Venice
March 1635, 16-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1921

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345-356

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'Venice: March 1635, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23: 1632-1636 (1921), pp. 345-356. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89357 Date accessed: 01 November 2014.


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March 1635, 16-31

March 16.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
440. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The trial against the twelve companies of this city being completed about the matter of Ireland the Court of the Star Chamber has delivered sentence against them to this effect : that they shall forthwith pay 70,000l. sterling down to his Majesty, as damages for their encroachments, and because they have not introduced English colonists into those districts, but have rather encouraged the Irish, contrary to the agreements, they are adjudged to have lost all their property, which shall all return to the crown, as before. The merchants would have quietly borne the fine, which they saw they could not avoid, although they did not think it would be so severe, but the loss of the lands, for acquiring which they have already expended a large sum of money, and much more for the erection of buildings in the course of years, hits them so hard that they cannot endure the bitterness, because in the case of many who have especially interested themselves in the matter, this disaster amounts to the complete extinction of their fortune. The generality certainly sympathises with them deeply, but sympathy avails little where the disaster is irremediable like this one.
This trial being settled, they immediately began to get ready for another against the city, which undertook to pay for the king a portion of his father's debts, receiving some lands in return, but as they compounded with the creditors for little more than half the sum, it is claimed that his Majesty was deceived and his reputation injured by an arrangement at so low a price, when lands had been consigned for the entire debt, and for the interest as well, for two years at the rate of ten per cent. as the city represented that they could only pay the entire sum at the end of that time. This affair also will end with wonderful profit to the royal purse, the filling of which is the chief occupation of the attention of the ministers here. They think of nothing but pleasing their master, and let no opportunity slip for doing so, caring little about breaking the laws or the discontent of the people.
They are preparing to lay fresh burdens upon them for the restoration of the castles which guard the ports of the realm. (fn. 1) Although these are in great need of repair, the people show the greatest aversion to pay money in ways they call extraordinary and violent, since it is not through parliament, as it seems to them that they are spending their liberty more than their cash. However as they have no power but in their tongue and no arms but abuse they pour forth their passion in denouncing the procedure of the ministers, and comfort their affliction in this way so far as they can.
Meanwhile the king is amassing considerable treasure by these and countless other methods. With the way opening to obtain more day by day, it is not necessary for him to trouble about foreign affairs, although he has interests therein, but his propensity in that direction gives good ground for the belief that he is revolving new and spirited ideas in his mind, though they may be far from realisation.
The affair of the county of Essex has been postponed until the middle of next May, in order to allow time for some workable compromise, and to avoid all the dangers of mishap which people whisper about.
The queen has kept her bed for five days owing to a cold with slight fever. She is now much better and beginning to get up, though she does not leave her room. The king went to Hampton Court on Tuesday, and although he intended to stay there at least a fortnight, he is expected back here to-morrow, because of the queen's indisposition.
The Ambassador Knut embarked on Monday at Calais for his voyage to the Hague. The Ambassador Joachimi here has received word that he will not take any conclusion on his negotiations, but that he will be coming back to Paris very soon.
The Chevalier Seneterre has not yet arrived, but they expect him at any moment. Meanwhile the negotiations remain absolutely asleep and they do not make the slightest movement for any turn that the most momentous affairs of the world may make.
We have no further news of the marriage of the King of Poland to the Princess of Florence. The news received from the Hague that the Secretary Potoschi, who was here, has gone on to Poland without seeing the Princess Palatine, gives support to the belief that it may be concluded. This uncertainty causes extreme uneasiness at Court and they anxiously seek to learn the truth from those who have letters from Italy.
This is the second week that no letters from the Senate have arrived by the ordinary of Antwerp. The only one that has come is the despatch of the 27th January, which arrived two weeks after that of the 2nd February.
London, the 16th March, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
441. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Chevalier de Senecter has at last started. He was delayed a few days by a slight indisposition. So far as can be ascertained his instructions are to renew the old treaties with England and to urge the proposed alliance between this crown, the States and some Princes of Germany with that king, especially for the defence of the Palatinate. Here they suggest these overtures to make sure that that king will not engage himself to the Spaniards, as it is known absolutely that negotiations are on foot with them, with hopes of a conclusion.
Paris, the 20th March, 1635.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 21.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni, Corti. Venetian Archives.
442. To the Ambassador in England.
We send you particulars of the steps to be taken with regard to condolences on the death of the wife of the English Ambassador. No further demonstration has been made out of consideration for what the ambassador might himself wish and in accordance with the use of the city. You will note what Mr. Rolandson said to our secretary, so that you may be able to repeat it.
Ayes, 160. Noes, 2. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
March 21.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
443. Rolandson, late resident of England, came to the doors of the Collegio at the 23rd hour and asked to speak to one of the secretaries. This being communicated to the Savii, I Pauluzźi was commissioned to hear what it was. He told me that he should have come to report the death of the ambassadress on the preceding night but time was lost as the ambassador was overcome with grief and trouble. He found no rest and could not receive consolation. However he had come, by the ambassador's order, to inform the Savii, feeling sure that they will be grieved. I reported this and was instructed by the Savii to tell the resident that they were exceedingly grieved at the accident, and assured the ambassador that his Serenity and the Senate would be equally so, and they would perform the proper offices, and he could report so much.
Giovanni Francesco Pauluzzi, secretary.
[Italian.]
March 21.
Collegio, Ceremoniale. Venetian Archives.
444. The English ambassador, Lord Fildin, having sent Rolanson to inform the Collegio of the death of his wife in the night preceding, the Senate decided that day on a full office of condolence, to be performed in the name of the state by Sig. Moderante Scaramelli, who had orders to tell Rolanson that they had not done more out of consideration for the ambassador's feelings and regard for the custom of the city. Scaramelli was to note what Rolanson said and report it on the following day. Scaramelli reported that before he entered to see his Excellency a gentleman told him that the ambassadress's body was deposited in the church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, accompanied by priests with torches as usual and by all the English at Venice, who wished to treat with the fathers there to set up a tomb and epitaph to her in that church. She was a most devout Catholic like her mother, the Treasurer's wife, who brought her up to that faith as well as her other girls, but not the boys. The ambassador though overwhelmed with grief, was most grateful for the office.
Rolanson afterwards told Scaramelli that the ambassadress had always been a Catholic, and died such. Every one in England knew it. In speaking with him about the funeral ceremony after the Catholic rite, the ambassador said that if it so pleased the republic to arrange the obsequies independently, without the possibility of its being said that his opinion had been taken, he thought that this display of the public munificence, as shown to others on similar occasions, would not prejudice him, indeed, his king might be pleased, as the ambassador could always say that he had not asked for it, and had not interfered in any way. The Senate therefore decided on the 23rd that the obsequies should be performed in the same way as with other royal ambassadors, with two canopies in the parish and other church, the presentation of twenty mantles with hoods to the ambassador's household, the invitation to all the clergy of the city, the six great schools the Hospitals, with deputies from all the orders, forty Jesuits and forty sailors or men of the Arsenal, distributing the necessary candles to all, having a funeral oration spoken in mourning dress, and ringing the bell of San Marco three times and of the parish several times, as is customary on such occasions, sending notice of all to the ambassador in the way the Collegio should think best, as an expression of public sympathy.
The above was not carried out, because the ambassador himself was in doubt and on the 29th March word was sent to the ambassador in England that the Ambassador Fildin had sent to express his thanks for the offer of a public funeral, but asked that the decision might be suspended until he had received fresh advices, for which he had sent a gentleman post to England.
[Italian.]
March 22.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
445. I, the secretary, went this morning to the house of the English ambassador to perform the office of condolence decided upon by the Senate on the 21st.
The ambassador answered his office saying that if it had pleased God to take him instead of his wife, he would have died very happy at being here serving the republic ; but as the Almighty had called her and left him, it would be a great consolation to him in his grief to find ways of making some return for the affection and honour shown by the republic in his affliction to his consort and himself, for which he expressed his infinite thanks. It would make him more ready to serve the public commands in all occasions. He spoke these words with many tears in bed in a little room at the very top, the windows being closed and no light whatever, in the presence of a few attendants.
Before I was introduced a gentleman of his, who speaks Italian detained me a little and told me that on the evening of the 21st the body had been deposited entire, without being opened, although the ambassador would have liked to have her heart to keep by him, in the church, of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, accompanied by priests and torches as usual, and by all the English in Venice. They wished to treat with the fathers of the monastery for a tomb and epitaph in that church. She was a most devout Catholic, like her mother, the Treasurer's wife, who brought up her daughters as Catholics, though the sons were brought up as Protestants. She fasted during the present Lent, and very thoroughly. Her chief delight was in prayer and to spend the rest of her time with her husband, with the utmost affection and obedience. She was only twenty years of age and had been married two years. She left no children, and her husband, in his deep distress at this terrible separation, desired at least to render every honour to her memory.
The late resident Rolandson, who lives in another house and who had not been to the embassy at that time called upon me, the secretary, the same morning. He met me in the Piazza of S. Marco, after the Collegio had risen. Hearing from me the decision that the Senate would not take any steps beyond the office of condolence, thinking that that would best please the ambassador and harmonise with the custom of the city, he told me that the ambassadress had always been a Catholic. Every one in England knew it, and she died so. There had been some slight talk between the ambassador and himself about a public funeral according to the Catholic rite, but nothing was decided. He would come the next day and tell me the final decision.
This morning he again met me on the Piazza after the Collegio had risen and told me that he had talked over the matter with his Excellency who had concluded that if the republic took upon itself to ordain such obsequies, without giving room for it to be said that his opinion had been asked, he thought that such munificence, as was shown to others upon similar occasions could not do him any harm at Court, indeed that his king would be gratified, since the ambassador could always assert that it had not been done at his request and he had not interfered therein. The secretary added that his Excellency thought of going to Padua with his brother in law for ten or twelve days, until the house and the mourning clothes were all ready.
Moderante Scaramelli, secretary.
[Italian.]
March 23.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
446. That for the obsequies of the English ambassadress the officials of the Rason Vecchie be instructed to see that two baldachinos are made in her parish and where the obsequies take place with such accompaniments of mourning as are requisite. That twenty mantles with hoods be given to the ambassador's household. That all the clergy of the city, the six great schools, and the hospitals of boys and girls of all the orders be invited to attend the ceremony, with forty Jesuits and forty sailors or employes of the Arsenal, to whom the necessary candles shall be given. That a funeral oration be delivered and the bells of San Marco rung thrice, as is usual on such occasions. That the ambassador be notified of all that has been ordained, as an expression of our good will.
Ayes, 116. Noes, 7. Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
447. To the Ambassador in England.
We enclose copies of the orders given in connection with the death of the ambassador's wife. You will inform the Lord Treasurer, confirming our good will, our respect for his Majesty, and our desire to show all honour to his ministers.
Ayes, 116. Noes, 7. Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
March 23.
Senato, Mar. Venetian Archives.
448. That 100 lire be granted, for the purpose of equipping himself, to Francesco Zonca, who has been instructed to stay in England to serve the Ambassador Correr.
Ayes, 116. Noes, 7. Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
March 23.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
449. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On the first day of this week the Lord Treasurer took to his bed, being troubled with pain in his throat, more to keep out of the air than from fear of worse, as he thought it was merely inflammation. But in a few hours the nature of the malady changed and a very large absess disclosed itself. This gradually stopped his breathing, and as it was never possible to apply a remedy, he passed away yesterday after only four days' illness. The day before his Majesty went to visit him in person. He comforted him first, giving him hope of recovery, and then assured him that in any case there would be no lack of assistance for the interests of his house.
His Majesty is certainly deeply afflicted by this loss. He shows the greatest sorrow, because he loved him cordially, and because he derived the most notable advantages from the prudence of his counsels and the diligence with which he applied himself to the interests of the crown. Although he thought a great deal about the advancement of his own fortunes, which originated from an ordinary rank and advanced by adroitness to the highest place in the royal favour, yet he might have raised it easily by such means to an even more conspicuous position by taking possession of the most important posts and most elevated positions of the realm, and he laboured every way marvellously for the service of his master. He was just fifty eight years of age. He leaves four sons and one married daughter. (fn. 2) The eldest son, who was ambassador extraordinary recently to your Serenity, inherits the title of Earl of Portland and a very large revenue. The people, who are by nature very envious here and who have always hated the king's favourites, seem greatly relieved by this death, as they feel sure that now this minister's life is ended the gates will be re-opened to parliament, which are thought to have been kept closed up to the present with the sole object of preserving him. But the nobility and the principal lords of the Court in particular, who have facilities for penetrating into the real state of the affairs of the realm, have taken it differently, clearly foreseeing the considerable damage which such changes usually bring forth.
There are many pretenders for the post, but those most likely to obtain it are thought to be the Viceroy of Ireland, Sir [Henry] Ven and Sir [Francis] Cottington. As the last has discharged the duties of Vice Treasurer so far it is thought that he will take charge of the entire office until the king disposes otherwise.
Yesterday his Majesty, together with the queen, who has completely recovered went to inspect the ships which he has had refitted. He found them all in good trim and ordered that they should be provided with victuals and munitions of war. Nothing has yet been heard of who is to command them and they collect the soldiers and sailors so slowly that they can hardly be said to have begun. This tepidity does not please the generality who would like to see the fleet sail with the same promptitude as was shown in collecting the contributions. It is certain that they regret, much more than the cost, to see the hurt which they are constantly receiving from all the nations, borne with such long suffering, and in this way through want of looking after it, they are losing the dominion over these waters.
Beyond a doubt, if they do not do something to check the insolence of the Dunkirkers by something more than the terror of reports, the intercourse of this nation with Holland will very soon be cut off by their audacity. Quite recently one of the ships here which was proceeding in that direction with a cargo of tobacco, was taken by these Dunkirkers and detained as a lawful prize, (fn. 3) calling tobacco munitions and saying that the English had transgressed in taking it to Holland, as the last agreement between this realm and his Catholic Majesty expressly forbade the carrying of munitions of any sort to enemies of the crown of Spain. A few days after the capture of this ship, they seized another, in which the Earl of Pembroke was interested, fishing for herrings ; and because the fishermen were partly English and partly Dutch, they put the English on shore, detaining the others as prisoners, and disposed of the ship, nets and tackle as if they belonged to them. (fn. 3) The earl, greatly incensed, applied to the king for assistance, or to grant him letters of marque to avenge himself. His Majesty pondered the matter deeply, especially as he deeply deplored the behaviour of the Dunkirkers, and knew full well how wrong they were, because tobacco cannot be called munitions, but rather a harmful superfluity, and the ship seized could not be called Dutch, because the majority of the sailors were from England and had the royal passports. He therefore straitly commanded his agent at Brussels to make serious complaint in his name to the Cardinal Infant and to try and get both vessels restored forthwith with their cargoes and tackle, the Dutch fishermen set at liberty and a severe demonstration made against the audacity of the plunderers. His Majesty further assured the Earl that he would not fail to support his interests, declaring repeatedly he should have complete restitution of both ships, in one way or another.
It is said that the States of Holland intend to despatch to this Court an ambassador extraordinary to encourage and advance, if possible, the present negotiations for an alliance, towards the desired conclusion, or in any case, to assure themselves at least of the indifference of this crown. As regards the first point experience would seem to have shown clearly enough that the king is altogether averse from committing himself, even upon the most advantageous conditions imaginable. He foresees and almost openly says that once the first step has been taken one is often obliged to go on. Accordingly he has directed all his attention, so far as his opinions indicate, to bringing the internal affairs of this kingdom into order and to forms which please him better, and there is certainly no indication that he means to commit himself to other serious transactions, unless compelled by necessity. With regard to the second point of neutrality there is no doubt that they may rest assured of getting it, for the reason already stated, but not any declaration, as on this point also there is no one who believes and no reason which persuades that his Majesty will ever consent to it, for the maintenance of his own reputation.
The Ambassador Douglas, who is taking part by his Majesty's order in the negotiations for peace between the King of Poland and the crown of Sweden, besides what I reported of the first meeting of the deputies of the two sides, which was devoted to a mutual exchange of letters, and to the adjustment of some difficulty about the title of king of Sweden, claimed by the King of Poland as belonging to him, a difficulty settled by the expedient of naming each sovereign with the title of king, without specifying the country, now reports that the negotiations have made good progress and their hopes become ever greater of a successful issue. He himself expects to labour there to some profit and here they do not fail to direct him to continue to devote his most earnest attention to the matter.
London, the 23rd March, 1635.
[Italian.]
March 24.
Senato. Terra. Venetian Archives.
450. Decree forbidding the exportation to foreign lands of oil, binding hooks, hoops, osiers (Venchi) (fn. 4) of every kind, which must be retained for the use of the state only, as it is the desire of the Senate to prevent so far as possible the traffic of English and Flemish ships which by going to Gallipoli, the Cape of Otranto and other places, on the coast of Apulia, take away a great quantity of oil which would otherwise be certain to come to this city.
Ayes, 133. Noes, 0. Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
March 29.
Senato Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Archives. Venetian
451. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The States have not yet decided to send an ambassador to England. Many believe the king ill disposed because he has made no reply of any worth to the offices of the French ambassadors and of Sig. Joachimi in favour of an alliance. Joachimi also reports that the Dutch merchants are badly treated and tyrannised over by the ministers there. However it is believed that in the end the States will send an ambassador to inform the king of the alliance with France and at the same time to urge him to maintain friendly relations with these Provinces.
The Hague, the 29th March, 1635.
[Italian.]
March 30.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
452. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
M. de Senneterre, ambassador extraordinary of the Most Christian arrived here at length on Tuesday, after being expected a long time. The Ambassador Poygni went to Gravesend to meet him. The Earl of Cleveland received him at Gravesend and accompanied him thence with the royal barges to the house prepared for him at Westminster. Only there did they begin to defray him and they will only continue to do so until he has seen the king the first time, as by a new order ambassadors extraordinary will not be defrayed henceforth after their first audience. As the king is away hunting in the neighbouring forests and is not expected back until to-morrow, the public audience has been postponed until Monday or Tuesday next.
I will go and see him as soon as he has performed the first function. On the day of his entry I sent the secretary to pay my respects. He thanked me and the next day sent his own secretary in response.
I went yesterday to see the Ambassador Poygni. In conversing with me about the arrival of Seneterre and of the matters with which he is to deal, he told me that beyond the affair of the alliance already proposed he did not know of any commissions he held to treat of other matters. He then disclosed his own private feelings to me, in confidence, uttering these very words : Does your Excellency believe that the prudence of this gentleman will suffice to break down the difficulties which beset this affair, and that his abilities will succeed where I, although certainly much his inferior, have at least shown as much zeal and energy yet have not been able to conclude anything. It is certain that if while not knowing how to command they are trying to make the world believe that I am not apt to obey, they are doing a great injustice to the zeal and activity with which I have always striven to serve the king my master. I beg your Excellency to put aside for a moment the friendly feeling that you have for me and to be a severe judge of my cause. Some five or six months ago I had instructions to make proposals for an alliance to the king. I did so and immediately reported to France the replies which I received. Subsequently, being in need of fresh orders, I have several times written urgently for them, and his Majesty was pressing me for them almost every day. In any case, in the space of four whole months I have not been able to extract a single word. At last, a courier was sent to me a month ago by the Secretary Botiglier, bringing me instructions to re-open the affair, and to leave the proposals in the king's hand, in writing. I did this and received a very favourable reply, indeed I obtained the appointment of six commissioners. Now, no sooner have they heard from this same courier, whom I sent back to Paris with all speed, of the result of my negotiations, than they appoint a new ambassador, which, as is notorious, suspended all the negotiations here or rather threw them into confusion, so that it has not since been possible to get them straight. I must leave it to others to decide whether in all this I have shown myself wanting in any way, but if there has been any mistake it is certainly incomprehensible to me, so much so that I would readily submit the case even to the judgment of an enemy. Accordingly, from all that has happened I feel absolutely certain that they place no value upon my services here, and that I may not remain any longer wasting my time I have petitioned for leave to return to France. I beg your Excellency, when you have occasion to write to France and to the other Courts, to make this truth clear, for the sake of the reputation of one who is your true friend and if you will take the trouble to inform the most serene republic about it, you will do me a singular favour, and when you do so I shall be glad if you will assure them of my devotion and desire to serve them, which I have felt from my birth.
I tried to do what I could to console him, telling him that possibly they argued in France, from the pacific and individual ideas that his Majesty here seems to entertain, that the matter required to be pressed by more quick and vigorous stimulants, and that a conclusion being difficult and almost impossible and in order to do their utmost to give it life and to lose no time in employing the most potent means to settle the matter, as the pressing necessities of existing circumstances demanded, they might consider themselves forced to take such a step. But he had no occasion to feel mortified about it, especially when he saw that the States of Holland were preparing to do the same thing, although from the experience of their ambassador Joachimi, they have some idea and form the conclusions that are patent to everybody. I regretted deeply the steps he had taken to secure his recall, and was only anxious to continue to serve him. At the same time I took consolation from the assurance that it would not be granted. I said this because as I am sure that he asked for it on the ground of reputation alone he would, for the same reason, be sorry to have it granted. I assured him that I would forward the assurances, as he desired and of your appreciation of his devotion.
Late yesterday evening the funeral of the late Treasurer took place They carried the body to a place of his five miles from this city. All the knights of the garter who are here, followed in a numerous cavalcade until outside the suburbs of London, accompanied with a hundred horses caparisoned in black, a great number of coaches and of people on foot, also in mourning, with a large number of lights, which followed to the place of burial.
His Majesty has chosen five commissioners to administer his office until further order. These are the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Montagu, keeper of the privy seal, the two secretaries of state and Sir [Francis] Cottington. It is not thought that a new treasurer will be nominated for some months. Meanwhile the opinion gathers strength that the choice will fall on the Viceroy of Ireland.
The king has conferred the post of chief of the Council for foreign affairs, vacant by the treasurer's death, on the Archbishop of Canterbury, a man whom he esteems above every one else in the realm. Hitherto he has professed to have intervened in the royal Council merely in matters pertaining to the Church, but now he says that as his Majesty has commanded him to bear the burden of this new charge he cannot refuse to take it provisionally, although in reality he grasped it gladly and he will be glad to continue the ministry.
Very long discussions have taken place in the royal Council this last week about the country which his Majesty holds in the Indies, called New Britain by the English. They have decided to divide it into eight provinces and to assign them to eight of the richest and leading lords here, so that each of them may see that his own portion is inhabited and cultivated. To superintend the whole they have chosen Sir Alfonso Gorge, who with the title of general and a certain number of ships and soldiers is to proceed with speed to those parts. His first task will be to expel the Dutch who have made themselves masters of a part of those territories, not having met with any resistance.
The news of the fall of Augsburg into the hands of the imperialists is confirmed here from several quarters. But many do not altogether credit it. The Dutch ambassador, although he is among those who place least reliance on the truth of the report, goes about more than any one else announcing it as an accomplished fact, and by magnifying every stroke of good fortune of the Austrians in Germany he seizes the opportunity to impress upon the ministers here, as much as possible, the necessity of concluding the alliance.
Blond, the Resident here, for the kingdon of Sweden,* has received news that the one who is coming here as ambassador extraordinary for that crown will be here in a few days. He is waiting for more definite information about the time in order that he may make suitable arrangements about his reception, and proceed himself to meet the ambassador at his port of debarcation.
I have received the state despatches of the 10th and 17th February this week. The ordinary courier of Antwerp has not yet arrived with this week's letters from Italy, owing to the strong contrary winds.
London, the 30th March, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 See the estimate prepared on 22 April O.S. for repairing the Castles at Dover, Sandown. Deal, Walmer. Sandgate, Camber and Southsea. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1635, page 40. It may also account for the list of all forts or castles in his Majesty's pay, made out in the following June by Capt. John Mason, who at the end of the year was appointed Commissary General of Castles and Fortifications in England and Wales. Id. pages 118, 526.
2 His four sons were Jerome, Thomas, Nicolas and Benjamin. His only daughter, Anne, the wife of Basil, lord Fielding, had died at Venice only two days before her father. See No. 443 at page 347 above.
3 The ship Robert, of London, taken on the 3rd March O.S. Gerbier's Memorial of 22 March N.S. S.P. For. Flanders. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1635, page 474.
4 This apparently refers to the buss Salisbury belonging to the Fishing Association of Great Britain and Ireland. But this was taken off Newcastle on 29 Sept. 1634 N.S. Memorial of Gerbier of 4 May. 1635. S.P. For. Flanders. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1635 pages 46, 49, 540.
5 Vinco : arboscello, specie di salcio delle vermene de quali si fanno ceste, panieri, nasse etc. Boerio : Dizionario del Dialetto Veneziano.
6 Michael de Blom.