Venice
December 1630

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1919

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442-454

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'Venice: December 1630 ', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice: Volume 22, 1629-1632 (1919), pp. 442-454. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89278 Date accessed: 28 July 2014.


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December 1630

Dec. 2.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
558. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Letters from Antwerp announce that the Spaniards, who are manifestly playing with the English, think of prolonging or not receiving the treaty of peace, which in England was considered as good as concluded, with the articles sent to Spain. This causes astonishment here, especially as it is not easy to see what further satisfaction the Spaniards could ask from the English than they have already received, which is so seriously harmful to their allies. Accordingly, although the news has reached the assembly, it is not entirely credited, not having been confirmed from any other quarter.
The Hague, the 2nd December, 1630.
[Italian.]
Dec. 3.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
559. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Contradictory advices come from England and Holland, from the former that the peace with Spain is doubtful, from the latter that the ambassador has communicated it to the States as concluded. This last seems very strange, as they think it impossible that England should come to terms at the very time when the Spaniards have done so very little for the Palatine at the diet of Ratisbon, offering him a pension of 40,000 crowns and church benefices for his children, if they are brought up with the emperor as Catholics, instead of his dominions. I know that Montagu had long interviews with the cardinal, and believe that they practically arranged for Wake to come to this Court, where the ordinary agent of that king will stay on to treat with the cardinal until some compromise is arranged about titles and visits. Many think that they discussed other affairs, but I would not venture so far as there is nothing to bear it out, and I know what a low opinion the cardinal has of the English.
Paris, the 3rd December, 1630.
[Italian.]
Dec. 6.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra Venetian Archives.
560. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The advices from Spain are still delayed, a certain indication of how little they care about these negotiations in that quarter. This affords satisfaction to right-minded people and causes great searching of heart to the other side. Amid this uncertainty they have sent off the ships to fetch Cottington. But this device by no means discourages the Spanish ambassador, who keeps his eyes open and knows full well, in spite of all these shows, the great desire they have for an accommodation here. Yet many speak as if it were uncertain whether this will ensue. Perhaps they have in view the question of reputation, which certainly does not admit of further dissimulation, especially as the Ambassador Anstruther has very little hope from his negotiations in Germany. Already the Spanish ambassador at Ratisbon has practically excused himself from helping any more with his offices, on the plea that he is waiting for more explicit advices and instructions from Spain on the subject. The emperor has made no reply to his proposals, excusing the delay by expressing the wish to transfer the negotiations to Vienna, because he does not admit that the Electors should share in them. They, on the other hand, seem to wish the matter to be deferred to the next diet. While the affair remains thus in the balance, the minister writes that all hope of any good has practically disappeared. The king seems to resent the delays and artifices more than any one else, but those about him try to keep up his hopes that in the end all will be arranged with honour and satisfaction.
For some days past there has been more open talk of helping Sweden, especially as news has come of his successes. To-day Sir Thomas Roe told me that letters had arrived from Hamburg reporting a defeat inflicted by the king on Torquato Conti, a notable victory, in which he captured all his guns and baggage. The French ambassador also showed me letters yesterday from Brussels, stating that they were sure there of the loss of Rostok, and word had come here before that the king had surrounded that place and Wismar in such a way that they could not fail to fall into his hands before long. They also build greatly on the warlike preparations of the Duke of Saxony. They hear he has already collected more than 20,000 men. He explains to the emperor that this is due to the approach of the Swede and Tilly. With these preparations it would thus appear that nothing more is wanted than a stronger leader or a firmer union. There has been some talk of making a defensive and offensive league with the King of Sweden, but even if negotiations were opened for this there might be but scant security and profit from it unless the king here is on better terms with his people, from which we are a very long way off.
I hear some talk among the general about the States having some treaty at sea with the Spaniards. An intimate has, indeed, told me that Sir Henry Ven, when on the point of returning, has written home that he will stay some days longer, in the hope of some advantage in his business, because of fresh overtures recently made to him in this matter of union in the treaties. Your Excellencies will have received fuller particulars of this from the proper place. As a matter of fact I am very suspicious of such announcements here, as I know how they try to correct or diminish their own mistakes by inventing blows for their neighbours (perche veramente tali publicationi qui mi sono molto sospetti, sapendo che si studia di emendare o diminuire li proprii errori col inventar colpi al compagno).
They continue to talk of French affairs in the spirit I have noted. Thus they adhered as long as they could to the idea of the disgrace of Cardinal Richelieu, which has since been contradicted by more sincere and recent advices.
They continue to dispute about the peace of Italy, but they undoubtedly try to foster the belief that Casale is in the hands of an imperial commissioner, and letters containing a narration are shown, said to have been written by the Marquis of Santa Croce to the Ambassador Colona.
The last ducal missives to reach me are of the 1st ult., with a copy of the letters to the Ambassador Gussoni. For lack of opportunity, I have not yet transmitted to his Excellency the remainder of the money, though only some 2,000 ducats remain in my hands. Next week I shall put the finishing touches, and when I have the accounts from Amsterdam and other places, I will send the full and complete account without further delay.
London, the 6th December, 1630.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 9.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
561. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The opinion was fixed here that the war in Italy would not progress, an idea of which I have tried to disabuse them. In spite of the peace arranged in England, they think they need not descend to particulars or make any specific declaration in the reply the assembly is to give to Ven, and they will maintain this irresolute attitude amid the offer of negotiations put forward by the Spaniards.
The Dunkirkers continue their depredations, and the Dutch have redoubled their remedial measures. Guast, in a man-of-war of the West India Company, had a fight in English waters with a powerful Dunkirker, (fn. 1) which he had handled roughly, when the English came out and rescued it. This has amazed and displeased them here at this clear and inexcusable support given by the English to the Spaniards against them, and they foretell that after the accord with the Spaniards the English will do even more to the hurt of the West India Companies.
The Hague, the 9th December, 1630.
[Italian.]
Dec. 13.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
562. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The tarrying of the advices from Spain, the desire to receive them speedily and the fear of some stay of the despatches caused them to send a courier to Madrid on the 7th inst., with the sole object of hurrying them and to make sure of the real cause for the delay. This shows their unusual anxiety and more than ordinary desire to terminate the business of the peace. At the present time the promoters of this are well pleased, because on the 10th a courier arrived from Spain with the conclusion that they desired. We have not yet seen extracts from the articles, because they decided to publish it on the 15th only, and it is believed that his Majesty will swear to it on the 17th, with the usual ceremonies. The Ambassador Colona had an audience after the arrival of the courier. It is said that some articles are still incomplete, touching the security of trade and the freedom of the ports. The Spaniards want a more open declaration from the king here upon those points in particular. But this difficulty is not sufficient in itself to make the matter at all doubtful, or to delay perceptibly the settlement of the business within the time mentioned. They have already sent the necessary orders to all the ports of the realm and annulled the letters of marque, as well as everything else necessary to put an end to hostilities.
The generality here show neither rejoicing nor displeasure. If any conclusion may be drawn from their indifference, it is probably due to dissatisfaction; and, indeed, the matter has been arranged prematurely and regardless of all the rules of good government, so far as the common interests are concerned. But at present their principles only lead them to seek their own quiet, and thereby the economy of the scanty funds which they are able to scrape together, while these differences between the king and his people last. Thus they wish their friends to make up their minds not to expect anything, and their enemies to learn not to fear anything. A consideration of this would seem to take away the evil consequences of the treaty, because one who cannot do any harm or confer any benefit, drops out of consideration, yet from my conversations with the French ambassador it seems that he is somewhat uneasy. He thinks that in the event of a rupture with the Spaniards, which he considers neither difficult nor remote, if they cannot find some compromise for adjusting the treaty of Ratisbon, they will be ready here to give assistance in the form of a diversion. Decidedly their feelings are not friendly, as I have often represented, but I think I am safe in saying that it is certain that they will not engage for a long time in affairs that may involve expense, because most assuredly they have not the means to keep up quarrels. If this were not so it is quite certain that ere now they would have tried to recover the reputation lost in the last encounters with France, and that they would not have lost the opportunity afforded by the Most Christian being involved in Italy. Possibly they will allow the Spaniards to levy troops, because that will not affect the king's purse in any way. I fancy that two colonels are here even now, with patents from the infanta to form two regiments, although it is well known, from another quarter, that they are disbanding the German regiments in Flanders for lack of money. But it is a principle with the Spaniards to want to have men from this nation, because they aggrandise and strengthen their party, especially by the advantage conferred on the Catholics, who are very poor and persecuted, and are very glad of the employment, because it afford them some relief in their goods and consciences, while they are all active partisans of that side, a sentiment which is encouraged, as usual, by the Jesuits.
The cause for such a levy may easily disappear, because there is a great deal of talk about the interest taken by the States in the matter of the truce. The Ambassador Gussoni tells me of a report to this effect on the spot, although he also says that it seems to be based on the declaration made by Sir Henry Ven in the assembly about the conclusion of the peace here. As that advice is of the 17th ult., while the courier certainly did not arrive before the 10th inst., and the authentic news cannot have reached Holland even yet, I do not know how that minister could have foretold practically a month ahead, unless it were to sound their sentiments better by the unexpected news, and be in a position to inform them here what decision the States would be likely to take if the peace were established. I have tried to obtain evidence about the basis of this office, because it appeared of consequence to me, but I have nothing but the bare advice.
News from Germany confirms that Anstruther has not received any satisfaction in his negotiations at the diet. Here, in order to cloak the affront and pretend that they have gained some advantage, they say that the emperor went to the diet with the intention of proposing the exclusion of the Palatine for ever from any possibility of reoccupying his dominions. Now that proposal has been stopped, the way is left clear for negotiations, which will be continued without intermission in order to receive proper satisfaction afterwards in the new diet appointed for the 1st of May.
I have received this day the ducal missives of the 15th ult., with the copy for the Hague, which will serve for information, to use as best I can for the service of your Excellencies. I also beg that you will vote me some money for couriers and the carriage of letters.
London, the 13th December, 1630.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 14.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Roma. Venetian Archives.
563. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
An edict has come forth constituting Civita Vecchia a free port for ships from the East, West and middle, offering many facilities, the only obligation being for ships to pay anchorage. The prime object has always been to divide the trade of Leghorn, and the moment is opportune, because the plague is diverting trade from that port. It is doubtful if they will succeed, because the air at Civita Vecchia is bad, and the forwarding of goods thence not easy, while from these states they can only export rock alum and iron.
Rome, the 14th December, 1630.
[Italian.]
Dec. 14.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenzi. Venetian Archives.
564. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
News has arrived of the peace between Spain and England. That king is greatly blamed here for coming to terms without mention made of the Palatine. This is attributed to his caring little or nothing for his brother-in-law or to a private delight in keeping him down for obscure reasons. This is borne out by the fact that the English ambassador at the Imperial Court took very scant pains over the Palatine's interests, although they were the object of his negotiations, the electoral diet and that of Ratisbon separating without any advantage for him, not even verbal ones. These are all artifices of the Spaniards, who delude the King of Great Britain with vain appearances while they benefit their own affairs. It is believed here that they will find themselves deluded in this peace, and difficulties will arise in carrying it out, no less than those which arose in that of Italy.
Florence, the 14th December, 1630.
[Italian.]
Dec. 16.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
565. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
This week the Ambassador Ven has at last obtained his reply after so many delays under various pretexts. It is full of reserves and fair words, but is substantially the same as what some of the ministers and the Prince of Orange told me in confidence, namely, that at present there is no occasion for them here to enter into agreement with the Spaniards, and if any arises they will notify his Majesty. Although Ven is not satisfied, he had anticipated it, and had written home previously expressing his opinion. He does not seem at all surprised. Those who are interested in the public cause commend it highly, seeing that the States show their desire to stand united with the Crown of England, while at the same time they have not agreed to place their very important interests in the hands of the English, to whom they have hinted something about the continued obligation to keep the promises made at the treaty of Southampton. I am told that Ven will return home, without any addition to the reply, by the first English man-of-war that comes here.
The Hague, the 16th December, 1630.
[Italian.]
Dec. 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
566. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The publication of the peace took place last Sunday, the 15th inst. They lighted bonfires throughout the city; but this was due to custom rather than an expression of their sentiments, because the peace is disliked by every one, and all know that it is dishonourable and prejudicial. The king solemnized the oaths on the 17th, with all the royal splendour and magnificence. The Ambassador Colonna was fetched from his house by the Earl of Carlisle, in a royal coach, and was present in the chapel at the reading of the articles. There the king kept his hand all the time on the Bible, which was held open for him by the Bishop of London, on his knees. The ambassador afterwards dined with his Majesty in the royal hall at Whitehall, and with the queen also. The king asked him to drink twice, once to the health of the king, his master, and the other to that of the queen. After the repast, the ambassador was conducted back to his house by Carlisle, full of pride and vanity at the establishment of this treaty.
They do not show the articles, but the French and the Dutch ambassadors alike assure me that they correspond with those I sent with my letter, No. 70. The French ambassador further told me, from the account given him by a person of great intelligence and an intimate of his, that Cottington signed the articles in Spain with a written declaration that his king does not intend to be bound to observe the peace all the time that the Spaniards fail to keep their promise to make earnest and genuine interposition with the emperor for the restitution of the Palatinate. The Spaniards agreed to this, and said that they hoped that they would not have less influence for that prince than the Most Christian had had for the Duke of Nevers. It would be too long and wearisome to point out how many different interpretations this answer is capable of bearing. It is enough to know that the Spaniards will never do for the Palatine what the Most Christian has done for the Duke of Mantua, in order to realise that there is no security in the treaties made with them. In spite of this, they glory here over this business, as the finest thing they have done, and they delude themselves into the belief that now they need fear no one, and that they will not have need of anyone.
I am told that on the day of the publication of the peace the Spanish ambassador presented two papers to the King. One of them dealt with this declaration for the Palatine, and will only serve to keep this prince more in the dark and involved in the delusions of the Spaniards. The other contained full powers to act as mediator for an accommodation with the States. So far as I can gather, up to the present, they do not attach much importance to this, because they proclaim themselves very dissatisfied with the behaviour towards them during the whole course of this affair. They have recently signed and sealed, if I may say so, the slight account they affect to make of them, because they received the news of the peace, and it was published and sworn to without a word being said to the Ambassador Joachim. He complained openly to me about this recently, especially as he has done everything possible to ascertain their wishes here. For this reason, he has during these last days kept out of the way of the ministers, so that they might not take such an opportunity to inform him in a casual manner. He claims with some reason that this ought to be done expressly with due ceremony, in the king's name, by virtue of the alliance, which approaches its last gasp already. I tried to soothe him as much as possible, knowing that in that quarter also there is strong sentiment in favour of peace or a truce. I spoke to him frankly, using such arguments as I could, from the slight knowledge I possess of the state of affairs there. What I heard led me to fear that they are inclined to the treaties, the more so because the principal argument which he used to convince me to the contrary was the objection of the Prince of Orange to them, whereas I know for a fact that it is the other way about, as I have frequently reported when I was ambassador there. Since then I have learned for certain that Sir Henry Ven, when he went on purpose for this business, had no other support or basis than the inclination of the Prince for repose after the victories he had won. This is still further confirmed by the knowledge that the Prince recently went to Zeeland to persuade that Province to take up the negotiations. He would neither have undertaken this office nor performed it properly if he himself had not previously been persuaded that it was right and necessary.
I enclose herewith a copy of the printed announcement of the peace. By this they try to make it palatable, as much as is possible, saying that it has been made through the interposition of friendly princes, by which, if it is really so, they must mean Savoy and Lorraine. With respect to the statement that the cause of the war is removed, when the affairs of the Palatinate remain just as they were, every one can understand how such words must be interpreted. For the rest, they state that it follows the old treaty made with the late King James. This confirms the articles which I have already sent, because they were based upon the old treaty.
These last days they have been talking of sending an ambassador extraordinary, and the Earl of Arundel is very anxious to have the employment, as one who is well affected to that party. But among the considerations which delay a decision, one of the first is the cost, and for that reason it is thought that they will not even keep an ordinary ambassador, but will entrust that charge to a simple agent, who will attend to such matters as occur.
With affairs brought to this point, there would seem to be nothing left to secure perfect tranquillity except to remove the disputed questions which are still to the fore with the French, by a mutual restitution, in accordance with the peace. In this connection I am inclined to believe that they could find some just and suitable compromise if no obstacles existed on the other side, as indeed they should not. When Castelnovo was here, he made a very strong party against the Treasurer, and mixed the queen up in it as well. Fontane put himself on the Treasurer's side, knowing that with him for an opponent it would be impossible ever to obtain anything. He took the right course; but Castelnovo remains as bitter as ever, and with the credit which he has maintained and increased he discredits this minister, and foments the other French, who are the members of his cabal here. Where Fontane brings water, they bring fire, following Castelnovo in this; all tending to a rupture and disaster. I have warned the ambassadors in France about this more in detail, so that, if it be possible, they may find some middle term to remove these disputes and bring the two crowns to a more perfect understanding. If your Excellencies see fit you can add your commands to France for a sound understanding.
London, the 20th December, 1630.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure.567. By the King.
Some of his Majesty's friends having pointed out the expediency of abandoning hostilities with Spain, the cause of the war being removed, his Majesty has resumed friendly relations with Spain, all hostilities being stayed thenceforward and trade re-established, as arranged by the treaty made by the late King James. His Majesty has thought fit to announce the agreement to his subjects, ordering them to observe this peace.
Dated at his Majesty's palace of Westminster, the 5/15th December in the 6th year of his reign. (fn. 2)
[Italian.]
Dec. 21.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Roma. Venetian Archives.
568. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The French ambassador complains extremely of the pope's changes of mind. He had proposed and secured the creation of a doctor of the Sorbonne as a titular bishop to be sent to England, (fn. 3) but his Holiness took back his promises, on the plea that he wished for information and broke his word. The ambassador had used his king's name to give credit to the individual. He has written to France, because he is unwilling to repeat his instance, without fresh orders.
Rome, the 21st December, 1630.
[Italian.]
Dec. 21.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
569. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Tuesday, the 17th, the king swore to the peace with England in solemn public form. The Duke of Candia, chief steward of the queen, fetched Cottington from his house, and took him to the royal palace, with a numerous and grave company and the most splendid display. The Count Duke had the ceremony conducted with the greatest ostentation. In the evening bonfires were lighted in the royal square and throughout the town. The ratification was arranged to take place in London on the same day. On previous occasions the most noble cavaliers have been sent for such solemnities, and the Admiral of England took part in the last and the Constable of Castile from this side. (fn. 4) The Count Duke has been glad to escape this cause of expense. It is impossible not to suspect that they have gained many advantages, and the way Cottington speaks increases this impression. He promised the French ambassador a copy of the treaty, but has not given it, indeed he seems very curt with him. He did not notify us of the day of the ceremony, so that we might send our servants, as is usual. However, I sent mine, and so did France, and he had bonfires all night at the embassy. I consulted France about this, as I thought we could not stand aside, considering our relations with those crowns. Cottington, possibly guided by Olivares, might be glad to sow mischief. The best way to punish him would be to make him apologise, as he has done. I fear the Spaniards have gained something more from this peace. It might in the end have served the public cause as the English king through trade might profit by the gold obtained from these realms and assist his friends more vigorously; but for this reason the Count desired some clauses favourable to the Catholic, possibly to the special disadvantage of the States. More exact particulars may come from other quarters.
The nuncio has been mortified at the sight of all these festivities. On the day following Cottington went to call upon the Count of Olivares, and stayed several hours. He has not yet seen the French ambassador, or been here. We shall take our measures jointly for the benefit of the public cause and our own reputation. The Florentine ambassadors did not send anyone to the ceremony, although with respect to trade they have much correspondence with the ambassador and see him frequently.
Madrid, the 21st December, 1630.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 23.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.
570. VICENZO GUSSONI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The hopes raised by the reports from Brussels that the Spaniards were not satisfied with some of the articles in the peace with England, have vanished. The general opinion here, confirmed by what the Prince has said, is that the hurt of this peace is in no wise inferior to the benefit which these States might derive from an alliance with France.
Ven has been to take leave of the Assembly, and is paying his complimentary visits before leaving at the end of the month. Carleton will remain here in the capacity of Agent, as he was before.
The Hague, the 23rd December, 1630.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.571. The Reply of the States General to the Ambassador Ven to the proposals made by him on the 13th August. (fn. 5)
The States, wishing to satisfy his Majesty, declare that offers for a truce have been made to them in the past on behalf of the King of Spain, without there being anything to shew that this would profit our state. If any further steps are taken in the matter, they will not fail to inform his Majesty as an old friend and ally with whom they wish to maintain cordial relations. They consider themselves bound to this, because of the favours which his Majesty and his predecessors have dispensed to the Provinces. The States will always show their appreciation of this, and will try to keep in his Majesty's favour.
[Italian.]
Dec. 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
572. GIOVANNI SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Since the publication and swearing of the peace, already reported, nothing further of great consequence has occurred. The Treasurer gave a banquet to the Spanish ambassador, who responded, inviting the whole Council. They still talk of sending an ordinary ambassador, and many mention the name of Sir Kenelm Digby, who was at one time a pirate in the Mediterranean, and who let your Serenity's subjects feel the unlawful effects of his robberies. Moved by ambition he has recently abandoned the Catholic faith and become a Protestant. Some say that a son of the Ambassador Colona, who will soon be leaving, will come in response from the Spaniards. All is uncertain, and even if the persons to be sent were ascertained, they may be able to do but little to augment the consequences of this accord. Its disadvantageous and dishonourable character become ever more apparent, and for this reason they have not said a word to any of the foreign ministers, not even to those concerned. The Dutch ambassador recently saw the Treasurer, and had a long conversation with him, but nothing was said on this subject. This amazed and disgusted the ambassador, who felt sure on every account that they would behave towards him with more confidence and consideration in a matter in which the States are so deeply interested. They are daily expecting to hear of the offices performed by Sir Henry Ven in Holland, and of the replies received by him to his first proposals, as well as the comments made by their High Mightinesses upon the authentic news of the conclusion of the peace.
Some deputies have arrived from Scotland to obtain the king's permission to form a company for the herring fisheries in these waters. (fn. 6) From the absolute jurisdiction which they claim they wish to exclude the Dutch from fishing any more in those seas, as they have always done. This is a matter of great importance, owing to the difficulties which may arise between the two nations. The Spaniards are keenly interested, and point out that this is the true way to keep their naval forces vigorous, because the king will always have a good supply of ships and sailors to use in case of need, at the expense of private individuals. The Dutch ambassador has spoken to me about it, and I have offered to perform every good office, especially as he does not claim to prevent the formation of such a company, but merely that they shall not shut out his countrymen, with the sole object of removing every cause of offence. As the minister of a prince friendly with both parties, I consider it my duty to do all in my power.
The Ambassador Colona has recently, in conversation, tried to discover the king's opinion about the levies which he desires to make for the Infanta, for service in the Netherlands. I gather that he received an answer in general terms, but not such as to prevent him having good hope of obtaining a promise. So far, I do not know if there are patents here for more than 1,500 foot with a colonel. If these are taken to be mustered in Flanders, they will give them about 5 ducats per head.
Advices which have recently reached the Ambassador Fontane from France relate a trend towards an accommodation, as, in conformity with the treaty of Casale, the French are to give up all the places which they hold in the Monferrat, while the Spaniards do the same for the city and district of Mantua. He has no particulars whatever about the treaty of Ratisbon. There were hopes of coming to a thorough agreement with the Duke of Savoy. Some difficulty is reported to have occurred at Verdun owing to the refusal of the lieutenant of the citadel to hand it over to the king after the imprisonment of the Marshal de Marigliac, its governor.
I have finished the matter of the remittances to Amsterdam, and next week I will send your Serenity the accounts. This week I have received the ducal missives of the 22nd ult. There has been no discussion here about the request made of the people of Geneva by the Most Christian for the restitution of ecclesiastical goods, indeed they pay the smallest attention to foreign affairs. I have not yet heard whether the English Resident with the Swiss has written about it, but I will try to obtain all particulars. The French ambassador told me that as his king had become Patron of Savoy, he would have somewhat greater claims upon that city. He remarked, as if it were his own idea, that it was not a durable state of affairs, and it would have to fall before long.
London, the 27th December, 1630.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 28.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
573. ALVISE MOCENIGO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador says he will soon be leaving. He may be sent to Holland, and perhaps to Germany too, to try and arrange a composition with the Dutch and the King of Sweden. The Spaniards encourage the quarrels between the King of England and the Dutch, and hope that if they cannot obtain the truce through him, the king will be with them or at least against the States. The English here have ceased making serious complaints against those Provinces and speaking disparagingly of their Government. Cottington bears them scant good will, and he will be more against them when they are offered up as a sacrifice to please the Spaniards, to whom Cottington has undoubtedly always been very partial.
Madrid, the 28th December, 1630.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 The George. See Cal. S.P. Dom., 1629–31, pages 364, 365.
2 Cal. S.P. Dom., 1629–31, page 402.
3 This may refer to Berthault, Bishop of Bazet. See Birch: Court and Times of Charles I, vol. ii, page 298.
4 Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, Lord High Admiral of England, and Don Juan Ferdinando de Velasco, Duke of Frias, Constable of Castile.
5 The text of the reply is printed by Aitzema: Saken van Staet in Oorlogh, vol. i, page 1086.
6 See Scott: The Constitution and Finance of English, Scottish and Irish Joint Stock companies to 1720, vol. ii, pages 363–366. A company was not formed until June, 1632, when it obtained a charter under the title of "the Society of the Fishery of Great Britain and Ireland."