440. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
The trial against the twelve companies of this city being
completed about the matter of Ireland the Court of the Star
Chamber has delivered sentence against them to this effect : that
they shall forthwith pay 70,000l. sterling down to his Majesty,
as damages for their encroachments, and because they have
not introduced English colonists into those districts, but have
rather encouraged the Irish, contrary to the agreements, they
are adjudged to have lost all their property, which shall all
return to the crown, as before. The merchants would have
quietly borne the fine, which they saw they could not avoid,
although they did not think it would be so severe, but the
loss of the lands, for acquiring which they have already expended
a large sum of money, and much more for the erection
of buildings in the course of years, hits them so hard that
they cannot endure the bitterness, because in the case of many
who have especially interested themselves in the matter, this
disaster amounts to the complete extinction of their fortune.
The generality certainly sympathises with them deeply, but
sympathy avails little where the disaster is irremediable like
This trial being settled, they immediately began to get ready
for another against the city, which undertook to pay for the
king a portion of his father's debts, receiving some lands in
return, but as they compounded with the creditors for little more
than half the sum, it is claimed that his Majesty was deceived
and his reputation injured by an arrangement at so low a
price, when lands had been consigned for the entire debt, and
for the interest as well, for two years at the rate of ten per
cent. as the city represented that they could only pay the entire
sum at the end of that time. This affair also will end with
wonderful profit to the royal purse, the filling of which is the
chief occupation of the attention of the ministers here. They
think of nothing but pleasing their master, and let no opportunity
slip for doing so, caring little about breaking the laws
or the discontent of the people.
They are preparing to lay fresh burdens upon them for the
restoration of the castles which guard the ports of the realm. (fn. 1)
Although these are in great need of repair, the people show the
greatest aversion to pay money in ways they call extraordinary
and violent, since it is not through parliament, as it seems to
them that they are spending their liberty more than their cash.
However as they have no power but in their tongue and no arms
but abuse they pour forth their passion in denouncing the procedure
of the ministers, and comfort their affliction in this way
so far as they can.
Meanwhile the king is amassing considerable treasure by these
and countless other methods. With the way opening to obtain
more day by day, it is not necessary for him to trouble about
foreign affairs, although he has interests therein, but his propensity
in that direction gives good ground for the belief that
he is revolving new and spirited ideas in his mind, though
they may be far from realisation.
The affair of the county of Essex has been postponed until
the middle of next May, in order to allow time for some workable
compromise, and to avoid all the dangers of mishap which
people whisper about.
The queen has kept her bed for five days owing to a cold
with slight fever. She is now much better and beginning to get
up, though she does not leave her room. The king went to
Hampton Court on Tuesday, and although he intended to stay
there at least a fortnight, he is expected back here to-morrow,
because of the queen's indisposition.
The Ambassador Knut embarked on Monday at Calais for his
voyage to the Hague. The Ambassador Joachimi here has received
word that he will not take any conclusion on his negotiations,
but that he will be coming back to Paris very soon.
The Chevalier Seneterre has not yet arrived, but they expect
him at any moment. Meanwhile the negotiations remain absolutely
asleep and they do not make the slightest movement for
any turn that the most momentous affairs of the world may make.
We have no further news of the marriage of the King of
Poland to the Princess of Florence. The news received from
the Hague that the Secretary Potoschi, who was here, has gone on
to Poland without seeing the Princess Palatine, gives support
to the belief that it may be concluded. This uncertainty causes
extreme uneasiness at Court and they anxiously seek to learn
the truth from those who have letters from Italy.
This is the second week that no letters from the Senate have
arrived by the ordinary of Antwerp. The only one that has
come is the despatch of the 27th January, which arrived two
weeks after that of the 2nd February.
London, the 16th March, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
441. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Chevalier de Senecter has at last started. He was delayed
a few days by a slight indisposition. So far as can be
ascertained his instructions are to renew the old treaties with
England and to urge the proposed alliance between this crown,
the States and some Princes of Germany with that king, especially
for the defence of the Palatinate. Here they suggest these
overtures to make sure that that king will not engage himself
to the Spaniards, as it is known absolutely that negotiations
are on foot with them, with hopes of a conclusion.
Paris, the 20th March, 1635.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
442. To the Ambassador in England.
We send you particulars of the steps to be taken with regard
to condolences on the death of the wife of the English Ambassador.
No further demonstration has been made out of consideration
for what the ambassador might himself wish and in
accordance with the use of the city. You will note what Mr.
Rolandson said to our secretary, so that you may be able to
Ayes, 160. Noes, 2. Neutral, 1.
443. Rolandson, late resident of England, came to the doors
of the Collegio at the 23rd hour and asked to speak to one of
the secretaries. This being communicated to the Savii, I Pauluzźi
was commissioned to hear what it was. He told me that
he should have come to report the death of the ambassadress on
the preceding night but time was lost as the ambassador was
overcome with grief and trouble. He found no rest and could
not receive consolation. However he had come, by the ambassador's
order, to inform the Savii, feeling sure that they will
be grieved. I reported this and was instructed by the Savii
to tell the resident that they were exceedingly grieved at the
accident, and assured the ambassador that his Serenity and the
Senate would be equally so, and they would perform the proper
offices, and he could report so much.
Giovanni Francesco Pauluzzi, secretary.
444. The English ambassador, Lord Fildin, having sent
Rolanson to inform the Collegio of the death of his wife in the
night preceding, the Senate decided that day on a full office of
condolence, to be performed in the name of the state by Sig.
Moderante Scaramelli, who had orders to tell Rolanson that
they had not done more out of consideration for the ambassador's
feelings and regard for the custom of the city. Scaramelli was
to note what Rolanson said and report it on the following day.
Scaramelli reported that before he entered to see his Excellency
a gentleman told him that the ambassadress's body was deposited
in the church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, accompanied by priests
with torches as usual and by all the English at Venice, who
wished to treat with the fathers there to set up a tomb and
epitaph to her in that church. She was a most devout Catholic
like her mother, the Treasurer's wife, who brought her up to that
faith as well as her other girls, but not the boys. The ambassador
though overwhelmed with grief, was most grateful for the office.
Rolanson afterwards told Scaramelli that the ambassadress had
always been a Catholic, and died such. Every one in England
knew it. In speaking with him about the funeral ceremony after
the Catholic rite, the ambassador said that if it so pleased the
republic to arrange the obsequies independently, without the
possibility of its being said that his opinion had been taken,
he thought that this display of the public munificence, as shown
to others on similar occasions, would not prejudice him, indeed,
his king might be pleased, as the ambassador could always say
that he had not asked for it, and had not interfered in any
way. The Senate therefore decided on the 23rd that the obsequies
should be performed in the same way as with other royal ambassadors,
with two canopies in the parish and other church,
the presentation of twenty mantles with hoods to the ambassador's
household, the invitation to all the clergy of the city, the six
great schools the Hospitals, with deputies from all the orders,
forty Jesuits and forty sailors or men of the Arsenal, distributing
the necessary candles to all, having a funeral oration spoken
in mourning dress, and ringing the bell of San Marco three
times and of the parish several times, as is customary on such
occasions, sending notice of all to the ambassador in the way the
Collegio should think best, as an expression of public sympathy.
The above was not carried out, because the ambassador himself
was in doubt and on the 29th March word was sent to the ambassador
in England that the Ambassador Fildin had sent to
express his thanks for the offer of a public funeral, but asked
that the decision might be suspended until he had received fresh
advices, for which he had sent a gentleman post to England.
445. I, the secretary, went this morning to the house of the
English ambassador to perform the office of condolence decided
upon by the Senate on the 21st.
The ambassador answered his office saying that if it had
pleased God to take him instead of his wife, he would have
died very happy at being here serving the republic ; but as the
Almighty had called her and left him, it would be a great
consolation to him in his grief to find ways of making some
return for the affection and honour shown by the republic in
his affliction to his consort and himself, for which he expressed
his infinite thanks. It would make him more ready to serve the
public commands in all occasions. He spoke these words with
many tears in bed in a little room at the very top, the
windows being closed and no light whatever, in the presence
of a few attendants.
Before I was introduced a gentleman of his, who speaks
Italian detained me a little and told me that on the evening
of the 21st the body had been deposited entire, without being
opened, although the ambassador would have liked to have her
heart to keep by him, in the church, of SS. Giovanni e Paolo,
accompanied by priests and torches as usual, and by all the
English in Venice. They wished to treat with the fathers of
the monastery for a tomb and epitaph in that church. She
was a most devout Catholic, like her mother, the Treasurer's
wife, who brought up her daughters as Catholics, though the
sons were brought up as Protestants. She fasted during the
present Lent, and very thoroughly. Her chief delight was in
prayer and to spend the rest of her time with her husband,
with the utmost affection and obedience. She was only twenty
years of age and had been married two years. She left no
children, and her husband, in his deep distress at this terrible
separation, desired at least to render every honour to her memory.
The late resident Rolandson, who lives in another house and
who had not been to the embassy at that time called upon me,
the secretary, the same morning. He met me in the Piazza
of S. Marco, after the Collegio had risen. Hearing from me the
decision that the Senate would not take any steps beyond the
office of condolence, thinking that that would best please the
ambassador and harmonise with the custom of the city, he told
me that the ambassadress had always been a Catholic. Every
one in England knew it, and she died so. There had been some
slight talk between the ambassador and himself about a public
funeral according to the Catholic rite, but nothing was decided.
He would come the next day and tell me the final decision.
This morning he again met me on the Piazza after the Collegio
had risen and told me that he had talked over the matter with
his Excellency who had concluded that if the republic took
upon itself to ordain such obsequies, without giving room for
it to be said that his opinion had been asked, he thought
that such munificence, as was shown to others upon similar
occasions could not do him any harm at Court, indeed that his
king would be gratified, since the ambassador could always
assert that it had not been done at his request and he had not
interfered therein. The secretary added that his Excellency
thought of going to Padua with his brother in law for ten or
twelve days, until the house and the mourning clothes were all
Moderante Scaramelli, secretary.
446. That for the obsequies of the English ambassadress
the officials of the Rason Vecchie be instructed to see that two
baldachinos are made in her parish and where the obsequies take
place with such accompaniments of mourning as are requisite.
That twenty mantles with hoods be given to the ambassador's
household. That all the clergy of the city, the six great schools,
and the hospitals of boys and girls of all the orders be invited
to attend the ceremony, with forty Jesuits and forty sailors or
employes of the Arsenal, to whom the necessary candles shall
be given. That a funeral oration be delivered and the bells of
San Marco rung thrice, as is usual on such occasions. That
the ambassador be notified of all that has been ordained, as an
expression of our good will.
Ayes, 116. Noes, 7. Neutral, 4.
|447. To the Ambassador in England.
We enclose copies of the orders given in connection with
the death of the ambassador's wife. You will inform the Lord
Treasurer, confirming our good will, our respect for his Majesty,
and our desire to show all honour to his ministers.
Ayes, 116. Noes, 7. Neutral, 4.
448. That 100 lire be granted, for the purpose of equipping
himself, to Francesco Zonca, who has been instructed to stay
in England to serve the Ambassador Correr.
Ayes, 116. Noes, 7. Neutral, 4.
449. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
On the first day of this week the Lord Treasurer took to
his bed, being troubled with pain in his throat, more to keep
out of the air than from fear of worse, as he thought it was
merely inflammation. But in a few hours the nature of the
malady changed and a very large absess disclosed itself. This
gradually stopped his breathing, and as it was never possible
to apply a remedy, he passed away yesterday after only four
days' illness. The day before his Majesty went to visit him in
person. He comforted him first, giving him hope of recovery,
and then assured him that in any case there would be no lack
of assistance for the interests of his house.
His Majesty is certainly deeply afflicted by this loss. He
shows the greatest sorrow, because he loved him cordially, and
because he derived the most notable advantages from the prudence
of his counsels and the diligence with which he applied
himself to the interests of the crown. Although he thought a
great deal about the advancement of his own fortunes, which
originated from an ordinary rank and advanced by adroitness
to the highest place in the royal favour, yet he might have
raised it easily by such means to an even more conspicuous
position by taking possession of the most important posts and
most elevated positions of the realm, and he laboured every way
marvellously for the service of his master. He was just fifty
eight years of age. He leaves four sons and one married daughter. (fn. 2)
The eldest son, who was ambassador extraordinary recently
to your Serenity, inherits the title of Earl of Portland
and a very large revenue. The people, who are by nature very
envious here and who have always hated the king's favourites,
seem greatly relieved by this death, as they feel sure that now
this minister's life is ended the gates will be re-opened to
parliament, which are thought to have been kept closed up
to the present with the sole object of preserving him. But
the nobility and the principal lords of the Court in particular,
who have facilities for penetrating into the real state of the
affairs of the realm, have taken it differently, clearly foreseeing
the considerable damage which such changes usually bring forth.
There are many pretenders for the post, but those most likely
to obtain it are thought to be the Viceroy of Ireland, Sir
[Henry] Ven and Sir [Francis] Cottington. As the last has
discharged the duties of Vice Treasurer so far it is thought that
he will take charge of the entire office until the king disposes
Yesterday his Majesty, together with the queen, who has
completely recovered went to inspect the ships which he has had
refitted. He found them all in good trim and ordered that they
should be provided with victuals and munitions of war. Nothing
has yet been heard of who is to command them and they
collect the soldiers and sailors so slowly that they can hardly be
said to have begun. This tepidity does not please the generality
who would like to see the fleet sail with the same promptitude
as was shown in collecting the contributions. It is certain
that they regret, much more than the cost, to see the hurt
which they are constantly receiving from all the nations, borne
with such long suffering, and in this way through want of
looking after it, they are losing the dominion over these waters.
Beyond a doubt, if they do not do something to check the
insolence of the Dunkirkers by something more than the terror
of reports, the intercourse of this nation with Holland will
very soon be cut off by their audacity. Quite recently one of
the ships here which was proceeding in that direction with
a cargo of tobacco, was taken by these Dunkirkers and detained
as a lawful prize, (fn. 3) calling tobacco munitions and saying that
the English had transgressed in taking it to Holland, as the last
agreement between this realm and his Catholic Majesty expressly
forbade the carrying of munitions of any sort to enemies of
the crown of Spain. A few days after the capture of this
ship, they seized another, in which the Earl of Pembroke was
interested, fishing for herrings ; and because the fishermen were
partly English and partly Dutch, they put the English on shore,
detaining the others as prisoners, and disposed of the ship, nets
and tackle as if they belonged to them. (fn. 3) The earl, greatly
incensed, applied to the king for assistance, or to grant him
letters of marque to avenge himself. His Majesty pondered the
matter deeply, especially as he deeply deplored the behaviour
of the Dunkirkers, and knew full well how wrong they were,
because tobacco cannot be called munitions, but rather a harmful
superfluity, and the ship seized could not be called Dutch,
because the majority of the sailors were from England and had
the royal passports. He therefore straitly commanded his agent
at Brussels to make serious complaint in his name to the Cardinal
Infant and to try and get both vessels restored forthwith with
their cargoes and tackle, the Dutch fishermen set at liberty and
a severe demonstration made against the audacity of the plunderers.
His Majesty further assured the Earl that he would not
fail to support his interests, declaring repeatedly he should have
complete restitution of both ships, in one way or another.
It is said that the States of Holland intend to despatch to
this Court an ambassador extraordinary to encourage and advance,
if possible, the present negotiations for an alliance,
towards the desired conclusion, or in any case, to assure themselves
at least of the indifference of this crown. As regards
the first point experience would seem to have shown clearly
enough that the king is altogether averse from committing himself,
even upon the most advantageous conditions imaginable.
He foresees and almost openly says that once the first step
has been taken one is often obliged to go on. Accordingly
he has directed all his attention, so far as his opinions indicate,
to bringing the internal affairs of this kingdom into order and to
forms which please him better, and there is certainly no indication
that he means to commit himself to other serious transactions,
unless compelled by necessity. With regard to the
second point of neutrality there is no doubt that they may rest
assured of getting it, for the reason already stated, but not
any declaration, as on this point also there is no one who believes
and no reason which persuades that his Majesty will
ever consent to it, for the maintenance of his own reputation.
The Ambassador Douglas, who is taking part by his Majesty's
order in the negotiations for peace between the King of Poland
and the crown of Sweden, besides what I reported of the first
meeting of the deputies of the two sides, which was devoted
to a mutual exchange of letters, and to the adjustment of some
difficulty about the title of king of Sweden, claimed by the
King of Poland as belonging to him, a difficulty settled by the
expedient of naming each sovereign with the title of king,
without specifying the country, now reports that the negotiations
have made good progress and their hopes become ever greater
of a successful issue. He himself expects to labour there to
some profit and here they do not fail to direct him to continue
to devote his most earnest attention to the matter.
London, the 23rd March, 1635.
450. Decree forbidding the exportation to foreign lands of
oil, binding hooks, hoops, osiers (Venchi) (fn. 4) of every kind, which
must be retained for the use of the state only, as it is the
desire of the Senate to prevent so far as possible the traffic of
English and Flemish ships which by going to Gallipoli, the
Cape of Otranto and other places, on the coast of Apulia, take
away a great quantity of oil which would otherwise be certain
to come to this city.
Ayes, 133. Noes, 0. Neutral, 3.
451. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague,
to the Doge and Senate.
The States have not yet decided to send an ambassador to
England. Many believe the king ill disposed because he has
made no reply of any worth to the offices of the French ambassadors
and of Sig. Joachimi in favour of an alliance. Joachimi
also reports that the Dutch merchants are badly treated and
tyrannised over by the ministers there. However it is believed
that in the end the States will send an ambassador to inform
the king of the alliance with France and at the same time to
urge him to maintain friendly relations with these Provinces.
The Hague, the 29th March, 1635.
452. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
M. de Senneterre, ambassador extraordinary of the Most
Christian arrived here at length on Tuesday, after being expected
a long time. The Ambassador Poygni went to Gravesend to
meet him. The Earl of Cleveland received him at Gravesend
and accompanied him thence with the royal barges to the house
prepared for him at Westminster. Only there did they begin
to defray him and they will only continue to do so until he
has seen the king the first time, as by a new order ambassadors
extraordinary will not be defrayed henceforth after their first
audience. As the king is away hunting in the neighbouring
forests and is not expected back until to-morrow, the public
audience has been postponed until Monday or Tuesday next.
I will go and see him as soon as he has performed the first
function. On the day of his entry I sent the secretary to pay
my respects. He thanked me and the next day sent his own
secretary in response.
I went yesterday to see the Ambassador Poygni. In conversing
with me about the arrival of Seneterre and of the matters
with which he is to deal, he told me that beyond the affair of
the alliance already proposed he did not know of any commissions
he held to treat of other matters. He then disclosed his own
private feelings to me, in confidence, uttering these very words :
Does your Excellency believe that the prudence of this gentleman
will suffice to break down the difficulties which beset this affair,
and that his abilities will succeed where I, although certainly
much his inferior, have at least shown as much zeal and energy
yet have not been able to conclude anything. It is certain that
if while not knowing how to command they are trying to make
the world believe that I am not apt to obey, they are doing
a great injustice to the zeal and activity with which I have
always striven to serve the king my master. I beg your Excellency
to put aside for a moment the friendly feeling that you
have for me and to be a severe judge of my cause. Some
five or six months ago I had instructions to make proposals
for an alliance to the king. I did so and immediately reported
to France the replies which I received. Subsequently, being
in need of fresh orders, I have several times written urgently
for them, and his Majesty was pressing me for them almost
every day. In any case, in the space of four whole months I
have not been able to extract a single word. At last, a courier
was sent to me a month ago by the Secretary Botiglier, bringing
me instructions to re-open the affair, and to leave the proposals
in the king's hand, in writing. I did this and received a very
favourable reply, indeed I obtained the appointment of six
commissioners. Now, no sooner have they heard from this
same courier, whom I sent back to Paris with all speed, of the
result of my negotiations, than they appoint a new ambassador,
which, as is notorious, suspended all the negotiations here or
rather threw them into confusion, so that it has not since been
possible to get them straight. I must leave it to others to decide
whether in all this I have shown myself wanting in any way,
but if there has been any mistake it is certainly incomprehensible
to me, so much so that I would readily submit the case
even to the judgment of an enemy. Accordingly, from all that
has happened I feel absolutely certain that they place no value
upon my services here, and that I may not remain any longer
wasting my time I have petitioned for leave to return to France.
I beg your Excellency, when you have occasion to write to
France and to the other Courts, to make this truth clear, for
the sake of the reputation of one who is your true friend and
if you will take the trouble to inform the most serene republic
about it, you will do me a singular favour, and when you do
so I shall be glad if you will assure them of my devotion and
desire to serve them, which I have felt from my birth.
I tried to do what I could to console him, telling him that
possibly they argued in France, from the pacific and individual
ideas that his Majesty here seems to entertain, that the matter
required to be pressed by more quick and vigorous stimulants,
and that a conclusion being difficult and almost impossible and
in order to do their utmost to give it life and to lose no time
in employing the most potent means to settle the matter, as
the pressing necessities of existing circumstances demanded, they
might consider themselves forced to take such a step. But
he had no occasion to feel mortified about it, especially when
he saw that the States of Holland were preparing to do the same
thing, although from the experience of their ambassador Joachimi,
they have some idea and form the conclusions that are
patent to everybody. I regretted deeply the steps he had taken
to secure his recall, and was only anxious to continue to serve
him. At the same time I took consolation from the assurance
that it would not be granted. I said this because as I am sure
that he asked for it on the ground of reputation alone he would,
for the same reason, be sorry to have it granted. I assured him
that I would forward the assurances, as he desired and of your
appreciation of his devotion.
Late yesterday evening the funeral of the late Treasurer took
place They carried the body to a place of his five miles from
this city. All the knights of the garter who are here, followed
in a numerous cavalcade until outside the suburbs of London,
accompanied with a hundred horses caparisoned in black, a
great number of coaches and of people on foot, also in mourning,
with a large number of lights, which followed to the place of
His Majesty has chosen five commissioners to administer
his office until further order. These are the Archbishop of Canterbury,
Lord Montagu, keeper of the privy seal, the two secretaries
of state and Sir [Francis] Cottington. It is not thought
that a new treasurer will be nominated for some months. Meanwhile
the opinion gathers strength that the choice will fall
on the Viceroy of Ireland.
The king has conferred the post of chief of the Council for
foreign affairs, vacant by the treasurer's death, on the Archbishop
of Canterbury, a man whom he esteems above every
one else in the realm. Hitherto he has professed to have intervened
in the royal Council merely in matters pertaining to the
Church, but now he says that as his Majesty has commanded him
to bear the burden of this new charge he cannot refuse to take
it provisionally, although in reality he grasped it gladly and he
will be glad to continue the ministry.
Very long discussions have taken place in the royal Council
this last week about the country which his Majesty holds in
the Indies, called New Britain by the English. They have
decided to divide it into eight provinces and to assign them to
eight of the richest and leading lords here, so that each of
them may see that his own portion is inhabited and cultivated.
To superintend the whole they have chosen Sir Alfonso Gorge,
who with the title of general and a certain number of ships
and soldiers is to proceed with speed to those parts. His first
task will be to expel the Dutch who have made themselves masters
of a part of those territories, not having met with any resistance.
The news of the fall of Augsburg into the hands of the
imperialists is confirmed here from several quarters. But many
do not altogether credit it. The Dutch ambassador, although
he is among those who place least reliance on the truth of the
report, goes about more than any one else announcing it as an
accomplished fact, and by magnifying every stroke of good
fortune of the Austrians in Germany he seizes the opportunity
to impress upon the ministers here, as much as possible, the
necessity of concluding the alliance.
Blond, the Resident here, for the kingdon of Sweden,* has
received news that the one who is coming here as ambassador
extraordinary for that crown will be here in a few days. He
is waiting for more definite information about the time in order
that he may make suitable arrangements about his reception,
and proceed himself to meet the ambassador at his port of debarcation.
I have received the state despatches of the 10th and 17th
February this week. The ordinary courier of Antwerp has not
yet arrived with this week's letters from Italy, owing to the
strong contrary winds.
London, the 30th March, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]