Venice
August 1634

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1921

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252-266

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'Venice: August 1634', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23: 1632-1636 (1921), pp. 252-266. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89349 Date accessed: 19 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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August 1634

Aug. 2.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Costantinopoli. Venetian Archives.
329. To the Bailo at Constantinople.
With regard to the innovation introduced by the English ambassador of allowing the merchants of his nation, when differences arise between them, to have recourse to the Turkish courts of justice, you will try to uphold, in conjunction, so far as possible, with him and with the other ambassadors the right which it has always been our endeavour to keep proper and intact, of each nation judging its own subjects. We have written to the Secretary Zonca to obtain from that end also suitable and efficacious remonstrances to the ambassador not to prejudice himself and the others.
Ayes, 114. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Aug 4.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
330. To the Secretary in England.
We received your letters of the 23rd June the day after the despatch of our last. We are satisfied with what you report about Constantinople. You will pass an opportune and tactful office with some of the royal ministers to induce them to urge the ambassador at Constantinople to act in perfect accord with the Bailo in insisting that merchants of each nation shall be judged by the ambassadors of their sovereigns in all cases of dispute, and not to allow them to have recourse to the Turkish courts of justice, which is contrary to ancient use. You will so arrange the matter that this English ambassador cannot take offence about reports being sent to his prejudice but so that the orders may be agreeable ones, and that they may be carried out in concert and with that friendly understanding which exists between him and our Bailo under all circumstances. We enclose the usual sheet of advices.
Ayes, 144. Noes, 2. Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Aug. 4.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
331. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After having fulfilled his most pressing complimentary obligations with the members of the government here and with the Dutch ambassador, the Ambassador Poygni has been to pay a special visit to this house, to prove to a minister of your Excellencies the good intentions which he professes towards the republic and to return the visit which I paid him. He again repeated his desire to cherish a friendly intimacy with the ministers of Venice. I thanked him and assured him as strongly as I could that I would leave nothing to be desired in the way of reciprocal correspondence.
After we had finished paying compliments to each other he told me it was reported at the Court that the Cardinal Infant had already left Italy with a force of 20,000 combatants, according to Nicolaldi. He seemed curious to know if I had any confirmation of this and how the state of Milan was defended after the departure of those troops. In order to win his confidence the better I was able to satisfy his curiosity from the despatch which had reached me the week before. I told him that the Cardinal had left on the 30th of June. The army which marched with him numbered about 11,000 horse and foot. But it was dwindling every day through the desertion of the soldiers. The Spanish ministers calculated to have for the defence of the duchy about 9000 men, including 1000 horse of mixed troops, part Spaniards, many Lombards and the rest Neapolitans, for whom they had already sent a demand to the Viceroy. The ambassador thanked me warmly for the communication, which he was very glad to have. To test whether he reciprocated the confidence I took a favourable opportunity to refer in the conversation to some suggestion made by him to the king for the service of the common cause. He answered me frankly and confirmed precisely what I wrote about the embassy to Poland and Sweden. More than this, he did not conceal from me that the day before yesterday the Lord Treasurer had informed him that his Majesty, in consideration of the suggestion made to him by France and from his desire to co-operate on behalf of the common cause in Germany, had decided to send to those crowns Anstruther, who is at present at Frankfort, and well fitted for that duty, it being assumed that by this time that assembly will have either dissolved or concluded its labours, so that he will be able to start on his journey with greater expedition.
He further told me in the strictest confidence that the Most Christian had made these suggestions here rather in order that the world should see the friendly union existing between France and England than from any necessity for English interposition in that affair, as in the general opinion it was an easy task, owing to the present troubles of Poland through the movements of the Turk in that quarter, and also because of the very considerable interests of Sweden in Germany, where it does not suit them to abandon the war begun so successfully to start another which would be uncertain and more dangerous. He added that even if the Pole comes to terms with the Turk, he will not even then be able to use the powerful army which he has, seeing that his claims to the crown of Sweden are the personal concern of the king and not a matter for the Polish state. Accordingly it is argued that they would only have the assistance of volunteers and of individuals dependent on him, because that nation abhors fighting for a cause that does not concern the republic.
The Dutch ministers too have been to see me for the second time in response to the good understanding which I maintain with them. Upon this occasion Brasser took leave of me. He told me he was going as soon as the wind served. I took the opportunity to sound him adroitly about the progress of the matter of the India Companies. He replied to this quite promptly that things were much easier, but not yet settled, and there remained some difficulties, the solution of which demanded the usual delays. However the king is not dissatisfied with their procedure, and he is leaving with good hope that this immense affair will be settled once and for all in a friendly way. It is a business from which trouble might arise even for the public cause.
The Court is proceeding on its journey towards York. From it I hear this week that Anstruther's appointment is confirmed, and that they are busily engaged upon his instructions, which will be sent to him as soon as possible.
They inform me further that some difficulties have arisen in Ireland between the Viceroy there and the Corporation of Dublin, the capital of the island, about the election of members from that city to attend the parliament, which is due to open about this time, on account of which the opening has been prorogued until the 24th prox. The incident has arisen on the score of religion, and in order that the disturbance may not take root they have sent the Earl of Arundel thither with all speed to arrange some compromise. But as I expect more detailed information next week about this, I reserve further particulars for my next despatch.
The Brussels letters of the 30th ult. report that they were expecting Monsieur there, back from the army. The rumours about the great levies to be raised by Prince Tomaso for the service of the Catholic League have not been verified. They certainly report that he was about to start for the army of the Marquis of Aytona. They say further that the Prince already perceives that he has been buoyed up with vast hopes, and that they are beginning to relax the magnificence with which he has been treated up to the present. He foresees that he will have to make a long stay in these parts in a private capacity, deluded in the ideas he had conceived and distressed in mind.
They write that the intention of the Marquis of Aytona is to surround the fortress of Maastrich in such a way that it cannot be victualled, and so that in due time it will fall of itself without shedding of blood.
The ordinary of Italy had not arrived at Antwerp when the courier left there ; consequently no letters have come from that province
London, the 4th August, 1634.
[Italian.]
Aug. 11.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
332. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
By ancient and fundamental laws in the island of Ireland it was established that whenever, for the needs of the country, it should be necessary to assemble parliament, the community of each county and each city in the island also should have the right to elect two persons, approved as the most skilful, by a majority of votes, to take part in the parliament and by their counsel and actions co-operate together for the better service of the state. This prerogative, as the Irish declare, has never been changed, and has always been conceded to them everywhere without contradiction in the past.
Now after an interval of twelve years without parliament, his Majesty recognising the need for one, has given his royal assent to its meeting, and writs were issued for this purpose. By virtue of these the communities assembled, and by general agreement, in accordance with the rules of the country, selected their deputies in every place. The names of these were sent to Dublin, the metropolis, where it is customary to hold the parliament, and were enrolled in a list by the sheriff or judge of the city and presented according to the custom and his office to the Viceroy. That minister, recognising that the members chosen by the city of Dublin itself belonged to the Catholic faith, told the sheriff that they were not eligible, and were excluded by the laws of England also from such employment, and that he was charged by the Lords of the Council not to admit any but Protestants.
To this objection, as unpleasant as it was novel and unexpected, the sheriff replied on the spot that what had been done was in accordance with the ancient constitution of the kingdom of Ireland and not that of England, by a majority of 1500 votes against only 500 for the other side. His office forbade him to present any but those who were chosen by the community. He pointed out that such a change might cause some disturbance and urged him in the interests of the king and the country not to attempt any such innovation.
Highly incensed at such a reply the Viceroy sent the sheriff to prison, imposed a fine of 2000 crowns and deprived him in perpetuity of all public employment. These proceedings have caused no small stir among the people there as well as among the members of the parliament. For this reason the opening of the parliament has been postponed until the 4th October next. Meanwhile they have sent their remonstrance to the Court, drawing attention to the violation of their ancient privileges and beseeching his Majesty for gracious and just relief. The Viceroy also has sent an account of the incident and will await the decision.
When the king and Council had heard of this thorny affair and given it the consideration it merits, because of possible consequences, it is said they despatched thither with all speed the Earl of Arundel, Earl Marshal of England, thinking that was best calculated to temper the ardour of those islanders and to bring their wishes into line with his Majesty's intentions. He is one of the highest in repute of the royal Council. In secret he practices the Roman religion, because that party remains in a dependent position, and so as not to fall away from the standpoint of his ancestors, some of whom were sacrificed for that faith. But in public he professes the Protestant rite, so as not to disqualify himself from the honours of the Court. For the rest he is a man of considerable mildness and tact, although equally rigid and austere. This same Viceroy is supposed to belong to the Puritan sect. Formerly he was a most determined parliamentarian here against the king, but being won over by his Majesty with honourable and lucrative employments, he has become a most zealous royalist, and was recently selected for the government of that island. The indigenous population of Ireland clings most devotedly to the Catholic worship, although many naturalised inhabitants, settled about in a sort of colonies, who have come from England, Scotland and other countries, observe the rites of the reformed religion, but these only form a small proportion as compared with the natives of the island.
According to the opinions which circulate here, if the admission of these legally elected deputies is not accorded, the parliament will go no further. It is considered beyond a doubt that the people there will not surrender a single point of their privileges, following the example of this kingdom, particularly in a matter of religion. I will follow all this very closely to obtain the best information.
London, the 11th August, 1634.
[Italian.]
333. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Some rumour has reached the French ambassador that the instructions which were being prepared for Anstruther, selected as ambassador extraordinary to the crowns of Poland and Sweden, have been stopped at the Court. He himself communicated this to me in confidence. He said he imagined that the king had heard the news of the journey of the Sieur d'Avo, who is now well on the way, and had taken it into his head to imagine that Anstruther could no longer get there before everything was settled, and that consequently his mission would be useless. He told me he had no definite information on the subject, but he felt sure it was so, especially as they have so far given no answer to the suggestions he made on the subject, although the Treasurer in the course of conversation, had incidentally communicated the said resolution to him, without instructions from his Majesty, so he gave him to understand.
The costs and other charges suffered by those interested in the Portuguese ship, captured by the Dutch and so long in dispute, have been liquidated for the sum of 1200l. sterling, equivalent to 6000 ducats. The Dutch complain bitterly about it, asserting that they have never been sent for or their arguments heard on this head, but that judgment was given in their absence. They consider it most extraordinary that after an outlay of 12,000 crowns, according to them, spent in prosecuting a just cause for three entire years, for which their friends had been detained uselessly in the ports here, with a ship of war, in order not to let the case go by default, they should now be compelled to pay the costs of an unnecessary suit promoted by their adversaries, instead of recovering what they themselves had spent, as equity would decide everywhere.
The Marquis of San Germano, ambassador extraordinary of the Duke of Savoy to this Court, has crossed the sea and is already arrived at Gravesend. (fn. 1) It is believed that he has come to cadge (mendicar) for new titles to which the duke has no right, from the example of those obtained by the ministers of his Highness from some of the Catholic Cantons of Switzerland. But it is not thought that he will get anything here, any more than in France or the other leading Courts. According to report his audience will be postponed until the return of their Majesties to these parts, which will be about the 4th of September.
I will keep a close watch upon his negotiations and carry out your Excellencies' instructions of the 24th February last, with respect to his Highness's claims.
Lord Fildin, ambassador designate to Venice, is busy over the preparations for his journey. It is still reported that this will be at the end of next month. He is staying at his country house, about ten miles away from here. He will leave with a noble train, as numbers of young gentlemen of birth vie with each other in offers to attend him on the way. Some mean to stay at the University of Padua, many are led by curiosity to see the world, and various others are employed upon his domestic service. A brother of the Duke of Lennox will go with him (fn. 2) and Rolandson, at present English Secretary with your Serenity, is designated to be his secretary of the embassy, as his experience is considered necessary to assist the young ambassador.
We hear from Brussels that the Marquis of Aytona has arrived there and that in the council of war he suggested the way to meet the Prince of Orange, in case he received large assistance from the armies of Germany, as was announced.
I have received this week the state despatches of the 14th ult.
London, the 11th August, 1634.
Postscript : As I was sealing this there reached me from the Court the enclosed copy of articles agreed upon in the arrangement between Monsieur and the Marquis of Aytona, which I enclose.
[Italian.]
Enclosure. 334. Articles of a Treaty between Monsieur and the King of Spain. (fn. 3)
[French ; 3 pages.]
Aug. 11.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni. Principi. Venetian Archives.
335. The Resident of the King of Great Britain came into the Collegio and spoke as follows :
Some time ago I came to announce with deep regret the death of Mr. Cari, the ambassador in ordinary designated by my king to your Serenity. I now have a corresponding satisfaction to announce, by His Majesty's command, the appointment recently of Lord Fildin in place of the deceased. He is the eldest son of the Earl of Dembi and of a sister of the late Duke of Buckingham, consequently a baron of England by birth, of outstanding quality and the right eye of the Lord Treasurer from having married one of his daughters. By this choice His Majesty has been pleased to demonstrate his special regard for the republic, and this gentleman, in pursuance of His Majesty's intentions should render the greatest services to your Serenity and to the interests of the public cause, in the certainty of being welcome and well received on all these accounts.
The doge replied that they were always pleased to see any of his Majesty's ministers, and the new ambassador would be specially welcome for his high qualities. The Ambassador Corraro, selected as ordinary to his Majesty, was to leave soon, to keep up the cordial relations between the republic and that crown, to which they wished all prosperity.
The Resident said that in the matter of the merchant Obson, which had been frequently represented, he looked for a favourable decision and justice before the ambassador arrived, to show that the offices laid upon him, the Resident, by the Court had met with a gracious reception from the republic, as the party concerned was suffering great loss by the delay. To this the doge replied that they had the matter in hand and would do all that was proper. The secretary then took leave and went out. (fn. 4)
[Italian.]
Aug. 12.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
336. To the Secretary Zonca in England.
We have received your letters of the 30th June and of the 7th and 14th ult. with abundant news, including the appointment as ambassador in ordinary of a person of distinction, of which the Resident of England has already informed us. We commend your offices and prudent reserve in the matter. You will repeat that the ambassador will be welcome, whenever you think it desirable to do so, especially to the Treasurer, the king's favourite. Ayes, 104. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Aug. 18.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
337. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
By dint of the closest watch upon the proceedings of the Savoyard ambassador, who recently arrived here, and by means of the good correspondence which I maintained I have been able to obtain authentic information of his commissions and what he has done so far.
His entry into this city took place on Saturday last, the 12th inst. without any accompaniment save that of his household, and more like that of a private individual than an ambassador. He came from Gravesend to Westminster in the royal barques by water, without the Master of the Ceremonies or any other person in the name of the sovereign, and landed at the house where ambassadors extraordinary usually stay but he pays his own expenses and so far no orders have been given to treat him otherwise.
Immediately he arrived he sent some one on purpose to the Court to arrange for his audience at the royal pleasure, and he is awaiting the return of the messenger, to act according to his report. In the meantime he does not rest idle but operates adroitly wherever an opportunity occurs, because at the moment almost all the gentlemen here are scattered and away at their country houses. He has brought with him letters from the Duke of Savoy to a person at Court whom his Highness considers as a confidant of his house. The duke's own secretary is recommended to a certain councillor, to give his affairs a better start when he arrives, and to tell him of the matters mentioned above, as well as to take careful note of the ceremonies observed here with the ambassadors of kings. This secretary said he thought it was known at this Court that his Highness had assumed the royal title and closed in his crown. He hoped that here they would not dispute his right to the prerogatives which are accorded to the other ambassadors of crowned heads. He added that in this particular the ambassador was to follow his (the secretary's) instructions. The Councillor, after the ordinary complimentary phrases about the honour done him by his Highness, told the secretary what was done with royal ambassadors, and added that in his opinion, with regard to his Highness's pretensions he thought they would meet with insuperable obstacles, on many respects, and he felt sure that this Court was unwilling to be the author of such a title, especially as they knew that the Count of San Mauritio had not been able to overcome this point in France, although he had tried for it a long while, and he did not believe they would wish to do more here.
After the complimentary talk they went on to speak of the affairs of the world and the conversation turned upon the reports circulating here as well as elsewhere about an alliance said to be in negotiation between the House of Austria, Great Britain, the House of Savoy or other princes, and that people were inclined to believe that the Marquis might have come to make overtures about this. To this the secretary replied, They are wrong, because if such negotiations were to be transacted it would not be done with all the eclat involved in the despatch of an embassy extraordinary. He added that the sole object was to respond to the embassy extraordinary of Weston, and to bring the news of the birth of the duke's second son. (fn. 5) With this their conference ended. On the day following this visit this cavalier went to see the ambassador himself. After the mutual exchange of introductions, the ambassador told him that he had been told by the duke his master to impart something to him and to take his opinion. When the time came he would know where to find him, and in the mean time he presented the duke's letter. This gentleman professes a sincere devotion to the most serene republic, and his sentiments are well known to all of your Serenity's representatives who have been here, to whom he has rendered special and devoted service, while with me also he cultivates the most familiar relations. As a proof of this he showed me this very letter. It contains nothing but this, that the duke, knowing his affection for the House of Savoy, showed his confidence by sending the ambassador to him for his advice, when sending him here on the duke's affairs, in which he asks for that gentleman's assistance, with a few other ceremonious phrases. The letter is signed Vittorio Amadeo, Duke of Savoy, without any other title, and sealed with the arms of Cyprus in his shield and the crown closed in above. The gentleman further told me all the particulars recorded above. Of his own accord he offered to tell me anything further that occurred touching the said affair, but all under the necessary seal of secrecy. He told me moreover that he had noticed that neither the secretary nor the ambassador ever mentioned the duke with any title except Highness, and that he himself used the same title with them.
He has since been to the second secretary of state, Vindebanch, and told him that from the duty he owed to his Majesty he had to inform him of a certain affair. He then recited, the whole business so that he might inform the king, in case he wished to avoid the dilemma of receiving or of offending the Duke of Savoy, with tiresome demands or a refusal in the matter, and in case he would care to make use of the gentleman's good offices, to divert the ambassador from making such advances, seeing the confidence that they repose in him, in which case he was ready to obey instructions. The secretary commended his frankness and promised to write about it to the king, assuring him that it would be acceptable. I also thanked the gentleman on behalf of your Excellencies for the affection he shows to your Serenity and for the favour of the communication. I did not neglect to speak to him tactfully about the empty claims of his Highness which are laughed at by the principal Courts of Europe. I pointed out to him the prejudice that such innovations would cause to the position of the greater princes, as well as the other matter contained in the state instructions of the 24th September last, and I told him frankly that I did not believe that the duke would gain a step here. I will not lose sight of this affair and will forward information from time to time.
London, the 18th August, 1634.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
338. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Extraordinary comments have been passed at the Court upon the publication of the articles agreed upon between Monsieur and the Catholic king. Every one speaks according to his own bias. But in general the behaviour of the prince meets with dissapproval. Some, and those reputed the wisest, refuse to believe that the Spaniards mean to furnish him with an army, as they have undertaken to do, and they feel sure that very few Frenchmen will enter his service, both from the character of the articles, which are so disadvantageous, and from lack of evidence that he is likely to strike any blow in France, which is powerfully armed, and released from all other embarassments since the fall of la Motte. Moreover the French would not suffer themselves to be commanded by Spanish officers, owing to the natural antipathy between the two nations. Such persons incline rather to believe that the arrangement has been contracted with the design, on the part of the Spaniards, to prevent Monsieur from escaping from their clutches, and by this means to keep the Most Christian in constant alarm, and divert him from greater undertakings in Germany, at least until such time as their affairs recover strength, as they lead people to expect.
The news of the surrender of Ratisbon to the King of Hungary has made a great impression on those of the right party. The loss of that place spoils the rejoicing at the successes of Saxony in Bohemia, with the capture of Prague and other acquisitions, or at the other successes in the duchy of Brunswick (Brusascoli), with the fall of Hildesein, so long besieged by Weimar. (fn. 6)
The Hispanophiles boast about the capture of Ratisbon, as a start in the recovery of Germany, which should give the empire breathing space as a consequence.
They announce the union of the forces which left Italy under the Cardinal Infant with those of Cæsar, and invent various fictions to encourage the drooping spirits of their followers and to discredit the reports of captures by the other side. They declare that the Cardinal will pass to the Netherlands by the Lower Palatinate and show letters stating that he proposes to be in Flanders by the end of September next. But here little credit is attached to such statements, as they see how many obstacles stand in the way.
After mature consideration upon the conditions of Lord Fildin and out of regard to the pretensions which other princes might make if another individual of an inferior rank were appointed to them in future circumstances, the king has decided to give him the character of ambassador extraordinary to your Excellencies also, to continue his ordinary embassy with you afterwards. I have this on good authority from the Court. Up to the present he has no commissions for the Most Christian, but only for the princes of Italy on his route.
Brasser, the Dutch deputy has gone at last. He postponed his embarcation for some days to await the honour of the usual royal present, which his Majesty had already commanded for him. But as the Lord Treasurer had not cash in hand, and as the goldsmiths would not issue a gold chain worth 800 crowns upon his promise alone, the deputy had to leave without it.
The affairs of Ireland are being put straight through the skill of the Earl of Arundel, who has assured the people there of the good intentions of the king and of the preservation of their privileges.
His Majesty escaped a great danger on the 10th inst. when hunting a stag in a tangled forest. (fn. 7) Carried away by the pleasure he fell with his horse, although he got up again without any hurt. The same accident befell other gentlemen who accompanied him, and only the Duke of Lennox received a severe bruise, from which, however, he has entirely recovered.
A quantity of ready money is reaching Antwerp from Spain both by ship and by letters of exchange. Similarly various chests of reals have been brought to this mart by an English ship which has come from that country, and the money is remitted to Flanders by letters of the merchants here.
Prince Tomaso, according to the last letters, has now issued patents and nominated officers and commanders to recruit his troops for the service of Monsieur, but he has since realised the difficulties in the way owing to the levies which are to be raised in the district of Liège, in the name of the Most Christian.
I enclose a copy of the letter of apology of the Duke, of Arescot.
The state despatches of the 21st and 28th ult. are in arrear, and no news has been received of the couriers. The last dispatches received were of the 14th July.
London, the 18th August, 1634.
[Italian.]
Enclosure. 339. Copy of Apology of the Duke of Arescot. (fn. 8)
Dated at Almeda, the 16th April, 1634.
[Italian.]
Aug 25.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
340. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The slightest circumstance that seems likely to cast discredit upon the selfish administration of the Lord Treasurer here is immediately seized upon by those who cannot suffer his greatness, either from their private jealousies, or in the king's service, behind whom they always conveniently shelter themselves. Although they were exceedingly well aware from previous experience that the minister was protected by the strong arm of the royal favour, yet this does not deter them whenever there appears to be any opening which may serve either directly or indirectly to bring about his ruin, which is desired by everyone at Court and by the whole city (ad ogni attacco che in qualche parte possa adombrare Pinteressata amministratione di questo Gran Tesoriere, subito si appigliano quelli che o per particolari passioni o per servicio del Re di chi a buon proposito sempre si coprono non punto amano la grandezza di lui, e non ostante che assai bene avergono per gl' esempii passati venir egli dal forte braccio del Regio difeso, non desistono per cio mentre vi aparisca alcun foro di servirlo diretta o indirettamente ad intention di fabricargli la rovina dall' universale della Corte e dalla citta tutta desideratagli).
The Earl of Holland, superintendant and general judge of a large part of the forests of this kingdom, on hearing that an immense quantity of trees were being felled clandestinely in an enormous wood under his jurisdiction in the county of Gloucester, from which alone the best timber is obtained for the royal ships, and so all others are forbidden to use it, proceeded to the spot himself with twelve jurors and skilled men, according to the laws of the realm. He had the damage estimated and condemned four offenders, sentencing them to pay over 60,000l. sterling, as damages for the harm done and as a fine for their breach of the law. As one of these was a secretary of the Treasurer, called Giben, who transacts all his domestic affairs, and who was fined 20,000l. sterling, and one Sir Bosuel Bruch, a most dependent creature of that minister, was fined 27,000l., while the other two were also very intimate, (fn. 9) it is murmured and commonly assumed that if the Treasurer had not a hand in it also these others would not have ventured upon so perilous an enterprise.
The messenger sent by the Savoyard ambassador to the Court has returned and reports that audience is appointed for him the day after tomorrow at Northampton, 50 miles from here. He set out in that direction yesterday, entirely at his own cost, accompanied by the Master of the Ceremonies of the Court only.
These last days he has seen the Lord Treasurer and the Secretary Windebank, and had some discussion with them about the royal pretensions of the duke, his master, but he only obtained general replies and but little to his taste. He is well provided with those books which his Highness had printed to prove his ill founded reasons for the claim he makes to the kingdom of Cyprus. (fn. 10) He shows them to any one who displays curiosity about them and he also distributes them, I imagine in order to induce them here to agree to satisfy the duke. But whatever the book may say and whatever attempts he may make, the information I receive indicates that there is no sign that the king is disposed to change the way of dealing between them.
I know for certain that the Treasurer said seriously that he will not be received unless he conforms to the oldstanding arrangements of this Court with that House. The Secretary Vindebanch holds precisely the same opinions. An individual who is inspired by the Secretary Cuch and who follows the Court informed me in reply to a question I put to him that so far as he could learn the ambassador will be treated like his predecessors and that they will not make the slightest alteration. The truth is that the few ministers of the royal Council who are staying here whose opinion I have been able to discover quite well, all laugh without reserve at such slight pretensions. I have not neglected to disseminate the considerations reported on other occasions, with all due circumspection, but as I am far away from the Court, where the chief effort will be made, I have no choice but to await the issue and then send full particulars to your Excellencies.
Noie, the king's Attorney General has ended his days. (fn. 11) He is lamented by few but much regretted by his Majesty. He had a greater knowledge than anyone else of the laws of the kingdom. At the last meeting of parliament he was one of the strongest opponents of the Court among the people, but allured by this honourable and most lucrative office he became a perfect royalist. (fn. 12) By his quibbles he brought great relief to his Majesty in the present scarcity of money, by inventing various methods of extortion, though under the pretence of the breach of ancient and obsolete laws, with this reservation, however, that he only attacked those who could support the pecuniary penalty, both because of the gifts of fortune which they possessed, and because it did not affect a great number, which might lead to a rising, prejudicial to interests of state. He studied to leave the generality of the people apparently exempt, although actually they suffered from the consequences. For the rest he was a man of great knowledge, much beloved by the king but hated by the other orders of the kingdom (porto con li suoi arcigogoli gran sollievo alla Maiesta Sua, ne la penuria presente de' denari, inventendo diverse maniere di estorquerne anco sotto pretesti di antique e disusate legge transgresse, conquesta riserva pero di aggravar solamente quelli chi potevano succomber a la pena pecuniaria, e tanto per i beni di fortuna che possedevano come perche non si estendevano a gran numero e poteva seguirne sollevatione alcuna pregiudiciale all' interesse politico ; studio di lasciare il generale del popolo in apparenza esente, si bene effectivamente aggravato delle consequenze ; nel resto era uomo di gran sapere molto amato dal Re ma odiato dagli altri ordini del Regno).
I have news from Brussels of the outbreak of a quarrel between Prince Tomaso and. the Marquis of Aytona. They report that while the Prince was beating up to recruit his levies, and his officers were diverting the soldiers of the Spanish army, who were enrolled under these new troops, the Marquis ordered him to suspend the levies, this being required by the king's service. The Prince was much put out by this and sent resentful answers, but he obeyed the orders, all the same.
They say also that to secure the frontiers of Picardy from alarms by the French the Marquis has sent 3000 infantry from his army in Flanders and weakened his forces in the neighbourhood of Mastrich.
I have received this week the state despatches of the 15th, 20th and 28th ult. with the advices.
With regard to matter especially concerned with the affairs of Rome I will carry out the public commands. In the matter of the embasssy to your Serenity there is nothing left for me to do, as the whole affair has already been satisfactorily settled.
London, the 25th August, 1634.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 25.
Cons. di X Capi. Lettere di Ambasciatori. Venetian Archives.
341. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Council of Ten.
Acknowledges receipt of the sentence against Piero Spiera, physician.
London, the 25th August, 1634.
[Italian.]
Aug. 29.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
342. Giovanni Soranzo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Last Thursday, the 24th, de Vic one of the Residents of England, left for the coast and I am told he has gone to London. I have not yet been able to discover the motive but I fancy that jealousy about the proposals made by the Dutch ambassador will have occasioned this sudden, hurried departure. I have already advised your Serenity of their sentiments about the Dunkirk proposals, and if they have penetrated somewhat further into the matter, it is to be feared that De Vic is not going to perform friendly offices with his master. I am writing about it this morning to Sig. Zonca. (fn. 13)
There has been a universal rumour these last days that several companies of English have been landed at Dunkirk to reinforce the troops of Monsieur, but I do not think there is any ground for this, as we have heard nothing beforehand of any levies in that kingdom. But many insist that there is some secret intelligence.
Paris, the 29th August, 1634.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Ottaviano di San Martino, Marquis of San Germano. His credentials are dated 22 June, 1634. S.P. For. Savoy.
2 Probably George Stuart, Sieur d' Aubigny, born in 1618, who afterwards fell at Edgehill.
3 See No. 307 at page 233 above, and note.
4 Rowlandson's copy of this office is preserved at the Public Record Office, S.P. For. Venice.
5 Charles Emanuel, born 20th June. He succeeded to the duchy in 1638 as Charles Emanuel II.
6 Hildesheim was taken on the 12th July, Ratisbon surrendered on the 22nd of that month. The Saxons did not enter Prague.
7 Sherwood forest as the King was staying at Welbeck at this date. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1634-5, pages 149, 178.
8 Printed in the Mercure Francais, Vol. XX., pages 281-283.
9 Fines were imposed on Gibbons, Portland's Secretary. Sir Basil Brooke and his partner Mynn, it does not appear who the fourth delinquent was, convicted of these malpractices in the forest of Dean. Gardiner : Hist. of Eng. Vol. vii., pages 362-4.
10 The title of this work is given by Salvetti in his news letter of the 9th Oct. "Trattato del titolo Regio doruto alla Serenissima Casa di Savoia, insieme con un ristretto delle rirolutione del Beame di Cipri appartenente alla Corona dell' Altezza Reale di Vittorio Amadeo Duca di Savoia, Principe di Piemonte, Re di Cipri etc," Brit. Mus. Add MSS. 27962.
11 He died at Brentford on the 9/19 August. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1634-5, page 185.
12 He was appointed Attorney General on 27 Oct.—6 Nov., 1631. According to Clarendon he only accepted the office after great pressure from the Court. Hist. of the Rebellion, Oxford, 1712, Vol. i. page 73.
13 In a dispatch of the 16th Aug. O.S. De Vic alludes to the permission granted him to go to Guernsey to attend to his private affairs, which were in great confusion. S.P. For. France. Vol. 96.