Venice
May 1635

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1921

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379-390

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'Venice: May 1635', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 23: 1632-1636 (1921), pp. 379-390. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89360 Date accessed: 20 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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May 1635

May 4.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
475. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
An extraordinary courier from France arrived here the day before yesterday with news of the declaration of the Most Christian of an open rupture with the Austrians. (fn. 1) He brought orders to the ambassadors here to impart this to his Majesty. They did this without delay, representing to him that the king, their master, finding himself insulted every day by masked foes, had determined, joining in a new alliance with the States of Holland, to defend, with his own honour the life of his subjects and the interests and dominions of the princes, his friends. Of this he desired to impart full particulars to his Majesty as a true and oldstanding ally of his crown, in order to excite his generous sentiments to take prompt steps to join in support of the public cause, now that the balance of things can no longer be maintained, and when considerable changes may possibly take place very quickly. The ambassadors added that his Majesty would have already started for the Picardy frontier, and that on the other side he had caused all the posts of the Valtelline to be occupied. Here, after a full review of the circumstances which oblige this crown to a union with the Most Christian, they seized the opportunity to urge his Majesty to make up his mind promptly to arrange this alliance, which they are treating for. The king replied that he thanked their master for communicating to him a matter of so much importance. With all his heart he wished him every success towards the attainment of his glorious aims. With regard to the alliance he assured them that he was as favourably disposed as ever, and that he had even directed a reply to be given on the subject. But now that affairs had taken so great a change he felt sure they would not take it ill if he postponed his decision a few days longer. The ambassadors replied that they would never willingly do anything that would not please his Majesty, but they thought it their duty to remind him respectfully that in such matters a speedy decision was almost equivalent to a favourable one.
The Ambassador Poygni came immediately after on purpose to tell me the substance of these particulars. He said that now we shall see clearly whether the Spaniards are speaking sincerely when they profess themselves so devoted to peace, because if they want it, they have only to intimate so much, by the proper methods, and in such case they will find France perfectly ready to meet them, quite as much as they can desire. If, on the other hand, they want war, there will be ample opportunities in more than one quarter, to give them plentiful satisfaction. He then urged me to tell him the attitude of the most serene republic to these affairs. I made a general reply and asked what were the intentions of the Duke of Savoy. He said he understood that the duke would not detach himself from their party. He then began to speak of his own private affairs and told me that after he had repeated his request three times for leave to lay down the burden of this embassy, the Cardinal had finally sent him word to abandon his efforts, because his Majesty had no intention whatever of granting him leave. I expressed my gratification, and so our interview ended.
The moment the news of these events reached me, I set to work to find out, with due circumspection, what were the views of the Court upon circumstances of such grave importance, and principally what effect they might produce upon their decisions here. I find, however, that the ministers here remain as uncertain and ambiguous as ever, indeed more so, if I may deliver my opinion freely. It seems to me that the more troubled foreign affairs become the more confirmed are they in their policy of maintaining their reputation with both sides by means of neutrality, and by rendering them now anxious, now hopeful about their friendship, to keep their own proud, position of always being valued and sought after. Certainly this is the course they are now following and there is no sign that they are likely to alter their principles lightly, because if they had desired a change since the conditions of the present time do not admit of such long delays, they probably would have wanted it now. However as the events of war are always uncertain, so circumstances may arise with the changes brought about by future accidents which will be strong enough to make them change their resolution (trovo che restano tuttavia questi ministri nel incertezze e ambiguita di prima anzi piuttosto se devo dire liberamente il senso mio, parmi che quanto si vanno piu gl' affair esterni intorbidando, tanto si vadino qui maggiormente confirmando nell' opinione di volersi con mezzo della neutralita in riputatione appresso l' una e l' altra parte mantener, e con dar lor hora gelosia hora speranza della propria amicitia continuar nel posto fastoso di esser sempre stimati e pregati. Con questi passi certo si cammina qui di presente, ne apparenza si scorge siano cosi facilmente per alterar le massime, perche se ad altro volessero pensar non permettendo l' istessi conditioni di tempi presenti cosi lunghe dilationi, haveriano fino a quest' hora qualche cosa forse desiderato. Tuttavia potrebbe esser anco che si come i successi della guerra sono sempre incerti, cosi con variar di futuri accidenti nascere potessero congiunture tali che bastanti si rendessero a far loro cangiar risolutione).
Yesterday I happened to meet the Dutch ambassador. In order not to neglect any signs of friendship and confidence I congratulated him on the good resolutions which France had taken following the articles recently arranged with his masters. This courtesy pleased him greatly and after thanking me he told me that the day before he had been in audience of his Majesty about some affair of the Dutch merchants. The conversation lasted a very long time and he seized the opportunity to make some observations to his Majesty in favour of the alliance in negotiation. He found the king, while speaking quite courteously much more irresolute and antagonistic than usual (fuor del solito assai trovo il Re, nella cortesia delle parole sospeso e renitente), and this had caused him very great anxiety. He would have remained in this state of mind if he had not learned soon after that the news on the subject brought to him by the French ambassadors had left his Majesty in some agitation.
Last Sunday, as directed by his Majesty, the Swedish ambassador extraordinary returned the order of the garter. All the knights in the habit of the order were present with the king at the ceremony. After a long Latin speech the ambassador presented to the king the chain with the George and the garter, on a black velvet cushion. In receiving it his Majesty said that he took part in such a function with indescribable sorrow, as it reminded him of the loss of a valiant king, whose sublime memory was immortal and would always live in his heart. The rest of the ambassador's negotiations were devoted to requests for help. I have not been able to find out what he said about the complaint against Douglas, although I learned that his Majesty promised the most friendly assistance to forward the peace with Poland.
Yesterday the annual solemnity of the knights of the garter was celebrated, and his Majesty having admitted the Earl of Northumberland again to the order the customary ceremonies for this took place yesterday. Meanwhile, at enormous expense he is preparing a sumptuous and numerous cavalcade for the performance of the principal function at Windsor, in accordance with custom. (fn. 2)
The second son of the late Treasurer, who was unfortunately wounded last week as reported, now shows excellent signs of recovery and is thought by this time to be out of danger.
I humbly thank your Serenity for conferring upon me the honour of Savio of Terra Ferma.
London, the 4th May, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 6.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
476. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Scottish Colonel Hebron went to see the king at Compiegne and to offer to raise some more levies of his countrymen. But he has returned to Germany with his recruits, without any further commissions.
Peronne, the 6th May, 1635.
[Italian.]
May 11.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
477. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Great and weighty discussions take place daily in the royal Council upon the last steps taken by France since the news arrived here. They have considered that the aims of the close union existing between that crown and the Dutch must be watched closely with a very jealous eye, and that any successes which they gain must be received 'here with regret as likely to aggrandise those powers which are the only ones who can now disturb the quiet of these realms. Accordingly even those who used most steadfastly to counsel neutrality now intimate that the altered state of affairs and the changed times must bring about a change of policy to meet the altered circumstances. By this they wish to infer that if the French should approach to make themselves masters of Dunkirk or of some other place contiguous to the sea, that it would not be reasonable to permit it here, either in the interests of trade or for other more important respects.
Out of regard for such considerations two matters were proposed for discussion and one was actually decided. The first that forty more ships should be armed with all speed, to make secure the command of the sea ; the other that 10,000 men should be immediately distributed to guard the sea ports. With regard to the arming of the forty ships, their plans varied and opinions wavered, not because they did not consider the decision opportune but because it is not so easy to raise the money to carry it into effect. On the second point of attending to the guard of the ports and sea frontiers, all agreed with equal readiness to accept and approve of his Majesty's advice. The orders have been despatched to carry this into effect, although on this subject many go about saying that this measure has been designed more for the purpose of raising money than from any real need for such action, and the reason is that those who are called upon to bear arms on such occasions can easily evade the service by the payment of a certain sum of money, if they wish to do so. Accordingly it is believed that everybody will prefer to pay rather than to serve.
What their real aims may be is not so easy to discover, although the results are apparent enough and afford good reason for believing that on such an occasion the secret intrigues of the Spaniards are likely to prevail at this Court over all other and open negotiations. However the French ambassadors, who have attempted to get to the bottom of this affair, have realised that all their past efforts have been utterly thrown away. But while they see clearly from the action taken that no decision in favour of their side is possible, they hope, though without abandoning their original proposals, that by skilful manipulation they may be able to make sure of an absolute neutrality, believing that it would be a considerable point gained ; but there is no indication that with the obligation of such a strict agreement, the Dutch ambassador would on any account allow himself, to be led. He stands jealously watching the objects of such a resolution, and he has good cause, because while 400 English were gathered together all ready to take ship to cross the sea, to go as recruits for some companies which are in Holland by the royal permission, the officers in command were forbidden to transport them, and they themselves were stopped when they wished to cross without them.
The king proposed to go yesterday to the port of Monsbai (fn. 3) to see the ships go out, which are all ready there in accordance with orders, but hearing that the small pox, which was very severe in this clime last year, was at its height there just now, he directed that the ships should gather at another port near Dover, intending to go there next week to send them off. In addition to the twenty six already armed another large one is made ready laden with all sorts of munitions of war, which is always to keep near the body of the fleet for all emergencies.
The Ambassador Anstruther arrived here last week from his embassy in Germany. He kissed his Majesty's hands and told him that the Protestant party is much stronger than report states, and that the interests of the Palatinate can be adequately assured by a moderate assistance.
They talk more freely here than ever about the marriage of Poland to the Princess Palatine, and while they declare at Court that the negotiations with Florence have altogether died away, they make quite sure in consequence that these are certain to be concluded.
The Swedish ambassador having concluded his affairs, with scant profit, is only awaiting the convoy of two Dutch men of war to secure his return. But he has not yet taken leave of his Majesty and will not do so before the ships have arrived at the ports here.
The Agent of France who resides at Brussels writes to the ordinary ambassador here that having received instructions from the king, his master to prefer a request to the Cardinal Infant for the release of the Archbishop of Treves, he had several times requested an audience for the purpose, but in spite of all his importunity he had never been able to have it. In the end they sent him word that if he had anything to impart he must put it in writing. He did so and they then told him that without the participation and assent of his Catholic Majesty and that of the emperor the Cardinal Infant would neither answer nor decide. When the Resident heard this he started off at once on his journey for France.
The affairs of Germany are much discussed here, but news from those parts reaches this country late, so I will not weary your Excellencies by repeating it.
I have received the Senate's letters of the 13th April this week. They have been delayed because the courier who used to go by Calais now travels by way of Dunkirk. This route takes more time but it will certainly be much safer.
London, the 11th May, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 18.
Senato, Senato, Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
478. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Last Sunday, the 13th inst. Baron Schiti, the Swedish ambassador extraordinary, went to take public leave of the king. He thanked his Majesty copiously for the favours received, and in particular for the favour shown to his own son and two other gentleman of his suite, dubbed knights two days before. (fn. 4) 2000 ounces of fine silver gilt plate were brought to present to him, by his Majesty's order, he was to go some miles out of the city, to await, at a suitable place a wind favourable for his passage. He came to see me the day before yesterday and told me that he had every reason to be satisfied with the honours shown to himself and his gentlemen, but for the rest he might say that he went away as he had come. He repeated this when I returned his visit.
Their decisions here with respect to the reported approach of French forces continue to be hesitating and uncertain. Although they are still discussing the means of arming the forty additional ships, yet they are busily equipping twelve of his Majesty's own vessels, and for the provision of the others they have laid an embargo on all which are adaptable for war purposes which are at present in the ports here. All the same it does not seem reasonable to believe that in the present season it will be easy for them to assemble a considerable naval force, beyond what has already been done, notably for the provision of the necessary food and of meat in particular, which may be termed the unique sustenance of this nation. Moreover it is not so easy to find the money, and even if they had it some time would be needed to extract it from the pockets of the people here, who always show the greatest reluctance to make such contributions.
For the despatch of the 10,000 men for the guard of the sea ports, the orders issued are already being carried out, but after the militia has been called out, everyone concludes that with the expenditure, of the prescribed sum it will undoubtedly be dismissed and they will use the money for the arming of ships, of which, for the moment they consider the need to be much greater. This much may be asserted, that beyond the orders mentioned there is no one who can assert anything positively. Nevertheless, alarmed by the reports of these measures, the French ambassadors here are doing everything in their power to demonstrate to his Majesty the necessity and appropriateness of the steps now being taken by France, and to assure him that the Most Christian will never move his forces with the intention of causing this kingdom the least shadow of anxiety, but being aimed directly against the Spaniards they will also serve to render it secure from such molestation as the Spaniards have encouraged on previous occasions when England was enjoying quiet.
Such is the thesis which they steadfastly maintain before the king and elsewhere in public, and all those who have any dependence upon France do the like. At the same time there is no lack of those who go about loudly controverting there statements. These say that dangers from the Spaniards are very remote and at present in particular rather imaginary than of any apparent subsistance. That from the French, on the other hand is now most patent and very near, and with their arms in their hands they give just cause for fearing, if not immediate acts ; yet because of the possible consequences of their successes, especially as regards the ports of Flanders, of which, there is no doubt, the English could not tolerate with patience to see them masters. Such are, indeed, the common opinions, or more correctly the pretexts, which based upon a certain amount of reasonableness, serve to conceal the different and much more recondite aims of some of the ministers here, who chime in with the universal desire, some out of zeal for the Catholic religion and the others, indifferently to see parliament convoked, would like help to be given to the Spanish party, although for such an end they would not wish to see the interests of this kingdom exposed to any great risks, in the assurance that without great need of money the king will never make up his mind to any such step, and he cannot easily be brought to such a necessity by any means save that of war (tali sono veramente le communi opinioni o per dir meglio i pretesti che con fondamento di qualche susistente ragione vagliano a cellare differenti e molto piu raconditi fini di alcuno di questi ministri, i quali concorrono nel desiderio del universale, che parte per il zelo della religione Cattolica e gl' altri indifferentemente per veder convocato il parlamento, vorrebbero fosse assestito il partito de' Spagnoli non solo, ma per un tal effetto poco anco si vorrebbero di veder ad ogni maggior azardo esposti gl' interessi di questo Regno, sicuri che senza gran bisogno di denaro non devenira gia mai il Re a simil risolutione ne in necessita tale per altro mezzo che per quello della guerra non puo essere facilmente condotto).
The French ambassadors sent a courier yesterday to the king with all speed with an account of the above particulars. With his return they expect fresh instructions as to how they are to conduct themselves in the future. The Ambassador Seneterre told me this himself yesterday morning. Proceeding to talk about the affairs of Italy he told me that the Duke of Chrichi, who by this time may be well on his way to that province with a large force, is to proceed to the dominions of the Duke of Parma, and is not to stay any longer where he was first commanded. The ambassador went on to say that the Most Christian did not propose to send fresh forces to Italy, but only to secure every one in the possession of his own territories, and to restrain the ambition of the Spaniards. His king would look for no advantage and would rest content with the glory. He hopes that his friends will recognise that he wants nothing for himself in Italy beyond what he already holds. If he acted otherwise it would not make for peace but only foment trouble. Both of the French ambassadors are always speaking in this sense. I would not venture to say whether these are their own private opinions or if they rest upon a solid foundation, but I can assert that the boldness with which they utter them leads one to believe that they do not speak without good grounds, or at least not without having been commanded to do so.
On Wednesday his Majesty went to Greenwich with the queen. It is thought that they will both stay there at least six weeks, the king to enjoy the pleasures of the chase, and the queen to see the completion of a special erection of hers, which is already far advanced. (fn. 5) The Council, however, remains here, and will continue to meet on the usual days to assist in the direction of affairs.
I have received this week the state despatches of the 20th April.
London, the 18th May, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 19.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Svizzeri. Venetian Archives.
479. Andrea Rosso, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the Doge and Senate.
Last Monday the English Resident set out to see the Duke of Lorraine. I will keep on the alert and try to find out all particulars on his return. I hear that he stopped at Arau where he met the deputies of Berne. I think his object was to divert them from any leaning towards France, as he is always doing with all Protestants, casting discredit upon that nation as much as he is able chiefly with the manifesto published by Rohan after his arrival in the Valtelline to the effect that the sole object of the Most Christian was the maintenance of the Catholic faith everywhere.
Zurich, the 19th May, 1635.
[Italian.]
May 22.
Senato, Mar. Venetian Archives.
480. That the Five Savii alla Mercanzia make enquiry concerning the frauds committed by the merchants interested in the English ship "Parangon," to avoid payment of the duty of 5 per thousand on currants, and to cause those found guilty to be arrested.
Ayes, 152. Noes, 1. Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
May 24.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Haya. Venetian Archives.
481. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The States General have never been able to agree about choosing an ambassador extraordinary for England. The States of Holland object to the expense. The English Resident is trying to persuade them that his Majesty's naval preparations are only intended for the preservation of his own jurisdiction and that the States have no cause for alarm. But he gets scant credit as ill feeling only grows.
The English here some weeks ago received orders from the king not to buy cloth except from the English Company at Rotterdam. The other towns remonstrated and the States decided that the Company should not be allowed to sell to the English more than to any one else soever. (fn. 6) The Resident has tried his utmost to have this prohibition revoked, but without avail.
The Hague, the 24th May, 1635.
[Italian.]
May 25.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
482. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The views of the ministers here about the present movements of France grow more suspicious than ever, with respect to the orders of the Most Christian upon the arming of the nobility to assist in the defence of the provinces in case the paid troops leave them. Some reverse inflicted on the troops of Mansfelt by the army of Weimar, the unsuccessful attempt of the Cardinal Infant upon the Fort Filipine (fn. 7) are both events which are received with general regret here. But above all others the report of the march of the royal army to effect a junction with the Prince of Orange has produced the greatest effect in confirming his Majesty here in his decision to provide himself swiftly with arms also. To this effect, although under another pretext, he has ordered that the twelve ships, picked out from the largest and best that his Majesty possesses, shall all be provided with 300 soldiers each, a great number of guns and an abundance of every other kind of military stores, by the middle of next month, when they are to be ready to sail. He has further declared that they are to be armed at his own cost, in order to afford a proper example in himself of being ready for the contribution which he proposes to lay upon the people for the armament of the others. With this same object it has also been decided that the eight ships which were to have gone to the Indies under the command of General Gorges, shall remain with the others of the twenty six. At the present moment they are paying no attention to the affairs of those parts, a very clear sign that the troubles near at hand are seriously pre-occupying them. The 10,000 men also destined to guard the ports of the realm are being assembled, although very slowly, and they have even talked of raising their numbers to as many again and to oblige ihe country to support them all ; but nothing has been decided, indeed every resolution here ordinarily involves incredible delays.
A severe decree has been issued that all English sailors and soldiers who are found in the future upon foreign ships in every port of the realm, shall be immediately arrested, without distinction, and that no subject of the crown shall sail on any ship but an English one under any conditions whatsoever.
The Ambassador extraordinary of Sweden has at last embarked for his voyage after having waited some days for a favourable wind. Obion, (fn. 8) the Resident in ordinary of that kingdom has also set out for the Hague, in order, so he says, to confer with the Chancellor Oxisterna, who is to be there shortly. He will not come back here before the end of the summer.
Lord Scudamore, the ambassador elect for France was all ready to set out for his post and had taken leave of the French ambassadors here ; but I fancy that they want to insert in his commissions that Dewich, his Majesty's Agent there, shall remain as coadjutor of the embassy, and as Scudamore objects to this, his start is delayed. Many are inclined to believe that these are devices to delay this action under some colourable pretext, as they show little inclination here to do it, especially as the ambassadors make no instance for it.
The day before yesterday the Earl of Northumberland went to Windsor for the usual ceremony of new knights of the garter. More than 300 gentlemen followed him, all upon most noble horses, and richly adorned beyond description. The king and queen came to London on purpose to see the procession, and they returned to Greenwich that same evening, to continue their sojourn there until the time comes to start on their progress.
Tullerie writes from Venice to M. di Pougny that in spite of the vigorous opposition of the Sieur della Rocca he has obtained from your Serenity a promise to have grain exported from the states of your Excellencies as well as other food stuffs for the support of the French troops in the Valtelline, at which he seems to be exceedingly gratified. He says that the affair of the consul of Ancona has been settled and there remains the question of the frontiers to adjust. (fn. 9)
I have received this week the state despatches of the 7th and 17th of April. I will inform Spiesmo that he is at liberty to go to Istria when he pleases. If you should consider his proposals I have to advise you that I told him that all the colonists that he brings must be Roman Catholics, and he promised that they should be.
London, the 25th May, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 30.
Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni, Principi. Venetian Archives.
483. The ambassador of the King of Great Britain came into the Collegio and spoke as follows in Italian :
I venture to speak Italian, although it will betray my imperfections, in order to cause you less trouble. You will have heard the report of the fleet my king is collecting, to send out at the earliest opportunity. He found that his efforts at union for the public welfare and tranquillity did not meet with a response, his seas and coasts being attacked, commerce disturbed and the ships of his subjects taken, to the grave prejudice of the rights of his crown over the British sea. The fleet will sail for the defence and maintenance of these, to keep the sea clear, to do justice to his own subjects and to repress the insolence of pirates ; not to break any treaty with any power soever, or to begin a war, as his Majesty has the same sentiments as ever towards general quiet. I have thought it my duty to inform your Serenity, because different reports may have got about, and because of your uniformity of interests with my king in this matter, with the republic's ancient dominion in the Adriatic, and owing to the confidential relations with his Majesty, which it is my duty to cherish and to increase, if that be possible, as I am deeply indebted for the many favours shown to me since I entered this state.
The doge replied, We rejoice at the confidence and affection which the king shows to us, to which we always respond, and that he remains as ever intent upon the pacific government of his kingdom. We welcome the communication your lordship has made to us of his naval preparations and of the good objects at which he aims. We wish him all prosperity. We welcome your lordship's offices which will always be grateful to us.
The ambassador replied briefly that his king would be glad to hear that his communication had been so well received, with the usual friendship and entire confidence which existed between him and the republic ; with that he rose, took leave and departed. (fn. 10)
[Italian.]
May 31.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Haya. Venetian Archives.
484. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
It has been reported that the Spaniards propose to put Dunkirk in the hands of the English. But wise men perceive that these reports cannot come true unless England is willing to go all lengths in declaring herself on the side of the Austrians, and a thorough examination of affairs makes it unlikely that this would agree with the interests of that crown.
Their High Mightinesses have instructed the Ambassador Joachimi in London to act in unison with the French ambassador Seneterre, but it is feared that their offices will not effect anything. I learn on good authority that the States have been assured of the friendly disposition of that king towards them, and that he may possibly prove it by a new alliance. This may be in order to put an end to the ill feeling that keeps cropping up.
The Hague, the 31st May, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 War was not formally declared against Spain until the 19th May. It was not declared against the emperor until 1638.
2 The cost is given as £6251 16s. 1d. in Fonblanque : Annals of the House of Percy, Vol. ii. App. xx.
3 The fleet was not at Monsbai, i.e. Mounts Bay, but at Stokes Bay. The rendezvous was altered to the Downs because of an epidemic of small pox at Portsmouth. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1635, pages 14, 22. As the instruction was issued by the Admiralty on 8/18 April, this item of news seems very belated, if not doubtful.
4 According to Shaw Knights of England, Vol. i. page 203, four gentlemen who came with the Swedish Ambassador were Knighted on the 18th April. O.S. namely : Jacob Skettee. John Krus. Gustavus Banir and Gabriel Oxenstern.
5 The Queen's House or House of Delight, erected from designs by Inigo Jones. It was completed in this year. Hasted : Hist. of Kent ed. Drake, i., page 62.
6 The decree of the States General of the 24th May was aimed against the importation of foreign dyed cloths. The Merchant Adventurers were allowed six months in which to dispose of the stocks of foreign dyed cloth which they had on hand. S.P. For. Holland.
7 Fort Philippine in Zeeland which la Fontaine was sent to take by surprise on the 8th May, and which he had to abandon with considerable loss after an unsuccessful attempt. Le Clere : Hist. des Provinces Unies Vol. ii page 154.
8 Michael de Blom.
9 The Consul Oberti and the frontier at Ancona. See note to No. (411) at page 320 above.
10 A copy of the speech in Italian is preserved in the Public Record Office, S.P. Foreign Venice, attached to the ambassador's despatch of 1/11 May.