386. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
The courier from Italy has been delayed by contrary winds,
but I have received the state letters of the 27th October.
With regard to the return of the Duke of Orleans to France,
every one spoke from the first according to his private opinions.
Now nothing more is said about it, and no comments on the
subject are made at Court. At the present moment the curiosity
of everyone is directed to what will happen about the
dissolution of his marriage with the Princess of Lorraine. Here
they believe it just as full of thorny difficulties and scandalous
consequences as the French announce it to be easy and proper.
Those with whom the wish is possibly father to the thought
believe that it will be very difficult to carry out, arguing from
the tenderness and affection which the prince recently displayed
in France, showing his constant love for his wife. On
the other hand there are not wanting those who steadfastly
maintain that he freely protested his consent to the annulment,
admitting that he was convinced by the arguments brought
forward to show that he might separate himself from the princess
without serious consequences or loss of honour. But whatever
happens it is certain that it will not please them here, as
they have sympathised very strongly with all the past misfortunes
of the House of Lorraine.
His Majesty does not appear to give a thought to the affairs
of Germany. As already reported, the Agent of the Administrator
of the Palatinate went away dissatisfied.
The negotiation contained in the letters of Anstruther, brought
by his secretary, merely represent the energy with which he is
urged by the princes there to procure assistance for them from
England, promising in their turn to defend the Palatinate.
The answers have not yet been issued, but when they are they
will be to the usual effect refusing once again to sacrifice their
personal convenience to any trouble abroad, whatever it may be.
However I learn on good authority that they are greatly concerned
about the continued ascendancy of France. The more
the powers of that country advance the more jealous and dissatisfied
they become. They have been seriously moved and
perturbed by the journey made here incognito by il Blaao, councillor
of the Administrator of the Palatinate, who has gone in
the direction of the Hague in an English ship. They have
discovered that he is taking to the princess and the Elector
Palatine the articles agreed upon between the Administrator
and the Most Christian with the consent of the Palatines and
by the advice of the Prince of Orange, whereby that monarch
undertakes the protection and custody of the whole of the
Palatinate, the important fortress of Manehin being deposited
in his hands, into which he has already introduced a French
garrison. It is said that this councillor is to take the youthful
Elector with him. This fresh incident, which is considered
at Court to involve most important consequences, has made a
strong impression upon the king, who wonders whether, he will
be able, on this account, to take away the pension which has
been supplied by him yearly for the support of his sister.
In letters from the French Agent at Brussels to the Sieun
de Poygni which he has communicated to me, I observe that
the Cardinal Infant entered Brussels with 4000 Italian and
Spanish infantry and five companies of Albanian cavalry, the
rest of the army being placed under the command of the Count
of Mansfelt. The Cardinal immediately dismissed the cavalry,
which, although it marched under five cornets, did not amount
to 150 men.
Also that twelve Spaniards having committed several acts of
contempt against a portrait of Monsieur that served as the sign
of a shop, the Queen Mother and the Princess his wife made
strong remonstrances to the Cardinal. In response to their
representations and because of the offence itself, he immediately
gave orders for a thorough enquiry and faithfully promised the
two princesses and the Agent of France that he would punish
the culprits in the most severe and exemplary manner.
Also that the Duke of Lorraine has already had special
money coined in the country of Wirtemberg, using in it the
title of King of Austria and Duke of Wirtemberg, a step that
has given rise to much comment, it being considered a great
novelty that the loss of states should carry with it royal claims
It having come to the knowledge of the French ambassador
here that a certain number of troops levied in Ireland with
the royal permission had landed at Dunkirk, he expressed some
amount of resentment to his Majesty, considering it very strange
that while they made so much trouble about granting to his
king the few recruits from Scotland that should at the same
time secretly grant more numerous levies to the Spaniards in
Ireland. The king told him there was no reason for complaint
as they made much less capital of the Irish than of troops
from Scotland, as for many respects the former were much
more troublesome than useful, and for that reason they were
not much concerned about reducing the number of subjects in
that province, where they were just as abundant as Scotland
was weakened by the continuous numerous levies. The ambassador
did not lose this opportunity of retorting : Then if it
suits my king's purpose to raise levies in Ireland your Majesty
will have no objection to grant them. At this the king was
nonplussed and returned no answer. The ambassador immediately
sent an account of these particulars to France, pointing out
that it was desirable not to lose this opportunity to make the
demand. It would be equally advantageous if the answer was
favourable or the reverse, because they will either deprive the
Spaniards of the facilities from taking men, or this privilege
will be conceded to France also, unless the king prefers to
lose their confidence.
The armed ships which are to leave these ports are twenty
in number, six of the king, and fourteen maintained by merchants.
Upon this occasion the post of Lord High Admiral,
vacant since the death of the Duke of Buckingham, although
sought by many, has been conferred on the infant Duke of
York in order not to leave any of the claimants dissatisfied. (fn. 1)
They say that the Duke of Lennox or the Earl of Holland
will be appointed as his lieutenant, but so far nothing has been
decided upon this point.
I have received this week the state despatches of the 3rd ult.
London, the 1st December, 1634.
387. To the Ambassador in England.
We are satisfied with the news received in your letters of
the 10th ult. and with the prudent reserve shown at your first
audience. In addition to the ordinary advices the most important
news is that of the offer by the Duke of Mantua to
the Most Christian of his dominions in Italy. The move of that
duke for Casale is connected with this and causes great uneasiness.
You will try to find out all that you can about this,
but you must avoid exciting the suspicions of the French ambassador
by excessive curiosity, and continue to maintain confidential
relations with him.
Ayes, 71. Noes, 1. Neutral, 1.
388. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
On Saturday in last week I saw the first Secretary of State,
in order to perform the office committed to me by your Serenity,
as I have already done with all the leading ministers at Court,
touching the present affairs of the world. He talked of many
things, but in particular he remarked with heat that he observed
that France was advancing too audaciously to excessive power.
The French were naturally very ardent and would not rest content
with little. I believe they wish, by turning everything upside
down, without drawing the sword, to make the dominion of the
world fall into their arms. They will not even leave Italy
quiet for long, but as their designs cannot progress further
without an open breach with the House of Austria, it is probable
that they will not make up their minds to this without the
declared assistance of the most serene republic.
I told him that the republic desired peace. He rejoined.
The king here has the same inclination, and it is the right one,
but these French want too much. The pretext of protection
does not suffice to cover their designs of possession. I was
aware of this resentful state of mind, which is common in the
king and the other ministers, due to their natural antipathy to
the French, and aroused to this pitch by the protection which
the French have recently claimed over the Palatinate. I gently
pointed out to him that those princes, recognising the impossibility
of maintaining their states without a sovereign assistance,
had been driven by necessity to take this step, which was considered
the safest. The issue, said he, will show which is the
more correct view, and there our colloquy ended.
It has been decided to arm six other ships, besides the twenty
already decided upon, and possibly their present preparations
will not stop there. Every one sees that they are intended to
cause some annoyance to the French, whose licence at sea is
troublesome and insupportable to the English.
The gentleman of the Duke of Orleans, (fn. 2) sent by him to their
Majesties in response to the office performed with him by the
Ambassador Fildin in their name, congratulating him on his
return to France, arrived in Court the day before yesterday.
The king and queen received him with friendly demonstrations,
although for some days he had been suffering with his eyes,
and even now he is in indifferent health. At all events they
gave him a cordial greeting and peculiar honours. He will
leave in a few days, as his instructions do not extend beyond
the complimentary office which he has already discharged.
It came to my notice that one Hugo Spiexmo of Rotterdam
was in this city, an expert in agriculture. The Earl of Arundel
employed him to redeem many of his uncultivated estates. He
not only brought these lands into an excellent condition, but
fetched large numbers of people from Holland and elsewhere
to live there and cultivate them. As this might serve the interests
of your Excellencies I thought proper to take better
information about him. I did so and found that he is a man
of great intelligence and credit, who had previously brought many
families to live in Denmark at the request of the king there. I
easily contrived to make his acquaintance through Daniel Nis.
My conversation with him went to confirm the accounts I had
heard. I let him know through another that your Excellencies
have some districts in Istria and elsewhere which are sparsely
cultivated for lack of inhabitants, and that if he could find an
easy way to take enough people there you might welcome it.
He said he could find people enough, but to take them to
such a distant country was no easy matter, but he would think
about it. He has shown his devotion to the republic in this
matter, as he brought him back at the end of two days, ready
to take as many people to live in Istria as your Excellencies may
desire, the majority of whom, he says he is certain to obtain
from Low Germany. In the mean time, if your Serenity wishes
he promises to go to Venice, without cost to the state, to proceed
to the places assigned, and make arrangements with your Excellencies,
such as he hopes you will find satisfactory. I considered
the matter of importance and as I am sure of the man,
I thought proper to send this advice, so that your Excellencies
may weigh the matter with your infallible prudence and give
me your commands, which I will carry out with all zeal.
London, the 10th December, 1634.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
389. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague,
to the Doge and Senate.
A very persistent report is circulating that the King of Poland
contemplates asking for the daughter of the Princess Palatine
to wife. The lady is certainly full of grace and worthy to
be the consort of any prince, however great ; but the misfortunes
and the weakness of her house render the affair improbable.
The Hague, the 14th December, 1634.
390. Andrea Rosso, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss,
to the Doge and Senate.
The Resident of England has not returned, although we hear
of his leaving Lyon with the ambassador designate to your
Serenity, going by way of Geneva and thence by Savoy to
Piedmont, to take ship on the Po. It is expected that the
Resident will accompany him up to that point, as he knows the
country and the language.
Zurich, the 14th December, 1634.
391. To the Ambassador in England.
We have received your letters of the 17th ult. and are well
satisfied with what you have done. The usual sheet of advices
is enclosed. We shall expect to hear from you how much there
really is in the negotiations for an alliance between that crown
and the States, to prevent England from leaning to Spain. The
English Resident informs us that the Ambassador Fildin has
gone on from Lyon to Turin, and that he may be expected here
at any moment.
Ayes, 92. Noes, 1. Neutral, 2.
392. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
Having paid no attention whatever to the particulars contained
in the letters of Anstruther, about the assistance demanded on
behalf of the princes of Germany, but recognising that his stay
there any longer is absolutely useless, they have decided to recall
him. His secretary, who brought his letters, is still at the
Court, and will be sent back to him with his instructions. These
will only direct him to come back straight here, without making
any reference to his proceeding to France to take up the position
to which he is destined. This has caused the Ambassador
Poygni to speak somewhat resentfully and in private conversation
he has declared that unless Anstruther or some one else
is sent to his king as ambassador in ordinary he could not
consider that a satisfactory correspondence had been made.
The answers have come back promptly to the letters recently
sent by this ambassador to France touching the affair of the
levies in Ireland, bringing him instructions to ask the king
immediately for two regiments. He did this at once, but obtained
no conclusive answer though strong hopes of obtaining
their final decision on the subject. He proposes to go to the
Court to-morrow, being urged to do so by the colonels sent to
him by the Most Christian with the patents for the purpose.
They are delighted here at the news of the arrival of M.
Mazarini at Paris, and they are also especially pleased to hear
that he has begun to exercise the functions of his office, as,
they consider that his negotiations may to a great extent serve
the interests of the Duke of Lorraine. (fn. 3)
The adjustment of Saxony and Brandenburg (fn. 4) with the emperor
is announced here as settled. Every one comments upon
it as the thing most essential to the proper establishment of
the affairs of the Austrians, but their partisans in particular,
who are very numerous here rejoice over it with every demonstration
The considerable naval preparations upon which they are
busy here cause great jealousy to the Dutch. The Ambassador
Joachimi with whom I had a long interview yesterday told me
that these resolutions do not come from the king's own motion,
as he is naturally inclined to anything rather than trouble, but
were all done at the suggestion of the Spaniards. They have
represented to him that for the sake of his reputation which
is too seriously outraged by the scant obedience rendered to him
by foreign ships, he cannot omit to maintain by force that
jurisdiction over the sea, granted to him by Nature, and which
has always been upheld by his predecessors without interruption.
He says they use this specious pretext to cloak their more secret
designs. It is quite clear that their object is no other than to
try to arouse ill feeling between this nation and the States,
and prevent any progress towards treaties of alliance towards
which from the disposition shown by the king, they fear he may
easily move to an alarming extent. Joachimi continues to spread
these views wherever he sees an opportunity to do so with
advantage, as he is well aware that if this fleet puts to sea
in such great numbers, as every day helps to indicate the consequences
cannot be good either for France or for his masters.
I have received this week the state letters of the 10th ult.
together with the advices, by way of Zurich. Those of the
17th ult. have been delayed by contrary winds.
London, the 17th December, 1634.
393. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
For the present month they hope to have on foot the 12,000
Germans levied by the Marquis della Forza, Fichiers and Colonel
Nebron, a Scot. These will join with the Princes of Germany
and 8000 other infantry and 1500 horse under the same Colonel
Nebron will remain apart with orders, in case of urgent need,
to succour those of the party.
Paris, the 19th December, 1634.
394. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
Il Closet, gentleman of the queen mother, (fn. 5) after having stayed
at this Court for several months, always with the object of
obtaining some advantage for his mistress, and never having
been able to obtain a reply to satisfy his objects, has decided
to return to Brussels. To this end he has taken leave of the
king, who embraced him cordially, being glad to see that troubles
were going away from him. The queen, induced by her natural
affection for her mother, could not refrain from helping her
with a present of jewels. She did it secretly, however, fearing
that the king might not be altogether pleased.
The Master of the Horse of the Duke of Orleans, who has
discharged his few duties at the Court, still stays on here,
buying horses for the interest of the prince. In order to perform
in a more decorous and suitable form the compliment only
touched upon superficially by the Master of the Horse, the Prince
is sending the Count de Brion, who is expected here shortly.
His Majesty has made up his mind about the levies in Ireland
and has answered the French ambassador that as they have
not yet come to any decision in the matter of the alliance proposed
to him, he did not see how he could find it convenient to
allow troops to be taken from his dominions, as he might be in
considerable need of them for himself. He therefore told the
ambassador positively that if nothing more is done by France
in this matter he on his side would do nothing in the matter
of the levy. The ambassador apologised for the delay of the
reply from France as due to the Court being distracted over the
recent weddings, (fn. 6) and so forth, as best he could. He pointed
out that the number of 2000 men was of scant consequence
out of the abundance in Ireland. He added every other consideration
which he thought calculated to persuade the King,
but could not move him a jot.
Mean time he is impatiently awaiting these replies. The recent
arrival at Paris of the Ambassador Knut with a member of the
Assembly of the States, leads him to hope for them soon. Nevertheless
he has not neglected to urge that they may be sent
despatching a special messenger, in order to take advantage
of the disposition which the king shows to negotiate, if it is
genuine, and if not, at least to deprive him of this excuse, of which
he usually avails himself to refuse the demands of the French.
Porter has sent word from Brussels that he has fulfilled his
commissions with the Cardinal Infant. He leaves with scant
satisfaction at the treatment he has received, as he declares that
the prince never once did him so much as the honour of raising
his cap to him. They have heard this with some displeasure here.
I have received this week the state despatches of the 17th
and 24th ult. In the advices I notice the progress of the Duke
of Mantua towards Casale to review his affairs in the Monferrato.
Here they announce that he has gone for another purpose. Some
French gentlemen declare that they have certain information
that his Highness is on the way to Paris, where they state he
has arrived by now. This revives the idea and renews the
report that he is meeting the Most Christian to treat about the
exchange of his dominions in Italy. The pretext which others
advance of the marriage of the princess, his daughter, to Monsieur,
is not considered a sufficient inducement to take him
so far from his dominions, but I attach little importance to
London, the 22nd December, 1634.
395. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague,
to the Doge and Senate.
Their High Mightinesses are not pleased to hear about the
collecting of the fleet ordained in England. They say they
are driven to be on their guard because of reports which are
circulating about the intentions of that king, by no means
friendly to these Provinces and perhaps leaning strongly to the
crown of Spain.
The Hague, the 21st December, 1634.
396. The English and Flemish merchants petition your
Serenity for an extension of the time of the reduced duty on
certain goods which arrive from the West, both for export and
for import, in the same way as was done in the year 1626,
extended on the 8th October 1631 and the 11th March 1632 ;
this last extension for four years having expired, so that they
may be able to advise their correspondents and trade to the
profit of the state and their own advantage.
With respect to this we may state that as a matter of fact
the trade is mostly in the hands of Westerners, who have the
goods brought to the markets which best suit their interests,
when they ought to bring them in larger quantities to this city.
It is true that this may be due to the fact that there is no
sale, owing to the existing state of affairs, since foreigners do
not come here to supply themselves, for reasons very well known
to your Serenity. Nevertheless, in order that this trade with
the West may not be still further enfeebled, should the Westerners
be called upon to pay the whole duty, we do not think
it advisable to make any alteration, more especially as we have
had the effect of the reduction of this duty enquired into and
we find that more has been raised on goods coming from the
West at the half duty than was obtained originally from the
entire duty. We may also add that if this inducement does not
prove sufficiently attractive to induce the English and Flemings
who live here to bring their ships from their own country, when
they have so many things to contend with, such as the long
voyage, the danger of the Gulf, the charges and other expenses,
these ships are hardly likely to come, thus causing some prejudice
to the duty of the new impost on the currants, which
keeps up its reputation owing to the competition of these ships.
We therefore consider that it will be advisable to extend for four
years more the reduction of the duty in everything and for everything,
this new extension of four years to date from the time
when the last one expired.
Dated at the office, the 22nd December, 1634.
|Alvise Mocenigo, Jun.
397. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Secretary at the Hague,
to the Doge and Senate.
I went last week to see the Princess Palatine. She told me
that Mazarini was working with all his might to bring the
crown of France and the House of Austria to terms, with the
intention of turning not only against the Swedes but against
these States as well. She hoped that he would not find it an
easy task. It was indubitable that the Spaniards and Imperialists
would never come to terms unless the Duke of Lorraine was
first restored. The king of England was doing all in his power
for his Highness, as he had the interests of that poor duke
as much at heart as those of his own crown. He was right because
the duke was a close relation, though there is no other connection
save in the third degree. I replied that the king of England was a
great and powerful monarch. Approaching me so as not to be
heard by some gentlemen standing near the princess said :
The king is my brother. He will do for the Duke of Lorraine
more than is credited. I tell it you in confidence. I thanked
her and tried to induce her to say more, but she would not.
From this conversation I fancy one may infer a probable alliance
between the House of Austria and the crown of England
to recover the states of the Duke of Lorraine, and this agrees with
the reports of the claims of that king for satisfaction for the
The Hague, the 28th December, 1634.
[Italian ; deciphered.]
398. Andrea Rosso, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Resident of England has returned here after accompanying
to Savoy the ambassador designate to your Serenity. I hear
that his Excellency is staying some weeks in Piedmont on affairs
of the merchants of his country, whose goods the duke is
detaining, without satisfaction, on the pretext of a free port
and of making use of them with a promise to pay. The ambassador
will try to persuade the merchants not to claim reprisals
if they are not satisfied. But as reprisals would be difficult,
seeing that the duke has not a single ship at sea, it appears
that they are asking the royal permission to take the law into
their own hands and to avenge the wrong done to them upon
Nizza and Villafranca, for their destruction.
It also seems that the ambassador is to interpose in some
dispute with Geneva about frontiers.
Farra, the 28th December, 1634.
399. Declaration of Edward Courtney. (fn. 7)
Charged with maintaining doctrines prejudicial to the state.
Contrary to intention ; ready to retract (matters merely of religion
excepted), as soon as understands them. Only alleged
pope's power to depose princes to be uncertain, and therefore
not to be practised lawfully, and for the same reason not to be
The same position with respect to the commonwealth's power
Did not intend to deny king's power of explaining laws, but
if exposition to be referred to original authority that made them,
then the king alone is not so great authority as joined with
the representative body of the commonwealth. Would rather
increase than diminish king's prerogative.
Concerning pope's power to depose, only meant what all princes
practise by war when they defend their temporal rights.
Concerning his spiritual power, only affirms that for defence
of religion he can command temporal princes to use their swords
for the defence of the church and their own right. In both
cases has defended the right of Catholics to fight in defence
of their king and country, as much as Protestants although the
war were proclaimed for religion.
Intention to deliver such an explanation of Catholic doctrine
as might extend to all acts of duty and obedience which any
prince could require. Ready to retract if any learned man will
prove him wrong.
Denies absolutely having written to withdraw king's subjects
from any due allegiance. Wrote to the clear contrary, to distinguish
points of religion for which they refuse the oath,
from matter of allegiance which they as ready to perform as
any. Did it to prevent a general praemunire, which expected
to ensue upon Mr. Hoard's (fn. 8) book.
Signed by Edward Courtenay, prisoner in the King's Bench,
the 24th November, 1634, in the presence of Raphe Whistler,
servant to Sir John Zentoll and Roger Widdrington.
|400. Edward Courtenay's conference with Roger Widdrington.
Agreed that pope as temporal prince may make war and do
all that a temporal prince may do.
That he may order any temporal prince to make just war.
Courtenay considers this is to authorise ; Widdrington thinks
authority requires physical influence.
They also differ on use of word pope in 2nd clause ; which
Courtenay thinks cannot be sworn unto with a safe conscience.
Widdrington says oath may be grounded upon king's command
and constitutive law, which ought to be obeyed, until some things
in the oath may be manifestly convinced to be unjust. Courtenay
thinks it unjust to swear to the king's determinations upon any
spiritual matters before they are determined by the Church.
Signed by both before Raphe Whistler, the 26th November,
|401. Letter of Widdrington to Courtenay.
Cannot allow his exceptions against king's authority. Considers
subject bound to take oath so long as nothing therein
can be clearly convinced to be manifestly unjust. Thereby he
does not consent to truth or falsehood of king's determinations
of the pope's spiritual authority. Last contention of Courtenay
such a paradox that looks as if used to cover his obstinate
denial to take the oath of allegiance, as his argument would
mean the end of all government.
Dated the 27th November.
|402. Statement of Courtenay that has not touched on point
of pope's power to define without a general Council.
Dated the 4th December, 1634.
|403. Declaration of Courtenay.
Repeats that no intention to maintain doctrines dangerous to
state. If he has done so, will retract and ask pardon. Only
wished to show why the oath cannot conscientiously be taken
by Catholics. Disowns all disloyal doctrines that may be justly
gathered from his words. Expressly disclaims maintaining that
the pope has any power by his definitive sentence to depose
princes. Only affirmed that pope, by spiritual power might
persuade princes to draw the sword as other princes may. Has
never touched on question of pope's infallibility to define matters
of faith without a general Council. Also only declared that
the sense of the law declared by king and parliament may be
more safely sworn to than the exposition of any king alone.
Admits king's authority, because all that of the parliament
is originally from the king. Asks pardon for oversight, which
wronged loyal intentions. Far from opinion that commonwealth
might depose king and make state elective or successive.
Signed before Widdrington and Whistler, the 6th December,
|404. Concerning pope's power to absolve subjects from allegiance,
there are 3 grounds for allegiance, command of God,
the oath, and law of nature and institution of men. Pope may
dissolve first two, as being spiritual, but not the third, so that
the subject is still bound in his allegiance. Stated in the book
that he may tie himself by oath to the performance of his
allegiance by this title. With regard to the case of invasion
it is doubted whether he would consider the king to be deprived,
but he considers the power of the pope to deprive princes to
be a matter unknown. The book only contends that kings can
be deprived only by the effects of lawful wars, in which case
the justice of the invader's cause does not hinder the justice of
the defence by the invaded. In such cases the pope may act
as a temporal prince and not otherwise, and as a spiritual monarch
he may declare the justice of the cause.
If the king would permit, would like to write on three points :
to justify his book against all those imputations of state, to
express spiritual reasons why his conscience remains convinced
of the unlawfulness of the oath and to propound a plain way
how the king may have fuller assurance of his subjects' allegiance
against all prejudice which may proceed from the doctrines
expressed in the oath, and yet give satisfaction to all parties,
and end all controversies about the matter.
Meanwhile protests his natural loyalty.
Signed on the 6th December, 1634, before Widdrington and
|405. Acknowledged by Widdrington and Courtenay that all
explanations of the doctrines in the latter's book which he has
sent to the Secretary Windebancke, proceed voluntarily from
himself and not upon any discourse with Widdrington. Courtenay
has constantly impugned any discourse with Widdrington about
the lawfulness of the oath, and acknowledges no agreement
between them in any objection he has raised against it. Much
beholden to Widdrington for his generous and noble offices,
which have enabled him to explain passages in his book ; and he
has behaved as a sincere friend, who scorns to do base offices,
especially towards a gentleman in his case.
Signed by Courtenay and Widdrington, the 7th December,