248. To the Ambassador in England.
We have your letters of the 20th December. The Senate has
chosen Angelo Corraro as your successor, who will get ready
for the post at the earliest moment. We send a copy of the
announcement made by his Majesty's secretary here of the
selection of an ambassador to reside here.
Ayes, 80. Noes, 2. Neutral, 2.
249. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
With respect to the service of Monsieur and the queen mother
at this Court one sees persons employed, although apparently
with little result, who from time to time come from Flanders
with this express purpose. It seems that their negotiations are
conducted under the favour and protection of the Earl of Carlisle
in particular, who makes greater declarations than all
the other ministers, and from his own largeness of heart, alone,
so he says, professes his leanings that way. They bring many
reasons here to show, according to their own account, the utter
impossibility of Monsieur consenting to the dissolution of the
marriage, in spite of the public declarations of the king, his
brother, and of the Parliament. However the lords here imagine
and intimate that they have the information on good authority,
that some difference of opinion has recently arisen on this
subject between Monsieur and the queen mother. On the other
hand it is asserted that she displays disgust and horror at
anything which may violate the faith and maintenance of the
The English Agent writes from Brussels of great levies which
are being raised by the Spaniards throughout those provinces,
at a great expense, and with patents for a large number of
officers. Apparently their plan is, by the raising of new forces
to send the greater part of the veteran troops to Luxemburg
with all possible speed. From there they hope they will be
able to go and secure the passages of the Moselle. He further
adds that the Marquis of Aytona, whose reputation is greatly
enhanced, has been declared the chief man in that government
by new patents from Spain. In the meantime it appears that
they continue to feed the people there with hopes about the
negotiations of the Duke of Arescot in Spain for the truces,
which have now been abandoned by the deputies, who have
left the Hague.
The last letters which have reached the palace from the
English Agents at the Most Christian Court increase their
suspicions here about an approaching conclusion, as they write,
of some arrangement between France and the Swedes, with
respect to the Palatinate in particular. The report is renewed
although they are waiting for further confirmation, of the surrender
to the Swedes of Filipsburgh, a place of consequence
to the Palatinate. (fn. 1)
The Agent of the Princess Palatine has recently been taken
to prison in the Tower by the king's command, as it seems
that the material against him is increased by his papers no
less than by his examinations. Here they pretend that as a
subject of the king and one who also enjoys some salary from
his Majesty he cannot claim any exemption or privilege from
the capacity in which he serves the Palatine house. The Dutch
ministers here do not neglect to make representations covertly
in order to mitigate the severity against him, but so far they
have not succeeded in obtaining anything in his favour.
In these last days several royal edicts have appeared about
various provisions for the service of this kingdom and city
in particular, but already one hears much murmuring and
grumbling among the people who are persuaded that it will all
end in increasing their expenses and contributions. The king
is preparing a very stately and solemn masque in return for
the entertainment given him by the queen a few days ago at
By the courier of the present week your Excellencies' letters
of the 5th ult. have reached me.
London, the 3rd February, 1633. M.V.
250. The Resident of the King of Great Britain came into
the Collegio and spoke as follows :
With my good wishes for the new year I had to state that for the
cherishing of the good relations with this republic my king
had selected a person of condition as ordinary ambassador. I
would say no more then as I was waiting for further particulars.
I have now come by his Majesty's express command to inform
you that the cavalier selected is Thomas Car, son of the Earl of
Moz, who was his Majesty's tutor (hayo). (fn. 2) Thus this Thomas has
been the king's companion and servant from boyhood and is
greatly beloved by him. I am sure that he will do all in his
power to carry out the king's intent, and I am charged to
express this. He has fallen sick, but he hopes to throw this
off and to leave for this charge in the spring. I repeat that
he is a gentleman of notable station who will serve admirably.
The doge replied, You bring us good news this morning, as
although we had the news of the selection of an ordinary
ambassador from our Ambassador Gussoni, we are glad to hear
the particulars which you give us by his Majesty's command.
We shall give a cordial welcome to the representative of so
great and so friendly a king.
The Resident added, With regard to the memorial which I
presented, I ask your Serenity to give the necessary orders so
that our merchants may not be unduly burdened, I do not
mean about paying the duties, but those which are not right.
They have written to their principals in England, who have
applied to the Privy Council. The matter will be taken in hand,
and they will give me orders to speak about it, but it will
be better, before the ambassador arrives, to arrange that he
shall not hear these complaints.
The doge replied that they had taken such steps as they
thought proper to satisfy his requests, as the state wished merchants,
especially those of his nation, to have the best treatment
and every facility. With this the Resident took leave and departed.
251. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands,
to the Doge and Senate.
Rusdorf has arrived and brings word that with respect to
the inheritance of the Princess Palatine from her aunt, (fn. 3) he has
arranged with the King of Denmark that she shall have everything
readily when some accounts with England have been
liquidated, and that king has declared for the cause of the
The arrest of Nidersolt, her agent in England has greatly
perturbed the Princess, although she tries to hide her feelings
and she asserts that she does not know the reason. The Resident
Bosuel went recently to tell her about it in the king's name,
though he assured her that her affairs will go forward all
right, in spite of this accident. The messenger who brought
the news was sent back at once with the reply, and so she is
anxiously awaiting the issue.
The Hague, the 6th February, 1633 [M.V.]
252. Whereas Anzolo Correr has been chosen Ambassador
to the King of Great Britain, and the public service requires that
he shall be informed of what is taking place, that he may come
to this Council until his departure, but he shall not vote.
Ayes, 93. Noes, 2. Neutral, 22.
253. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The French secretary came to this house to see me, as he
frequently does, merely on a visit. With his usual confidence,
which I encourage, he imparted to me the course of his negotiations
at this Court, quite useless, as he remarked, but which he
has never neglected. He intimated that with regard to his
most important business, to wit about the affairs of Germany,
it was now quite clear to him that nothing can be expected
from this quarter for the public cause, in spite of the obvious
and most urgent interests of the Palatinate. They are
merely aiming at gaining time here, without ever meaning to
arrange anything. Thus they gave no reply to the proposals
which he had produced in writing. This by no means removes
the difficulties previously raised by the Lords here in the
same affair. The instructions of his king obliged him to return
home whenever he recognised the impossibility of bringing this
affair to a satisfactory termination. He enlarged extensively
upon all that the French had done to obtain from England
some proper resolution in this matter. In the end he told me
he was quite determined to take leave of his Majesty now he
saw there was no hope of a favourable issue. For this purpose
he proposes to go to a special audience to-morrow. I was able
to see pretty well from a long conversation the dissatisfaction
of this minister who may have hoped, even if he could not
arrange some form of agreement, at least to sketch some parts
of one. In thanking him for his confidences, I tactfully insinuated
that he should do all that lay in his power to make
the most of the generous ideas of his king. He replied that
the most he could do would be to wait for another courier
from France, and he would reconsider the question, if with
some little delay something might turn up which would serve
to set what he called this almost desperate affair on its legs
They are much aggrieved at this Court at the attempt of the
French to obtain the cession of Udenain or Fillipsburg, recently
taken by the Swedes, and the ministers here do not conceal their
joy that the matter has completely fallen through. Thus they
announce that they will support with all their might the offices
of the Duke of Symeren and the Princess Palatine, who urge
upon the Swedes the dismantleing of those fortresses, pointing
out that that place concerns the Palatinate owing to its position,
and was formerly granted in fee to the Arbishopric of Spires,
and that subsequent archbishops had fortified it, contrary to
The publication here of the last declaration of the Most
Christian made in the Parliament of Paris has given rise to
many and varied opinions. (fn. 4) We hear on good authority that
biting and disparaging remarks about it were made in the
royal Council. It seems that the Lords here put a very sinister
interpretation on the part of that declaration which concerns
the reputation of the arms and the interests of the trade of this
The Ambassador Anstruther has sent a gentleman of his
household here express with letters relating his negotiations with
the King of Denmark. He writes that at his last interview with
that king he obtained that to gratify England facilities should
be afforded to the negotiations, which anyhow were proceeding
favourably, of the deputies of Hamburg, both with regard to
the tolls on the Elbe, and other differences with that crown.
It seems that with the offer of the Hamburgers to make some
money contribution, that affair, which he had always backed,
had taken a favourable turn, which promised to lead to the
establishment of peace.
The last letters from Brussels inform the Lords here of the
opinion that the queen mother will make her peace. Since her
last quarrel with Monsieur, Gerbier writes that she has begun to
sing the praises of Cardinal Richelieu and to abominate the
counsels of Piloran.
They say that the son of the Chancellor Oxestern has received
the appointment of ambassador extraordinary to this Court.
He will be very welcome here, not only from their desire for
what they call this necessary correspondence with the princes
of Germany, but for his own qualities, as he was popular at
this Court when he was here before as a simple gentleman.
The letter with advices has reached me together with the
state despatches of the 12th ult.
London, the 10th February, 1633 [M.V.]
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
254. To the Ambassador in England.
In response to your desire to return home after an absence
of six years, full of untoward events, we grant you leave on
receipt of these presents to set out on your journey, in the
assurance that you have afforded us complete satisfaction. You
will first present the enclosed letters to explain your departure
and will introduce Francesco Zonca, your secretary, who represents
us, to act for the few months that the ambassadorship
remains vacant, with whom you will leave such papers and
instructions as you deem necessary. We have assigned to Zonca
for the time that he occupies this position 130 crowns a month,
that is the usual 120, and 10 crowns a month for extraordinary
expenses, exclusive of couriers and the carriage of letters. You
will supply Zonca with what he may require for such expenses,
for which he will render account, and you will give him a
present of 100 ducats in mint money, entering it in your account.
That 130 crowns a month be assigned to Zonca for the time
that he represents the republic at that Court and that 100
ducats be given him by the Ambassador Gussoni as a present.
Ayes, 73. Noes, 29. Neutral, 33.
Second Vote : Ayes, 70. Noes, 21. Neutral, 31. Requires ¾.
On the 17th February in the Collegio :
Ayes, 20. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
On the 24th February :
Ayes, 126. Noes, 13. Neutral, 10.
255. To the Queen of Great Britain.
Notification of the departure of the Ambassador Vicenzo
Gussoni, and that Angelo Corraro has been chosen as his
|256. To the King of Great Britain.
257. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands,
to the Doge and Senate.
The English Resident has unexpectedly received orders by
express courier to return to England. He has therefore taken
leave of the States and of all the foreign ministers. He says
he will be back in three or four weeks and is only awaiting
a favourable wind to depart. We cannot learn the reason for
such an unexpected and sudden order. Some suspect it is
because of the arrest of Nidersolt or for some other more secret
reason. The Princess Palatine says she is glad he is going
away, for her interests.
The States here remonstrated with the Resident and pressed
strongly for the recruits, about which there seem to have been
difficulties ; but we have heard finally that they have been granted,
which has given great satisfaction here, especially to the Prince.
When the Resident came here I urged him to perform good
offices for the States and to soften asperities, as he could do
much orally for the common cause. He seemed excellently
impressed and to hope that no rupture would occur, although
he let it be understood that if such a thing did happen it certainly
would not be the fault of his king, and complained that
ships of war show little respect for his Majesty, contrary to
the intentions of the state and the orders of the Admiralty.
The Hague, the 20th February, 1633 [M.V.]
258. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
Of the two negotiations conducted by the Ambassador Joachimi
since his return to this Court, one, which touches the affairs
of Germany is subject to the usual delays and ambiguities,
without the possibility of arranging anything as yet ; the other,
which concerns the no less urgent interests of the Dutch with
respect to granting levies of troops from this kingdom for
their service, has finally been adjusted to Joachimi's entire
satisfaction, after much opposition and difficulty increased by
the active efforts of the Spanish minister here. Owing to the
manner and tact of his representations they mitigated the severity
of the last royal decree on this subject, and made a
special declaration that for this occasion only, as a special
favour to the States, his Majesty permitted some suspension of
the laws, which were otherwise unalterable.
They believe that the coming of an ambassador extraordinary
from Germany will not be long delayed. This affords a pretext
for delay and excuses in the negotiations with the Agent Curtius,
which are still incomplete. In conjunction with the agents
of the Duke of Symeren and the Princess Palatine he objects
and complains, bringing forward the most obvious reasons showing
the damage done to the Palatinate by such a long delay over
the decisions which should be expected from this quarter. Notwithstanding
this, as they gladly embrace anything which gives
them a chance of procrastinating in such a matter, which
requires effective contribution of help and the prompt disbursement
of money, so they will not allow themselves to be moved
by solicitations of any kind, and seemingly they hold fast to
the point that they must wait to hear the particular proposals of
the princes of Germany, by their special mission to this Court,
announced as near at hand.
They are much preoccupied here with what is whispered among
the Lords about an approaching settlement from the negotiations
of Sciarnasse with the States, but as the Dutch ministers here
have not yet made any statement at the palace, the Court is
still curious about the issue of the affair, and they are not altogether
without some idea of their own interests here. The
English secretaries in France in their last letters represent the
feeling of the Most Christian with regard to the behaviour of
the Duke of Lorraine, who has absented himself unexpectedly
after the cession of his states to the Cardinal, his brother.
They add that this fresh act which has not failed to arouse some
new suspicions of that prince, will only increase his own hurt,
without being able to harm France.
They write from Brussels that the demonstrations of affection
towards Monsieur increase daily, and have done even since the
Infanta's death. He has declared to the Marquis of Aytona
that he does not wish his return to France at any time unless
it be with the confidence due to his Catholic Majesty who has
laid him under such great obligations.
Some bands of the richest young students in this city have
collected a large sum of money and devoted it to presenting
representations, music and dancing for the entertainment of the
king and queen.
Their display at the palace with a numerous, stately and
glittering cavalcade, by their dresses, liveries and devices, attracted
a great crowd, exciting the curiosity and applause of
all the people, and afforded particular gratification to their
Majesties, so that they had to repeat their procession and
representation. (fn. 5)
The last despatches from your Serenity to reach me are of
the 20th ult. and arrive as I finish this.
London, the 17th February, 1633 [M.V.]
259. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations of the French at this Court have been put
a stop to for the time being, and at present one sees no opportunity
at hand for resuming them. Bottard left two days ago,
with a favourable congé, but not with the usual present. He
goes away ill pleased, not only about the affairs he has conducted
but for the treatment he has received. He achieved nothing
towards a conclusion, indeed everything went wrong in the
first matters and in others, while even his welcome at the
palace was prejudiced by the especial dislike which the queen
conceived for him. No minister of any sort remains here for
France. Nothing is said about any other coming. Nothing more
is heard either of the one already appointed, (fn. 6) the report having
died away long since. The Lords here seem confirmed in their
idea that this is due to punctilio, due to them in the first
instance in sending Anstruther to Germany ; but in the present
state of affairs they do not know how to remedy it as they
are bound, so they say, to await his return, and owing to the
affair with the King of Denmark he is bound to make a long stay
in those parts.
The Princess Palatine by offices and letters is trying to dissipate
any shade of displeasure that the king, her brother may
feel about any negotiations or ideas of her brother in law,
the duke administrator of the Palatinate, about subjecting himself
or giving place in any way to French protection, a step most
abhorrent to them here, unless there is some previous formal
agreement between this crown and that for this question in
particular, and all hope or appearance of this has dissappeared
for the present.
The reports which circulate about the great accumulations of
arms and money in France, the capture of Haghenau, which is
known, and of Saverna, which is believed to have taken place,
and the approaching move which is whispered, of the Most
Christian towards Picardy, give rise to many and various comments
at this Court. The English secretaries write that the
object is to secure the frontiers of Flanders on the one side,
and to push forward powerfully on the other to the assistance of
Germany, Fichiers having proceeded to the last diet for the
arrangements required for this purpose, and also to remove some
fresh suspicions of the Chancellor Oxestern.
At Brussels they were awaiting the return of the gentleman
sent to France by the queen mother, who, they say, contemplates
re-establishing herself entirely in the heart and will of the
king and a reconciliation with the Cardinal. They add that
she called him an angel and Piloran a devil. Monsieur outwardly
persists in his opinion that he cannot return without his
wife and security.
A book of a kind has issued from the English press, no one
knows how, with scandalous and biting remarks about the civil
and ecclesiastical government of this kingdom. The author has
been summoned to the Star Chamber to abjure it publicly, after
a heavy sentence. (fn. 7)
It is reckoned that the Lord Treasurer has increased the royal
revenues by 40,000 to 50,000 crowns yearly. In the form of a
monopoly he has granted to a single individual the sale of
all the tobacco which is consumed in such great quantity in all
these three kingdoms. (fn. 8) A fresh imposition has been decreed on
the export of coal or combustible earth, which is transported
in great quantities from this island to France, Flanders and
Holland. This added to the other inventions to amass money
confirms the general idea that they are always devising ways
to supply the ordinary and extraordinary expenses of this crown
without summoning parliament.
There reaches me with the state despatches of this week the
decision to elect my successor. This is the more grateful to
me because it enables me to hope that relief will be afforded to
me soon after, which will give me some breathing space.
London, the 24th February, 1633. [M.V.]