are preparing for others. England may easily unite with France, and their minister here already seems dissatisfied at the way they behave, although he is so interested in the business that he desires peace.
Madrid, the 8th July, 1630.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
455. To the King of England.
Congratulations on the birth of a son and successor to his dominions, which the Ambassador Soranzo will express more fully. The republic rejoices the more as it ensures the continuance of the cordial relations already existing.
Ayes, 66.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
July 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
456. That the agent of England be summoned to the Collegio and that the following be read to him:
The republic has always cherished a singular affection and esteem for his Majesty and we are therefore especially gratified by the birth of an heir to those most noble realms and at the health of him and the queen and the universal rejoicing. We thank his Majesty for informing us and congratulate him warmly. We shall be glad if you will write to this effect. You will always be welcome here, for his Majesty's sake and your own qualities.
Ayes, 66.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
July 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
457. To the Ambassador in England and the like to the Hague.
Report of French king going to Italy with a very powerful army. Toras defending Casale bravely; a successful sortie. Proveditore General has introduced succour into Mantua, which is in great peril owing to the plague. Bavaria not gone to Ratisbon. Little hope of that diet as Saxony and Brandenburg will not go to it.
To the Hague add:
Commendation for conducting levy of Colonel Sciaton. Send him letters of exchange for 20,000 ducats. To levy one or 2,000 more with some other experienced person, if the Colonel does not object.
To England add:
You will use the advices for our service. After we sent our letters of last Thursday, yours of the 21st and 22nd arrived about the letters of credit. We sent you letters of exchange for 32,000 ducats on the following day to enable you to make the levy and we will send you drafts as soon as possible for the necessary sum of 22,000l. sterling. The needs of the state require the levy to be arranged speedily under a capable colonel, with every effort to spare the public purse. We send you the agreement with some alterations, which you will follow in making the bargain.
From the enclosed copies you will see the office of the English agent about the birth of the king's son, and our reply. We also send a letter of congratulation to his Majesty, which you will speak to in a similar manner.
That 32,000 ducats di banco having been sent to the Ambassador Soranzo in London as decided here on the 4th May, which sum has been changed with divers persons who have consigned the letters of exchange, to wit those for 7,000 ducats, Bernardin Bentio to recover from Piero Bicaret for 10,000 ducats; Gio de Valle to recover from Abraham Bet for 15,000 ducats; Rodolfo Cimes to recover from divers persons, all at ten days' sight; that the 32,000 ducats be inscribed in the banco del ziro (fn. 3) in the usual way to each one for the amount exchanged with him.
Ayes, 66.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
July 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
458. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Last Saturday I had audience of the queen and told her with what satisfaction your Excellencies had heard of the birth of the prince, to which she replied very graciously. I took the opportunity to impart to her the recent news which had reached me from France, enlarging upon it as much as possible so as to make the most of this chance of countervening those who speak of the present events in Italy with corrupt and poisonous views. I told her that I hoped, under the auspices of the arms of his Most Christian Majesty, that the justice of the public cause would be vigorously and victoriously sustained, and I was sure that would afford her particular gratification. She assented to this heartily with a flood of words.
Last Sunday the prince was christened and named Charles, the ceremony being according to the order described in my last despatch. There was nothing worthy of note, as the ceremony was private. The Duchess of Richmond alone, who represented the queen mother, honoured her position with very numerous gifts. She gave the prince a diamond in a ring, worth 20,000 ducats, one worth 12,000 to the queen and to all the other ladies of the Court according to their rank, dispensing more than 20,000 crowns in gifts.
In the evening there were bonfires all over the city, but the French ambassador and I did nothing, contenting ourselves with the display on the day of the birth. I sent to ask the French ambassador what he was doing, and as he replied that he did not think it necessary to make any further demonstration, I thought I might follow his example. The king intimated to Fontane that he had the ceremony before the reply came from France because that was arranged when Montagu left.
Since then a gentleman has arrived, sent by the queen mother to visit her daughter. (fn. 4) He said that since the christening was to be according to the rites of the reformed church, the Most Christian, although he accepted the invitation, would never nominate commissioners. This caused satisfaction, as it removes the fear that offence might be taken in France because they did not wait for the reply. Yet these appearances mean very little, because in essentials their disposition here towards France is not good.
The Duchess of La Tremouille claimed to hold the prince at the font on behalf of the queen mother. As this was refused, she went out of London on the day of the christening. Owing to another offence she has absented herself altogether from the Court, and she has only seen the king and queen once since she has been here. Four years ago when she came to England she was allowed to sit down in the queen's apartment, as a princess of the blood and aunt of the King of Bohemia, sister-in-law of the king here, sister of the Prince of Orange and other very distinguished connections. These things were taken into consideration at that time and they are still the same. It does not therefore seem proper to deprive her of privileges already conceded, yet the king has intimated to her through the Earl of Carlisle that she will no longer enjoy that of sitting. She replied that she had come to see her daughter not to receive affronts, and she would avoid going anywhere where she might be exposed to them. Since his Majesty had done her that honour she had lost none of her quality, and she was now too old to begin to learn new fashions. She spoke even more haughtily to others, saying that after they had done everything here to ruin the party of the religion in France, they are now anxious to put down those who had some reputation left. The duchess has spoken to me expressly on the subject. She asked my advice as to how she should conduct herself. I answered in general terms, although really as she had once received the honour and nothing had occurred since to make any alteration, there is no real reason why it should be denied her; but the nature of the king here is such that he obliges no one either in deed or word (ma questo Re e di natura tale che non obliga ne in fatti ne in parole alcuno). As she remarked to me, she now knows how much she owes to the memory of the Duke of Buckingham for having received that favour.
On the very day of the prince's birth it was decided by the king's own motion to appoint the Countess Rocsbero his governess. She is a Scot who withdrew to Scotland after the death of Queen Anne. The English have resented this, especially as the lady is supposed to be a Catholic. However, the king seems to be so determined that no one ventures to oppose; but from what I have heard recently I fancy she has been removed chiefly on the score of religion and they have let it be understood in Scotland that her coming is to be postponed on the pretext of indisposition or something else.
A mandate arrived recently with letters from the King of Sweden to represent the readiness of his Majesty to undertake the war and to ask for some help; but they sent him back with a very short answer, so that his coming should not be published. The ministers interested had no time to help him with their offices. The Dutch ambassador gave me this information. He told me that he had not been able to see him as he would have desired. These northern princes do not push their interests in the way they ought, because the ministers to whom they recommend their affairs do not generally know the proper thing to do. If the one who came here had let himself be seen by the French ambassador and the others, it might have been possible to help him, at least by making them take more notice, and rendering a refusal more difficult. The Dutch ambassador further told me that the alliance of the States with the Most Christian is concluded; France had paid down 1,500,000 florins and would provide 1,200,000 yearly, and he thought that the Prince of Orange would seize the occasion to take the field, but I hear nothing to indicate that he will undertake anything of moment.
The negotiations with Spain are in the position reported. Cottington's secretary was to leave yesterday. The Dutch ambassador told me that things are not so far advanced as they announced; however, I know many circumstances which indicate that they are near a conclusion.
The ducal missives of the 21st ult. have reached me to-day. I will use the particulars touching events in Italy for the advantage of your service. With respect to the letters from Spain of the 25th May, my information goes to show that things were different from what the Ambassador Cottington announced about not being satisfied, possibly with some artifice, just as there was little truth in his statement about the provision of armed ships of the king here, because no provision has been made beyond the ten destined for the guard of the coast here. I wish I could report them, but they are things too self evident to be imaginary. It was one of the ideas with which I came here, that if England wished to negotiate peace with Spain it behoved them first to send a good fleet to sea, but they did not listen to me.
The urgency with which the ducal missives incite me to hasten the levy acts upon me as a violent stimulant, the more so because however much I am pressed I can make no progress, as you will have learned by now by my despatch of the 21st ult.
I have recently sent a person in my confidence to treat with Colonel Morghen, under the pretext of receiving information from him about those who offer to serve in the levy. A good opening occurred and I had it represented to him that the opportunity might be a favourable one for him to go to Italy. He replied that he had desired employment there for a long time, but at present there were many things in the way, and he hinted that he did not see how he could be employed, because the Duke of Candales is in command. From this your Excellencies will see his pretensions, which are far from modest. He has left for Holland, where he has an old regiment of English. He will have the command of all the others of that nation, because the two other leading colonels, Cecil and Vere, are now here, by the permission of the Prince of Orange, to remain for this season. From this I conclude that they have no idea of beginning any hostilities of moment in that quarter.
I have not yet been able to find out for certain whether M. de Soubise has any orders from the duke, his brother, to make any levies. I have got several of his friends to write to him, in such a way that I shall learn some particulars from his answers. As I have stated, if he has money he can have troops in abundance. Considering, however, that the Duke of Rohan's undertaking is to supply the levy of 6,000 Ultramontanes in three months, I may say frankly that he cannot have thought of raising them in these parts, because there is not time.
London, the 12th July, 1630.
[Italian.]
July 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
459. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The enclosed note of the Swedish forces reached me from a very trustworthy source. I send it for those of your Excellencies who may care to see it.
Alkmaar, the 16th July, 1630.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.460. Extract from list of Colonels and Regiments of the King of Sweden.
Scottish and English Infantry.
The Lord Spent16companies.
Col. Maclian16"
Col. Ramse8"
Sig. John Sitton8"
Col. Hetsel8"
Col. Hamilton8"
[Italian.]
July 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
461. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador, who of late has expressed a wish to see me, came here yesterday. He told me first that a servant had reached him with letters from his king, giving him express commissions to see me and offer his services to the republic, who had informed him of the events in the Mantovano. He wished the republic every felicity and would tell me what was done at the English Court about those affairs. He said that an Italian of repute was strongly urging the Spaniards here to make open war on your Serenity. Some of the ministers had opposed, but others were in favour of it, and the king and count were to decide the matter. Casale and Mantua were considered lost. He had disclosed this business some days ago to the French ambassador. Since then he had heard several particulars and had spoken about it to the count and to others who urge the war. He found the king and count were against it, but others urged it strongly. He told me that he had drawn up a paper pointing out the impropriety of making war on the republic and that it would excite all the princes of the world. I kept silent, waiting for the ambassador, because I knew that he came with his head full of things and not innocent of artifice. He went on to say that he had seen the count more than once about this, and heard him complain that the French ambassador had not seen him for several months. Although the king always had the republic against him, yet he would show how much he esteemed its friendship and how much he would like to treat with it, however badly it behaved to him. He urged me to see the count and ministers. He told me that the republic had made a very angry reply to the count of Collalto, and quoted your Serenity's remark that God is over all and Lord of all.
I listened with composure in order to find out their tricks, but I cannot help lamenting the methods of these times. This minister, who ought rather to profess mistrust of the Spaniards, who play with his king, and obtain friends and allies for his king, who can obtain nothing of what he demands, comes to offer his mediation to others, and while his own business might serve as an example for not trusting those who always deceive, he recommends to others the same devices from which he suffers. I thanked him, commended his zeal and told him that your Serenity's actions and desire for a secure peace were well known to the world. It was useless for me to repeat the offices I had so often performed without any profit. I said I did not know why they wanted to change all the fundamental maxims of states to enter a sea of trouble. In reply to me the ambassador stated that the Abbot Scaglia was the one who performed these offices and he had been to his house several times to express his ideas, which Cottington had always opposed.
Madrid, the 16th July, 1630.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 18.
Cinque Savii
alla
Mercanzia.
Risposte 148.
Venetian
Archives.
462. We are asked to give our opinion on the 5th and 6th articles of a petition presented from Cephalonia on the 3rd July, 1629, about the western ships going to Venice with their cargoes to escape an extra 5 per thousand on currants and that they may take their currants from Zante and Cephalonia to England and Flanders in foreign ships, paying the 10 per cent. of the new impost and have a year to pay it in: after due consideration of the Senate's decree of the 26th August, 1626, obliging foreign ships to bring their cargoes to this city, and the reasons for it, and seeing the increase of trade at Leghorn, especially in goods brought by these same western ships, English and Flemish ships after discharging their goods at Leghorn being accustomed to proceed empty to Zante and Cephalonia, where they laded the currants previously bought up by their agents; because so precious a commodity which could not be obtained elsewhere should be profitable to the state, it was resolved that those who did not bring their entire cargoes to Venice should pay the said 5 per thousand and although the device seemed unlikely to succeed, seeing that Leghorn was nearer for them, yet the need of those peoples for currants which they use in all their food and the facilities granted to those western merchants by a reduction of export and import duties at Venice has caused the trade to increase in the interval, and many ships from the West, to the number of 45, have come in the last four years and profited by the concession, lading currants free of the extra duty; with advantage to the customs and his mart. Experience thus shows the affair is profitable, as we have safe information that the duty of the West has increased, while a quantity of salt fish has come to this city: we do not therefore think it advisable to alter a matter which has proved so successful, and if these islanders complain of difficulty in exporting their currants owing to an alleged order of the King of England, that his subjects shall not pay more than 20 ryals the thousand, this should not stand in the way of the state's good, especially as we know that all the currants were exported and the duties of the new impost have increased in the last three years, and now the contract is for about 30,000 ryals, and if the price is lowered the quantity exported is increased, and they are always planting new vines, although it is forbidden, and derive the greatest advantage from it, making over three millions at Zante and seven at Cephalonia. Ships are unlikely to be diverted because the currants of Lepanto and Patras are not of considerable quantity and are inferior in quality, unfit for a voyage and easily going bad: we therefore think that the additional duty should be continued now the four years prescribed in the original decree have expired, especially as we hear that the price of the new impost at Zante, which is to be put up to farm, will advance still higher.
With respect to the 6th article, we do not see how the people of Zante and Cephalonia can get currants to England and Flanders under their own name in foreign ships, because we do not believe it would be permitted by that crown, though they have agreed to allow it previously, in Venetian ships. If your Serenity allowed it, we believe it would not fail to be prejudicial to the state through some secret understanding with the foreign ships to escape the 5 per cent.; and would render vain the decree of the 26th August, 1626, which was intended to make ships bring their cargoes to Venice; otherwise they would discharge at Leghorn and then go to lade currants at the islands under the name of the islanders. We also consider that to grant this liberty for a million of currants only would be no relief to the islanders, because of the quantity they grow, and if they had this grant we could not be sure that they would not use it for a much greater quantity.
Dated the 18th July, 1630.
ANTONIO BASADONNASavii.
LORENZO CONTARINI
PIERO FOSCARINI
ZUANE MORESINI
[Italian.]
July 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
463. To the Ambassador in England.
You will have received money to satisfy the merchants and proceed with the levy. We will send you more next week and supply you from time to time, but before employing any more public money we think it necessary for you not to postpone asking for the king's permission for the levy. You will go to his Majesty making the request in our name, he being well aware of the circumstances and our need. We expect much from his Majesty's good will, and you will hasten the collecting of the men as much as possible. The offer of Conway's son will serve to set up competition and help to reduce the terms you may make with him or some other officer, whom you may consider more fitted. You will try and avoid contracting for a year, adducing the example of the Dutch, and if you do not succeed, you will cut down the time as much as possible. We give you power to increase by 2 or 3 ducats a head beyond the 6, but we enjoin despatch before all things, because of our requirements, for our own safety and the service of Italy, which constantly become greater. We enclose a copy of what we are writing to the Hague; it will serve for your information about events to use as your prudence suggests.
Ayes, 117.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
464. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
You will have heard from the Ambassador Soranzo the reports about the peace between England and Spain. Perhaps obstacles will arise to prevent a conclusion. In any case we shall be glad to hear what they think about it in Holland.
Ayes, 117.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
465. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Cottington's secretary and the gentleman sent to the Court by the same ambassador from Spain have left separately. The latter preceded the secretary by some days, possibly in order to forestall him with information. The ambassador of the States, who expressed the belief that matters were not so far advanced as they announced, came to see me recently and told me that he had altered his opinion, because he had since discovered that the negotiations were very advanced and he felt certain that the peace was near. He also told me that Sir Henry Ven was to leave very soon for Holland. They were preparing his instructions as to how to conduct himself in imparting to the States the progress of the negotiations with Spain; but these were superfluous formalities, because throughout the whole affair they have proceeded here with great disdain.
I will not enter into further particulars because I have informed your Serenity of all that has taken place in this affair from time to time. The French ambassador told me that he had spoken at length to the king about this method of negotiating peace, pointing out how prejudicial it was and how little security it offered. The king told him that nothing would be concluded until the Spaniards observed their promises about getting the imperial ban against the Palatine withdrawn at the diet of Ratisbon. It appears that all the difficulties are now reduced to this. The ambassador replied that it was not advisable to trust to such promises. The king said that the Most Christian also was at peace with the Spaniards, and the ambassador admitted as much, but added that they had been in that position for a long time, but if they had had an open war like England, they most certainly would not have consented to any negotiations for peace in the present state of affairs throughout the world. He made these observations as part of the duty of his office, but he declared that he had no commissions to interfere in order to thwart the negotiations for peace. This was not the moment when one could do any good with offices of that description, because anyone who wished to make an impression would have to use his credit and work hard; but I discovered long since that the French do not mean to concern themselves seriously about what happens here, as they have made up their minds that they can receive no great advantage and no great hurt from the breaking off or conclusion of these negotiations, and I think they are not very far wrong, because it is certain that they think of nothing here beyond putting themselves on good terms with everybody and economising money. Perhaps they want to amass a considerable quantity of this to provide the means of compelling the people to satisfy the king, which would be a very dangerous and violent course. Yet seeing that the king is so determined upon this course of living without parliament, which occasions him so much inconvenience, one must believe that his councillors imbue him with such notions and as he is a prince who is very obstinate in his intentions, there are few things which will make him budge if he has so decided.
I am told that the person sent by the King of Sweden has made a request for 25,000 ducats a month, but he only wanted it for fourteen months, promising with this to enter the empire and make a lively diversion; but they refused him. Sir Thomas Roe has returned from his embassy to Sweden and Poland. I have not yet had an opportunity of seeing him, and so I am not in a position to report about his negotiations, beyond what can be gathered from the results of the truce between those two kings. I know that he has been very active and that he stayed some days at Hamburg on purpose to remove the differences between that town and the King of Denmark, but I think he achieved little.
M. de Soubise has written me a letter and has sent a French gentleman to treat with me. He sent to tell me that he had heard from the duke, his brother, of his employment in the service of your Serenity, who asked him to arrange for a levy of 2,000 soldiers. In subsequent letters he said they wanted 4,000 and asked him to find out if the King of Great Britain would grant it and send him word, with some instructions about captains and colonels. He asked for my advice and said he wished to know if I had any instructions about this. I said I could not advise him to do anything beyond carrying into effect what his brother asked, and I had no orders on the subject, but I perceived that he hoped to find the remittances ready. He also sent to say that it was difficult to treat about anything now, as it was the time of the king's progress. He instructed the same gentleman who treated with me to approach the Earl of Holland to find out if the king would raise any difficulties about granting the levy. The earl has, of late, been away with the king. He should return to-morrow, when the king himself comes back to fetch the queen, going away again at once to continue the progress, during which there will be less material for writing about than ever.
No letters from Venice have appeared this week.
London, the 19th July, 1630.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
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Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
466. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Thank God, the first fleet of four powerful ships left the Texel to-day, with your Serenity's troops. They are only waiting for a favourable wind to set sail. One thousand and twenty-nine soldiers in all have embarked. Lieutenant-Colonel Douglas will command the first fleet with only one captain, as Colonel Suynton wished to keep back the rest to fill up their companies.
The Texel, the 24th July, 1630.
[Italian.]
July 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
467. To the Ambassador in England.
We enclose particulars of the serious event of the fall of Mantua. (fn. 5) You will inform the leading ministers and the king as a sign of confidence. As England has always shown a great interest in Italy and the advance of Spain and Germany in that province may seriously affect England's own interests, it is only proper to inform the king of what is taking place, leaving consideration and resolution thereupon to his prudence, worthy of the praiseworthy sentiments he has always shown for the public cause. We are not slackening in any way and we again enjoin upon you the speedy despatch of the levy, when you have the king's permission, arranging with the colonel whom you think best fitted for the service, and who will come on reasonable terms. We anxiously await the effects of your diligence.
With respect to visits, we are in a time when obstacles must be overcome by tact. You will gain time by dissimulation and try to introduce some remedy by opportune offices with those who are friendly. When it is a question of negotiating with ministers, the return of visits is less noticeable, and occasions for compliments may be less frequent. You will know what to do. We shall wait to hear if this scant courtesy is new or old, and any additional particulars you may have to send.
Ayes, 94.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
468. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ducal missives of the 27th June and those of the 4th and 5th inst. reached me two days ago. I had the letters presented to the merchants yesterday and they handed them back to me to-day accepted, with the exception of Samuel Vassallo, who is away from the city, so that payment will be made at the end of ten days. Reckoning the exchange at 46½ I shall not obtain more than 6,200l. sterling here. The loss is certainly considerable, but I imagine that your Excellencies will have anticipated this. With the next despatches I shall expect enough to make up the sum of 22,500l. sterling, which, according to the reckoning, should mean an outlay of 116,129 ducats di banco by your Excellencies at Venice, unless the exchange alters or diminishes. As the ducal missives assure me that there shall be no delay in providing the whole sum, and considering the urgency with which you command me to hasten the levy, I am resolved to set to work without losing a moment. To-morrow I shall see the persons who have offered to serve, in order to draw up the articles, so that I hope everything will be ready soon. I shall use the utmost diligence and vigilance so that you may be well and promptly served. To protect myself I will only say that nothing will upset matters more than delay in the remittances, because I shall certainly begin to raise the levies in a few days, and if I have not the money ready to go on with, and have to suspend my operations for lack of it, it is certain that the affair and the colonel will suffer hurt, and it will at least be necessary to support the troops at your Serenity's charge, and it would be impossible for me to find money for this.
Those who have offered themselves are the cavalier Scoto, the cavalier Conovel and Mr. Henry Wenteuord, brother of the Earl of Cleveland. All are persons of good reputation, experienced in war, so that I shall engage the one who offers me the most advantageous terms. The Earl of Warwick, brother of the Earl of Holland, has shown some desire to be employed, but the occasion seemed too slight for him. He has given me secretly to understand that if I wish to make a levy of 5,000 soldiers he will undertake the charge. I have told those who have spoken to me that I cannot alter the original resolutions, but I was greatly indebted to that cavalier for his good disposition towards your Excellencies. I imagined that it would be a great matter to employ a person of this description, who might have claimed a heavy salary for himself, and I imagine that your chief need at present is soldiers, and if you want captains to command he is probably not the kind you require, seeing the recompense it would be necessary to give him, and as in present circumstances occasions for pouring out money constantly multiply it is not good policy to engage titled persons unless their experience is equal to their quality.
With respect to what M. de Soubise may do here about levies for the duke, his brother, I hear that he has sent to ask his Majesty if he will grant him a levy of 4,000 men, supposing occasion arises. The Earl of Holland, who performed the office, brought back the answer that his Majesty had heard with great pleasure that the duke had been employed by your Excellencies and in case of need he would always give him leave to levy as many troops as he wished. I was glad indeed to hear this, because it removes all my misgivings. I do not believe, however, that M. de Soubise will take any steps, especially as he sent me word that the duke, his brother, had recently written to him that he had arranged with your Serenity for 21 ducats per soldier, which certainly would not be enough for enlisting troops in these parts.
Yesterday the Ambassador Coloma sent a courier with all speed to Spain. The motive is not known, because it is such a short time since one of his gentlemen and Cottington's secretary went. We do not hear that anything of moment has taken place which might change the resolutions taken, especially as the king and all the Court set out three days ago on the ordinary progress. It becomes more and more certain that the peace will ensue and they will announce it when the reply comes to this last despatch of Cottington's secretary. Some merchants arrived from Spain have stated that at the Court there they did not believe this affair would be concluded, and the Ambassador Cottington was very dissatisfied over the artifices employed by the Spaniards to have the matter constantly postponed. On the strength of this information some have conjectured that the peace will not be made, but they do not know that the king has made up his mind to it upon any terms and in spite of any prejudice, so ill advised is he by those in whom he has most confidence.
The Dutch ambassador has informed his Majesty in the name of the States of the renewed alliance with the Most Christian. The ambassador told me that the king made some remarks about it and said something which showed that he would have liked to know about it before it was concluded. However, everything passed smoothly, although they are not at all pleased about it here.
Ven stays on here, though he may go any day. The Dutch ambassador called upon him and questioned him, in order to obtain some information about his instructions, but he told me that he could not obtain any light, because, as he says, they are ashamed to speak. The ambassador hinted to me that there is some difference between the King of Sweden and his masters because of the charges that sovereign has laid upon the trade of the Baltic, and that the King of Denmark is also greatly interested therein, because he loses more than 30 per cent. of his ordinary revenues. I did not fail to remark on the heavy expenses of Sweden, all for the sake of the public cause, and that for this reason they should pass it over more easily, because the States more than any would experience a most noteworthy advantage from the diversion created by that king.
These last two days they have announced the arrival of the fleet in Spain, said to be worth 23 millions. Many, however, do not believe in its arrival, and no one credits the great amount, because it has never been so rich for a single year.
The Countess of Dorset, wife of the queen's chamberlain, has been declared governess of the prince, and so the Scottish lady has been shut out.
London, the 26th July, 1630.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
469. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Rusdorf, the Palatine's agent, has already started to join Anstruther, to receive instructions from him and then go together to the diet at Ratisbon. No one can cherish any hopes of success there and the Palatine well knows that the force of arms alone can recover the lost. I also hear on very good authority that Anstruther, who is still at Hamburg, has recently received from the King of Great Britain very clear and resolute instructions upon two points, one that the king will certainly not enter upon any agreement with the Spaniards unless some way is found of restoring the Palatine's dominions; the second that if owing to the objections of the emperor or the Catholic no reasonable adjustment can be arranged, the English ambassador shall leave the diet immediately, protesting that his king will not relinquish taking the best measures for the relief of his brother-in-law.
The Hague, the 27th July, 1630.
[Italian.]
July 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
470. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In the suspicion that the invitation given me by the English ambassador to see the count might be a trick in order to make other princes suspicious I contrived to see that minister recently in order to find out these designs better, but when I was going to visit him his secretary happened to arrive from London with numerous despatches, which have kept him very busy. Two days before the secretary a gentleman arrived from Don Carlo Columa, apparently with the terms suggested by the English for the peace. As these are numerous they have led to several meetings, Scaglia being summoned to some. I cannot state anything for certain, Some say that they demand the restitution of the Palatinate, others that they want to open trade in the meantime. If that is true they will easily find a way here to postpone the principal point and let each other's ships enter the ports. It is also said that English ships have joined the Dutch to encounter the fleet. The fear of this has increased since the arrival of a cavalier from Flanders, who was sent by Don Federico, taken by the Dutch and ransomed by the Infanta, bringing word of the intentions of the enemy.
There has been talk lately of a league between France, Sweden and the Dutch, with a place reserved for England. Some say that your Serenity has entered it.
The English ambassador told me that his king had sent a gentleman to your Serenity about present emergencies, with offers to serve the republic. I shall wait to hear what your Excellencies send me for light and instruction.
Madrid, the 27th July, 1630.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, who died the 10th April, and Anne, Dowager Countess of Arundel who died the 19th April.
2 Probably the Peter and Andrew of London of 300 tons, master Nathaniel Goodlack. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1628–9, page 306.
3 For the banco del ziro or giro see vol. xix of this Calendar, note to page 489.
4 M. des Guarets. Fontenay to Bouthillier, Aug., 1630. Pub. Record Office, Paris Transcripts.
5 On the 18th July.