Consiglio di X.
428. The Heads of the Council of Ten to the Ambassador
Enclose copy of the decision of the Council of Ten that
Francesco Zonca shall continue to serve the ambassador as
secretary for the whole time of his embassy. To inform Zonca
429. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
Owing to the bad weather the king has postponed his journey
to Newmarket until next Tuesday, though he still means to stay
there until Easter. The queen, disdaining the discomforts, has
decided to follow him. For the rest of the Court, many are still
doubtful, and it is thought that apart from those who are bound
to go because of their offices, no others will leave London without
his Majesty's express command.
I wrote in my letter No. 8 about the counties which were
anciently forests and demesne of the crown, but alienated hundreds
of years ago at a just price by the monarchs of the time.
As the owners have not agreed to the claim made by the king
for a composition of twenty per cent., his Majesty has ordered
prompt and vigorous action to be taken against the county of
Essex, as having been entirely forest, without further circumspection
or consideration. The owners, owing to the length of
time during which they have enjoyed peaceful possession, namely
since the death of Richard II. about 235 years ago, have lost their
instruments, and consequently their titles. They have been compelled,
at a cost of over 2000l. sterling to have search made
in the Archives and specially those of the Tower, in which they
say they have found quite enough material for the stoutest
defence. Fortified with these they appeared before his Majesty
with a petition to be heard, presented by the Earl of Warwick,
who has an income of quite 6000l. from Essex yearly. His
Majesty replied that they were asking for power to smite him
(percuoterlo) but he admitted the petition. The Chief Forester
and consequently the supreme judge is the Earl of Holland,
Warwick's own brother. He is to decide the question by the
middle of the present month. He does not seem to mind hurting
his brother, either as a sop to his own conscience or to please
the king. If the sentence goes against them all the other counties
will have to experience the same bitterness. Holland is only
Forester up to the River Trent, and after he has done his part,
the Earl of Arundel, Grand Forester beyond Trent, will have
cognisance of the matter in the counties of York, Northumberland
etc. This matter involves the greatest consequences. The situation
daily becomes worse and more embittered, so that, unless it
ends in some honourable composition there is manifest danger
of it resulting in a troublesome rising, the hurt to those concerned
being too sensible and wide spread.
They are also taking rigorous proceedings against the twelve
companies of merchants in London, because they have unduly
extended their jurisdiction in the country granted to them by
King James in Ireland, and infringed the obligations contained
in the original agreements. This affair also, which originates
from the purpose to raise money, will be settled by a heavy fine.
A Flemish merchant, incensed at the numerous injuries which
he privately has suffered from the ships of Holland, has petitioned
his Majesty to grant him letters of marque against the Dutch. (fn. 1)
The king rejected his request in a very sharp manner, and he
believed the whole thing was a device of the Spaniards with
the object of creating trouble between the two nations, which
to serve their own interests, they try hard to bring about
by every possible means.
At a recent conference which the Spanish minister had with
his Majesty, he devoted his time to representing the rights
of these Flemish and Dutch merchants alike, who are compelled,
on account of the fleet, to expend very large sums, and who
claim, by virtue of the never violated privileges which still
exist between this crown and the crown of Burgundy, (fn. 2) to be
free of them, just as the English have always enjoyed and still
enjoy a similar exemption in Flanders and Holland. But His
Majesty, who wishes the present imposition to be paid by all
without distinction, as extraordinary, extricated himself by saying
jokingly that he was glad to see that for once the Spaniards
and the Dutch had common interests which forced them to unite
together and he hoped this happy union would extend to matters
of greater importance until they arrived at a solution with
which both parties might rest satisfied, while he applauded from
the bottom of his heart, without their putting him to the necessity
of doing it to the detriment of his own purse (se ne libero con
risposta piacevole, dicendo che molto si rallegrava di vedere una
volta Spagnoli ed Olandesi haver interesse insieme, che li necessitassero
ad esser uniti ; che sperava il loro buon concerto s'
anderebbe anco in cose di magior rilevanza, avanzando al qualche
consolatione mentre egli applaudeva, accompagnandola con le
parte del cuore, potevano bene restare sodisfatti senza volerlo
metter in necessità di farlo con danno delta propria borsa).
With respect to the affairs of Germany, the Court continues
to observe with growing alarm the danger to which the states
of the Prince Palatine are seen to be subject owing to the
progress of the Austrians, who, according to report, proceed
from success to success, day by day. Yet the more they dread
unpleasant happenings and the more they dislike the circumstances,
the less attention they seem to devote to finding remedies
to hold these evils at a distance ; and to all the strenuous efforts
of the ambassadors to push on with the negotiations for an
alliance, they reply by introducing complications, and although
these are entirely frivolous, yet they serve to waste time, which
is their chief object.
I have the commands of your Excellencies of the 1st February
about the offer of Spiesmo for the colonisation and cultivation
of Istria. I may point out that from the very first, when he
spoke to me as reported, he said that he could not enter into
details before he had seen the country, and for that reason he
would like to go to the spot, at his own cost, in order that he
might subsequently make proposals to your Excellencies upon a
more solid basis, and if you were not satisfied with these, the
loss of time and money would be his alone. At the present
moment he is in Holland on his own private affairs, where
he has been some weeks. When he comes back I will try to
find out more thoroughly what his views are, without committing
myself any further.
London, the 2nd March, 1635.
430. The Ambassador of the King of Great Britain (fn. 3) came
into the Collegio and spoke as follows in French in a very
low voice :
My master has charged me to come and serve your Serenity
as ambassador, and to testify to his great affection and his
desire for the prosperity of this republic. I have undertaken
the charge gladly for many reasons, and among others my devotion
to the wisdom and prudence of this state, which is
admired everywhere, and to serve your Serenity, from whom
I promise myself support and encouragement to second the intentions
of my master, whose affection is so great that I shall
find it hard to realise it by deeds. To express myself adequately
I must have recourse to his Majesty's letter to your Serenity.
After this had been read he stood silent. The doge replied
referring to the affection and esteem of the republic for the
crown of Great Britain. They were very pleased to see him
there that morning, and could assure him that he would always
be welcome in the future. They regretted the hardship of his
journey, owing to the bad weather which still holds, and hoped
that he would find compensation in the rest and convenience
he found in that city.
The ambassador replied that he had been so glad to come
that he regarded these hardships as nothing, and he would feel
the same content everywhere that he could serve his Serenity
and prove his respect and devotion in cherishing the perfect
friendship existing between his king and his Serenity. He
returned hearty thanks for the kindness shown to him at his
first audience, which he took chiefly as being in his Majesty's
name, and so he took leave and departed.
Carolus, Dei gratia Mag. Brit. etc. Rex, Fidei Defensor, etc.
Ser. Principi D. Francisco Erizzo, Venetiarum Duci consanguineo
et amico nostro charissimo salutem : Ser. Princeps etc.
Qui jam diu nobis utrinque fuit desideratus, praesens tandem et
quid vobis (uti confidimus) aeque ac nobis gratus adest noster
vobiscum moraturus Legatus Extraordinarius, vir nobilissimus,
nobisque perquam dilectus et fidelis Basilius Baro Fieldingensis,
Dom de Neonam-paddox. Huic mandatis nostris plene instructo
et cujus fide et opera factum iri speramus, ut mutuae nostrae
quam hactenus servavimus amicitiae limites, uti per est, extendentur,
quacunque occasione mentem nostram et mandata
exposituro solitum benevolentiam faciles aditum et aures integramque
fidem a vobis peramanter petimus ; V. Serenitatem de
sincero nostro in eam ser. Rempublicam animo et amore certam
cupimus ; atque ut Deus eas sospitet et prosperet ex animo
Dat. e nostro palatio Nonsuch die xiv. Settembris anno Christi
MDCXXXIV., iv. regni nostri Xmo.
Vestrae Serenitatis bonus consanguineus et amicus
431. The Ambassador of the King of Great Britain came into
the Collegio and spoke as follows in French (fn. 4) :
The liberty which your Serenity has given me to frequent
this Collegio, and the favours which I receive makes me believe
that you do not dissapprove of his Majesty's choice of me.
This confirms my desire to serve the republic. The rulers of
our two countries have kept up a close correspondence from
ancient times until now, and there seems every appearance
of its perpetuity. This is why his Majesty, in his desire for
a general peace, thinks it necessary for the preservation of
Italy and the honour and advantage of the republic that she shall
be of the same humour, so that those who do not desire this
public benefit or would like to change the theatre and bring the
war into Italy, may at least find their efforts fruitless owing to
the princes inside standing together, and especially from the
protection and support which the republic can give to those who
are oppressed or nearer the danger. Her strength and reputation
are so considerable that she can give the law to her neighbours,
and can counterpoise and moderate the ambition of those who
wish to profit at the expense of our common confederates.
Among other things his Majesty feels sure that the republic
will not be diverted from this principle by the misunderstandings
which have recently passed between her and the Duke of Savoy,
believing that she will show magnanimity in case of need, as in
the case of the Duke of Mantua, for whose complete reestablishment
he has been pleased to see your Serenity's efforts. I
feel sure that these considerations will have greater weight with
his Majesty since the capture of Filipsburgh, (fn. 5) which may bring
the German war to an end, to be transferred to Italy, rekindling
a fire not quite extinguished. Although his Majesty knows that
the proceedings of the republic are an example to wisdom itself,
yet he wished me to make this representation for him, in order
to show his friendship and his desire for the repose of Italy.
The doge replied, We are so closely joined with the crown of
Great Britain and especially with the present king that we
cannot help rejoicing at the unity of aims which he has always
shown to us. We therefore thank his Majesty and your Lordship
for the exposition. The republic will aim at the continuance of
perfect correspondence with his Majesty, and for the rest, these
lords will add whatever else there may be to say, according to
the form of our government.
The ambassador went on, I have also to say that although his
Majesty ordered the return of Mr. Rodlanson, who has long been
his resident here, yet I have thought proper to detain him until
he has informed me of all that has passed through his hands,
or until I have decided otherwise. I therefore ask you to give
credence to all that he may say on my behalf.
The doge replied, Mr. Rodlanson has always shown great discretion
and dexterity in the exercise of his charge, and has
afforded us complete satisfaction. The ambassador also praised
him and asked permission to introduce his gentlemen to pay
their respects to his Serenity. He presented them one by one,
one of the chief being his brother in law, son of the Lord
Treasurer of England. (fn. 6) His Serenity received them most graciously
and so the ambassador took leave and departed.
That evening, at the meeting of the Savii, the Resident Rolandson
called me, the secretary outside the doors of the Collegio
and brought the accompanying notes in French in the name of
the ambassador about the affairs already mentioned, to make
sure that they were fully understood.
Moderante Scaramelli, secretary.
Carolus, Dei gratia Mag. Brit. etc. Rex, Fidei Defensor etc.
Ser. Principi Dom. Francisco Erizzo, Venetiarum Duci consanguineo
et amico nostro charissimo salutem et prosperitatis
incrementum : Ser. Princeps etc. Cum ministerio fidelis nostri
et dilecti Thomae Roulandsonni qui hucusque internuncii nostri
munere nobiscum defunctus est, et propter Legati nostri Baronis
de Fielding adventum et praesentiam et propter ipsius Roulandsoni
Probitatem et fidem aut aliter aut alibi, quam illis in locis
opus habere possimus, utique forsan volimus eum V. Serenitatem
nostro nomine salutare, de abitu suo edocere atque ab ea mandata
rogare et recipere voluimus. Id quod ut V. Serenitas gratum
habeat amice petimus ; utque eadem cum Ser. Republica quam
diutissime sospes, lata et prospera vivat et vigeat vovemus.
Datae e nostro palatio Theobaldi die 17 Septembris, anno
Christi MDCXXXIV. Regnique nostri Xmo.
Vestrae Serenitatis bonus consanguineus et amicus
Copy in French of the ambassador's exposition, as recorded
432. That the Ambassador of the King of Great Britain be
summoned to the Collegio and that the following be read to him :
We are much gratified at your arrival to this charge and
greatly value your offices, showing His Majesty's sincere affection
to our republic and to the repose of this province. We
thank His Majesty heartily for his care and thought and for
the representations made through you. We are especially pleased
at your appointment both on your own account and from your
relationship to the Lord Treasurer, for whom we have a special
regard. We shall do all in our power to afford you every
satisfaction. Commendation of Rowlandson.
That a chain of the value of 300 crowns of the Mint be
given in the usual way to Mr. Rolandson, who has long been
here as Resident of the King of Great Britain.
Ayes, 104. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
|433. To the King of Great Britain.
Return thanks for the letters presented by Lord Fildin, his
ambassador, with wishes for his continued prosperity and assurances
of their cordial friendship.
Ayes, 104. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
|434. To the Ambassador in England.
We enclose a copy of the exposition recently made by the
English ambassador together with a letter to his Majesty. You
will hand this to him with suitable remarks about mutual friendly
relations. You will speak not only to the king but to the Lord
Treasurer and to the other ministers on the lines of the reply
given to the ambassador. Lord Fildin is being entertained at
the public cost and is entirely satisfied.
Ayes, 104. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
435. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
Four days ago Spiesmo got back here from Holland. He
asked me earnestly if he could set out for Venice when the
weather was a little better. I told him that he could go when
he pleased, but I advised him not to undertake so long and
costly a journey without some hope of success. If he would
tell me his plans I could advise him. He said he did not
know how he could enter into particulars without seeing the
place. I advised him to avoid extravagance, especially when
the public expenditure would begin. He came back yesterday
with his detailed proposals. Your Excellencies were to supply
the original seed and food for a year ; the colonists were to be
free of all taxes for thirty years. He would bring over all
the colonists at his own cost. He asks for a yearly pension
of from 555 to 600 ducats, for a time to be determined. He
seemed very eager to undertake the task.
The cold continues so sharp and biting and the snow and
frost so remarkable covering the country everywhere, that his
Majesty has had good reason to change his intention of going
to Newmarket, as it would spoil his sport. He has decided to
go to Hampton Court at the beginning of next week, to remain
there about a fortnight.
News reached the Court yesterday that two small vessels which
were built for private English owners in Holland, after the
model of those which the Dutch themselves use for fishing,
have been captured by the Dunkirkers on their way to this
kingdom, and that the sailors in charge of them have been
grossly ill treated in spite of the royal passports which they
had upon them. These particulars have stirred his Majesty
greatly so that he expressed his feelings in a very angry
manner to the Spanish Resident. That minister tries to excuse
the error by adducing some specious reason for the act, but
he cannot find any that is plausible.
A report has been circulated abroad here that the King of
Poland has concluded a marriage with the princess of Florence. (fn. 7)
But it is not believed at Court and the Agent of Florence says
he has no news of it. Yet the announcement has caused his
Majesty some apprehension fearing that he may have been
deceived in the negotiations which the secretary of that king
conducted with him on the subject, the one who left here for
the Hague a very few days ago. Authentic news of these
particulars are awaited with general curiosity, and the king in
particular, betrays his impatience to know the real essence of
For some time past two agents have represented this crown
at Paris simultaneously. At present one of these is a Frenchman
named Ogger, a particular servant of the queen. The
other is an Englishman named Dewich. (fn. 8) They have told the
former, by order of the Most Christian, that he must not go
to audience again, as they are not satisfied with his behaviour.
The other was informed that he must appear alone if he has
any business, and they will gladly hear him. Surprised at
such a step, Ogger decided to advise the king here promptly. He
took the matter so ill that he sent back the same messenger with
all speed commanding Dewich to abstain also from seeing the
king or any of the ministers, but ordering both of them not
to leave Paris.
There is no news from Germany as the Antwerp courier has
not arrived, except this, that the Marshal de la Force has once
more secured Heydelberg with a strong garrison. The news
has caused peculiar satisfaction here.
Mons de Seneterre, ambassador extraordinary of the Most
Christian is expected here at any moment as advices from
Paris report that he left there five days ago.
London, the 9th March, 1635.
436. The Senate's deliberation of the preceding day having
been read to the English ambassador, he spoke as follows, in
I think it a great boon that the intentions and inclinations
of your Serenity entirely agree with those of my king for the
welfare of Italy, as in all his Majesty's conversations with me
about it he has always shown the utmost desire for the advantage
and honour of the republic in that province. He will therefore
be very delighted with what I have to represent to him.
I must add that from the moment I entered your state I
began to experience your liberal favours. At Chiozza I was
entertained by the Podesta with every possible civility. Since
I entered this city I have received so many presents and other
courtesies that make me fully understand the esteem which the
republic has for my king. I beg that the stream of these
presents may be stayed. I will express my thanks and say how
impatient I am to make a return for so many favours, by serving
the republic, to which I shall devote all my efforts.
The doge replied, In the answer read to your lordship the
Senate stated all that it thought fit to say to you. We shall
add no more, except that we shall always be glad to see
you. The demonstrations made were out of regard for his
Majesty and your lordship, and you will always find us ready
to afford you every satisfaction.
The ambassador repeated his thanks, asked that a copy of the
office might be read to him, took leave and departed. In the
antisecreta he had it copied entire by Rolandson, his secretary.
437. In conformity with the instructions of the Senate
we find that Stefany Hispani had several pieces of cloth laden
on the English ship "Freeman" for Ragusa, and that he embarked
on that ship with his brother, but as the smuggling was
done at night, we have not been able to discover more.
At the office, the 14th March, 1635.
Andrea da Leze.
|438. Your Serenity has been pleased to direct that ships from
the West which desire to lade currants at Zante and Cephalonia
must bring to this city their entire cargo of goods brought from
the West, otherwise, if they wish to lade currants, they must
pay 5 ducats the thousand beyond the ordinary duties. A ship
has recently arrived from London, the "Parangon" by name, (fn. 9)
with a cargo chiefly of lead, as well as wool and other goods.
Having put in first at Zante it there laded a quantity of goods
and afterwards came on to this city, where, in the usual way,
they presented their bill of lading to the office of the Sanita,
showing how much cargo they took on at London and also at
Zante. As these merchants desired to take advantage of the
remission of the 5 per cent, they endeavoured to deceive the
state, and tried to obtain the customary licence from our office
by bringing us the guarantee of the office of the Sanita, reducing
the tonnage of their ship to 280 tons burthen, and
showing us a guarantee to that effect. As we know that ships
of such small burthen do not come from London, our suspicions
were aroused of some fraud to the public prejudice and accordingly
we directed Francesco di Simone, Master of the foist, to
go and estimate the burthen and report. He has done so and it
is half as much again. From his report we have ascertained
that there have been two defalcations, firstly in the ministry
of the Sanità, which has given its guarantee solely on the cargo
from London, omitting the cargo from Zante, and second in the
official who gave the guarantee of the tonnage ; the fact being
that in addition to the cargo from London the ship brought an
equal quantity of goods from Zante. We have considered it our
duty to draw attention to this.
Dated at the office, the 14th March, 1635.
Andrea da Leze.
Alvise Mocenigo, Jun.
Vettor Da Ca Da Pesaro.
439. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague,
to the Doge and Senate.
The States propose to send an ambassador extraordinary to
England to urge the king there to make some declaration in
respect of the alliance with France or at least to remain neutral.
The Princess Palatine seems very distressed at the most disrespectful
talk here about the insincerity of that king's behaviour.
She says that she will try again to stir him to some act of
compassion to relieve the misfortunes of her House.
The Hague, the 15th March, 1635.