516. To the Ambassador in England.
We have received your letters of the 27th June and the 4th
ult. We enclose copies of a recent exposition of the English
ambassador and of the reply given to him. You will make
your offices conform to this reply and we wish you to find out
whether the ambassador spoke from instructions and if he really
represented the wishes of the king, or if his Majesty is influenced
by the intrigues and demands of those interested.
Ayes, 102. Noes, 1. Neutral, 1.
|517. That the Ambassador of the King of Great Britain
be summoned to the Collegio and that the following be read to
We are much gratified by the friendly expressions which you
have transmitted to us in the name of his Majesty and at his
Majesty's efforts on behalf of the peace and tranquillity of this
province. We beg you to thank him and to assure him of our
affection and esteem.
With regard to the memorials presented, after the necessary
information has been taken by the magistrates concerned we will
do everything possible to show our desire to afford his Majesty's
subjects who trade in our dominions the best possible treatment,
as it has always been our intention to do.
Ayes, 102. Noes, 1. Neutral, 1.
518. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague,
to the Doge and Senate.
They are thinking here of paying respect to the King of
England in the Narrow Seas by lowering topsails and by the
fishermen paying a gold piece of 6½ florins every time they fish,
so as not to leave anything to disturb the friendly disposition
they see in that crown. They are also preparing presents of
horses and other things to send to the king and the leading
ministers. Under such circumstances the English merchants
will receive every facility in the matter of the sale of cloth.
The Resident has referred to this subject and it is expected that
in a few days the merchants will get all they want.
The Hague, the 2nd August, 1635.
|519. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague,
to the Doge and Senate.
Letters from England report the remonstrances of the king
there about the adjustment made with Saxony, to the exclusion of
the Palatine. But no one believes in any generous resolution, as
that sovereign is known to be too fond of peace and quiet.
The Hague, the 2nd August, 1635.
520. The ambassador of the King of Great Britain came into
the Collegio and spoke as follows in Italian :
I have come to pay my respects and to remind you of the
sincerity of my king's friendship and his ardent desire for the
universal peace of this province, for the good of many princes,
but most of all for the prosperity of your Serenity, for which
purpose I beg you to impart to me your usual prudence, exercised
so fully in the present disturbances of the Valtelline by this
Collegio, that my mouth is shut against saying more, except to
confirm my king's good will, and that he will never cease to
labour for the peace of Italy.
I also recommend to the protection of your Serenity his
Majesty's subjects who are here for their affairs, and here he
presented three memorials, entered below.
The doge replied that they were always glad to see him
because of their certainty of the king's friendship, and his
desire for the general quiet. They thanked him and assured him
of their perfect responsiveness. The memorials should be looked
into and his Majesty's subjects should be as well treated as their
The ambassador returned thanks, saying that everything should
be set before the king, took leave and departed.
|Memorial No. 1.
The government of Zante on the 22nd December, 1626 and the
20th April, 1627, sentenced us, John Obson, Richard Grizol, John
Plonton and Humphrey Bointon, English merchants, to a fine of
4800 ryals, which we deposited in the chamber there to obtain
release from prison. We afterwards appealed and the magistracy
of the Twenty Savii, delegated by the Senate, quashed the sentence
as unjust and ordered the restitution of our money. When
we wished to recover our money from the chamber we found that
the government had taken away 1600 ryals, and although we have
been at great efforts and expense yet we still have to recover
the portion of the then Proveditore, Piero Malipiero, amounting
to 533⅓ ryals.
As your Serenity has graciously delegated the cause of me,
John Obson, to the Five Savii of the Mercanzia, and those
Signors being asked to send an order to the Proveditore of
Cephalonia to cause the 2000 ryals disbursed by me in that
chamber, where it was forthwith divided among the ministers
and informers, because of the sentence against me on the 17th
April, 1633, to be put back into the chamber by them, those
Signors said they had not the power to do so. From this experience
I knew how necessary it would be to have the money
deposited again in the chamber, to avoid litigation and expense
in recovering it, even when my innocence is recognised. I
therefore humbly petition your Serenity to have the Proveditore
of Cephalonia ordered to restore the said 2000 ryals, in the way
that shall seem best, so that it may be safe and that after so
many sufferings I may enjoy the fruit of my labours, and also
to order the restitution of the 533 ryals, of which Malipiero has
had the benefit for so many years.
|1635, the 2nd August.
By order of the Savii, in response to the present petition, that
the Five Savii of the Mercanzia shall give their opinion on the
subject after a full enquiry, upon oath.
|Memorial No. 2.
Upon the sentence of outlawry of the Proveditore Querini of
Cephalonia, against me, Richard Grissol, English merchant, on
the 27th February, 1633, I obtained from your Serenity on the
12th of May, 1634 a delegation to the Five Savii of the Mercanzia,
who decided on the 8th of June, 1634, that I might have
despatch upon a process sent under seal from Cephalonia to
the Council of Forty, Civil Novo, by virtue of letters of appeal
at the instance of D. Christoforo Carusa, the process being
against him and me jointly. Now after many instances made by
the Resident by express order of the King of England, and daily
by me, by advocates, at very great expense, the Five Savii inform
me, contrary to the decision of their predecessors that they
cannot give me despatch upon that process until other papers
come from Cephalonia. Thus I, a poor merchant and foreigner
am utterly abandoned, though innocent, by my correspondents
and business, losing my means of living and of supporting such
great expenses, and almost without hope of despatch, which has
been so much delayed, against the intention of the state and the
decision of the 12th of May, 1634. I once more petition your
Serenity to commit my speedy despatch to the Five Savii, or
else to send me with a safe conduct to Cephalonia for despatch
there, to be heard by the Rectors there, before whom I can
argue my case, and not lose time to my utter destruction, and
to allow me to trade and carry on my affairs as before.
|1635, the 2nd August.
By order of the Savii that the Five Savii of the Mercanzia
answer this petition and give their opinion upon oath after
|Memorial No. 3.
I, Laurence Hide, English gentleman and merchant in this
city was slandered by the late Rodolfo Simes before the office
of the Avogaria of having sent some assassins to murder him.
Owing to this my arrest was ordered by the Council of Forty
for Criminal affairs, where, after nineteen months of voluntary
presentation I was unanimously acquitted, indeed orders for the
arrest of Simes, Antonio Moretti and other false witnesses were
to be issued when the plague carried them off and stayed the
business. Thus I lost the opportunity of recouping myself for
so much loss and expense. This was increased by an accident.
While I was allowed the liberty to go from S. Marco to the
Rialto, crossing the whole island, upon a security of 2000 ducats,
I was given to understand that the Calle delle Brigioni, where
I had some important business, was the island of S. Marco.
One day the ministers followed me, and although I returned at
once to Court, the Avogadore Pisani forfeited 1050 ducats for
this nominal fault, an unheard of penalty. Owing to these misfortunes
I have suffered losses to the amount of 20,000 ducats,
almost to the utter ruin of my affairs, as with this opportunity
many have carried away many of my goods, and my debtors have
escaped me. I have summoned some of them before various
magistrates, but owing to my heavy expenses I have not been
able to see the end of my cause, and hardly hope to. I therefore
beg your Serenity to delegate my cause and the claims I
have against divers gentlemen and other individuals to four or
five members of the Senate for the settlement of all my causes,
both civil and criminal and to determine all my claims which
have not yet been judged without appeal, so that I, who have
lived for fifteen years in this city, with great advantage to the
community, may hope to return to my native land, whither my
parents urge me to return, rather than lose my life and country
here with utter ruin. I may add that about eight months ago the
Inquisitors of State discovered the way in which my interests
were prejudiced over the aforesaid slander, and promised me
indemnification against the goods of those who injured me.
I beg your Serenity to uphold that promise and also for the
prosecution of the process against my persecutors.
|1635, the 2nd August.
By order of the Savii, that the Avogadori di Comun shall
answer this petition, and give their opinion on oath after full
521. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Spain,
to the Doge and Senate.
I enclose copies of extracts from letters written to the emperor
by the Imperial ambassador here. The reference to the Earl
of Tiron is explained by the letter itself. So far as I can
gather there were intrigues carried on at some previous time
in order to excite some rising of the people of Ireland, which
they do not propose to trouble about at the present time, as
they do not consider the circumstances suitable ; the Earl of
Tyrone is banished from that state in perpetuity.
Madrid, the 4th August, 1635.
Endorsed : "sent to the Inquisitors of State to take copies."
[Italian ; deciphered.]
522. The Count of Sciombergh to the Emperor.
I must not forget to inform your Majesty that the English
ambassador of whom I wrote, has not arrived at this Court. But
from the news in possession of the ministers here he will not
be long. They hope that what they desire will be decided, unless
the marriage prevents, for which he has pressed very strongly.
It is certain that nothing will result, as the Count of Olivares
has frequently repeated to me.
Madrid, the 21st July, 1635.
|523. The Count of Sciombergh to the Emperor.
I had already made the proposal about the Irish troops to the
Count of Olivares, jointly with the Earl of Tyrone, who reminded
them that he had proposed the same thing before at the time
of Franchemburgh. All the ministers advised. His Majesty to
have it carried out, and for this proposal alone they rewarded the
earl with a commandery and 500 gold crowns a month in addition
to his salary as camp marshal. The Count said that the matter
deserved mature consideration and they would forthwith take
counsel upon the memorial presented by Tyrone. Two days later
we both returned to the palace, when the Count said that it
was not to be taken up for the moment, as it would mean
losing all their toilsome negotiations with England so far. If
they took the matter up so gladly at the time of Franchemburgh,
it was to divert that crown from the affairs of Germany, which
are now prospering. However Tyrone does not give up because
of this, but enlarges on his good will and friendliness. They
told him that it was necessary to wait for the declaration of the
King of England, and in accordance with its tenor they can
reconsider the matter. This reply pleased Tyrone greatly.
Madrid, the 1635.
524. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
Last Sunday the Council met at Oatlands, the king attending
in person, stirred by the last letters from his sister, to discuss
and decide something upon the present urgent requirements of
the Palatinate. The king personally, and in the most affectionate
manner, expressed his regard for the princes, his nephews and
his obligations to look after their interests. He pointed out
that if the destruction overtakes them which seems so imminent
all the ruin will inevitably fall upon his arms since his blood
relationship obliges him to support that House. He was pledged
in his reputation not to allow himself to be deceived so grossly
in permitting the Austrians to break the assurances and promises
so often repeated, by declaring that the Palatine is perpetually
excluded from the rights he has over his dominions and from
the electoral vote, as the capitulations recently settled between
Cæsar and Saxony expressly state. Accordingly he had chosen
to make this representation in order that something should be
decided upon the subject before they rose from the Council.
Stimulated by this vigorous impulse the councillors discussed
many things but while in the end all were firmly of opinion that
the forces of the crown ought on no account at present to be
employed elsewhere than in the kingdom or upon that which
directly concerns its safety, they also fully recognised that if
they meant to take up this affair they could not delay any longer
doing something effective. It was suggested that it might be
desirable to resume negotiations for some composition by sending
a new embassy to the Imperialists, but the unlucky issue of the
last prolonged negotiations of Anstruther, and the absence of
any satisfaction, which compelled him to let them drop, while
instead of effective action he brought back nothing but empty
words and almost open derision, made them recognise that it
would be useless to go on, and would only serve to place difficulties
in the way of other methods which they might possibly
be able to arrange easily in a different way. The suggestion
being accordingly defeated by such arguments they decided not
to employ for the moment anything but offices and words, and
as the lesser evil and in order not to hazard their reputation so
much by the noise of a conspicuous embassy, that they would
send at once to the emperor a person of wisdom, who in the
character of a simple gentleman would remonstrate with the
emperor expressing the concern with which his Majesty had noted
his negotiations and agreement with Saxony in the part that
concerned the interests of the Prince Palatine and to make such
representations and follow such instructions as shall be considered
proper to give to him, once his Majesty has selected the
individual to go. It is believed that the appointment is already
announced although the news has not yet reached the Court.
As is usual among the idlers at Court every one is discussing
this deliberation with comments suggested by their own personal
sympathies. But among the various opinions expressed, those
of most sense all seem to hold the same view in believing that
this measure will merely serve to give the Austrians time to make
themselves completely masters of what is left of the Palatinate,
in the assurance that once they are absolutely in possession
negotiations will do nothing to make them give it up, and even
if it should happen in the course of time that they should agree
to listen to some compromise, the advantageous position they
would occupy would enable them to claim to lay down the law
absolutely as they liked. Above all their claims for compensation
for the expenses incurred in the acquisition, which would seem
to be beyond estimation, would never allow them to yield an
inch. Thus they arrive at the conclusion that if the affair is
carried out in accordance with the proposal made it cannot
possibly end without serious prejudice to the royal dignity and
most sensible injury to his nephew. It seems nevertheless that
the king expresses very clearly his determination, if this first
attempt does not prove successful, to employ all those means
for the attainment of his object which reason or necessity will
show him to be most proper, but meanwhile the defect of his
character, rendered very obstinate after so long a time, and inducing
in him the utmost langour, may possibly render him past
cure (ma il male intanto di sua natura molio difficile ridotto da
si lungo tempo riguardi alli estremi languori vicino si rendera
forse incapace di rimedio).
In order to hear some news about these negotiations, the
French ambassadors with their usual pretext visited the queen
last Sunday. They saw the chief secretary of state, who, they
say, seemed better inclined towards an amicable arrangement than
previously, saying openly that if the Dutch also had sent an
ambassador extraordinary expressly for the affair a defensive
alliance might not prove so difficult.
The ambassadors were struck with this change in their manner
of speaking, considering it extremely unlikely that they should
change their principles and policy here so easily without any
impulse from them, especially at a moment when the pretensions
to the dominion of the sea are quite undecided, and when it is
known for certain that their wishes here are more turbulent than
ever. But they are inclined to believe that by reopening the
negotiations for an alliance the English want craftily to allow
the affair of the sea to sleep, and by procrastination to derive
advantage from both affairs until they can be quite sure which
way the fortune of war will turn in Flanders and from the
issue there they seem disposed to take the measure and rule for
all the decisions which they will have to take. Or else they
believe that the English are seriously offended at the way in which
the Austrians have behaved against the interests of the Prince
Palatine, one may say with the most open contempt of this
crown. They know all the same that the Austrians are very
nervous about the negotiations for an alliance, and wish to keep
them uneasy so as to be able to conclude the alliance with
reputation when the French are driven to it by necessity. Nevertheless,
whatever their objects here may be, the ambassadors do
not neglect to embrace every opportunity of reviving the business
and do not relax in their activity and efforts to bring it, if
possible, to a successful conclusion.
The priest who was taken by force from Senneterre's house
has been set at liberty in response to his strong remonstrances,
and those who dared to violate the privileges of that house have
been arrested. They will pay for their temerity by an exemplary
punishment, unless the ambassador exercises his clemency
in their favour.
The king left the queen at Oatlands and proceeded to Windsor
on Monday, following the route decided on.
London, the 9th August, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
|525. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
Their naval force here still remains at Portsmouth without
having done anything so far. People complain bitterly that the
captains think of nothing but smoking tobacco and in emptying
the casks of wine they are wasting time and damaging the purse
and reputation of the nation. While they stand thus living in
idleness the ships of the merchants here are subject to countless
outrages and infinite loss. When they go to sea they can no
longer be sure of crossing without being boarded by the Dunkirkers.
These, under the pretext of searching to see if they have
Frenchmen on board or goods which belong to the enemies of
Spain, send them with those on board to Dunkirk, whether they
find anything or no, and often make reprisals upon what belongs
to the English as well, and if they remonstrate tell them that
if they can show that what has been seized really belongs to
them, no difficulty will be put in the way of restitution. They
have dealt in this way with a number of small barques which
were proceeding to France after the declaration of war. They
also showed the like severity with a large ship a short distance
from these shores, which was about to enter port. When the
king heard of the incident he was greatly stirred and ordered
his Resident at Brussels to make a very strong remonstrance to
the Cardinal Infant, protesting that if they did not make a
complete restitution of all that had been taken from his merchants,
and if in the future the ships of Dunkirk did not
abstain from such procedure, he would not be able, in the face
of his fleet, to put up with such grave prejudice but would
be forced to take the matter of indemnity into his own hands
to some extent. But this is not enough to satisfy the generality,
who would like to see English ships respected and trade left
free and secure for all, knowing that short of this result the
royal reputation suffers serious hurt.
The French on their side speak very haughtily, declaring that if
the English do not propose to put down the liberties taken by
the Dunkirkers with anything better than words, they also will
be constrained to search for their enemies and goods, indifferently
on all the ships where they may expect to find them, feeling
sure that his Majesty will not take exception to this, as such
an example serves them as an invitation, and because of the
necessity of avenging the injuries and repairing the losses which
they receive from their enemies. Thus, when the sailing of the
fleet here was expected to keep everyone in his place and impose
a good rule upon all we see that its effect has rather been
to throw everything into confusion and to create worse disorder
than there was before. Nor does it seem that they concern
themselves much here about putting things straight. Thus a
great part of the provision of food for the fleet has gone bad,
so much so that they were obliged recently to throw a quantity
of it into the sea, but they have no thought of supplying the
deficiency with new provisions. This makes it probable that
all the ships will be brought back very soon to this river. This
is the more likely because it seems that they are not paying
any attention to the equipment of the other twelve ships which
were to have been got ready to sail for the augmentation of the
fleet in the present season. The progress made upon these
has brought to light the deficiency. However, for the coming
year estimates have been already made for the armament of
fifty ships, and the whole country called upon for an annual
contribution to support them, of which we shall certainly see the
results in the spring, the more so because the people seem to
consent to it readily in the hope that this will avail to establish
the sovereignty of the sea, for which they are eagerly jealous
(dicono certamente vedrasi a nuovo tempo l' effetto, tanto piu
facilmente quanto mostrano i popoli d' adherirvi volontieri, con
speranza che vaglia l' esecutione allo stabilimento della sovranita
del mare, di cui si mostrano ansiosamente gelosi).
News has reached the merchants here that an English ship
which left Leghorn with a full cargo for Spain, was stopped
by three French ships between Leghorn and Genoa, and as the
English captain refused to leave his own ship to take his bill of
lading in person to show to the French, as they required, the
ship was sunk by gun fire, the majority of those on board being
drowned, with considerable loss to those who had goods of great
value therein. (fn. 1) Those interested are making the utmost clamour
about this and they have immediately sent word of it to Court,
where it is likely to create a very bad impression.
The merchants' letters from Flanders of last week brought
news of the surprise of Fort Schench by the Spaniards at night,
and they now report its siege by the Dutch. (fn. 2) It is thought here
that the Spaniards will not be able to hold out for long, and
the result is awaited with curiosity as the importance of the
place is well known.
They have issued a new and most severe proclamation that no
Englishman shall leave the realm, under the most severe penalties,
without a special passport signed by his Majesty or at
least six of his councillors, not even excepting sailors and sea
captains. (fn. 3) They say this has been done because those who
were charged to examine the original passports, for some slight
gain allowed forged ones to pass. Many of them have been imprisoned
for this, the one at Dover in particular, against whom
there are more serious accusations than the others. This step
will cause great discontent to all, but to the poor in particular,
because it will only be possible to obtain such passports at
considerable cost, and so opportunities for leaving the kingdom
will be closed to them for the future.
Letters of the 6th have arrived, but nothing has reached me
from the Senate. I am afraid that the letters have been stopped,
as the packet was broken. I have received the state despatches
of the 13th July.
London, the 9th August, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
526. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
The more his Majesty studies the terms of the peace between
Cæsar and Saxony the more clearly he recognises how much his
reputation is concerned not to allow it to take effect without
making some sign of resentment. The decision already taken
to send one of his gentlemen to the emperor he apparently no
longer considers becoming, as he seemed to do at first, and
although he has selected the individual, (fn. 4) his despatch is being
postponed, possibly in order to see whether some more useful
and decorous expedient can be found.
The French ambassadors, being informed of the perplexity in
which he is involved by such reflections, gladly seized the opportunity
and proceeded to Court on Sunday. Without any compunction
they proceeded to point out that the affront which
his Majesty has received from the Austrians is patent to all
the world and cannot be concealed in any way. Alike for the
common good and for his Majesty's reputation they felt obliged
to represent to him that if he would not once and for all
boldly let loose the resources of his power against those who had
so rashly ventured to offend him, and the matter is allowed
to become stale, it will become difficult, so much so that it may
no longer be in the power of any one soever to make them change
their aspect. Their master reserved himself to make the greatest
diversions in every quarter, but he was not strong enough to
bear so great a burden on his arms alone. Accordingly, now
there was an occasion of such magnitude, they had come in their
king's name to exhort his Majesty to take some generous resolution,
beginning, if he wished, with the proposed mission to
Germany, with angry and determined protests, informing the
Spanish ministers in the mean time, to leave the Court until the
promises, so often made, to restore the Palatinate, have been
fulfilled, and in the mean time to lose no time in arming himself,
so that in any event he will easily be able to obtain by force
what the Austrians have not chosen to yield to justice and reason.
The king, although indeed very surprised at the discourse of
the ambassadors yet did not seem to be offended at it, because
he recognised that they touched the very point previously aroused
in his mind. But he would not continue the conversation, because
he was unwilling either to disapprove or to approve of their
arguments. Nevertheless it seemed to the ambassadors that he
was so much stirred that he may not let their representations pass
without giving them a good deal of consideration (pare agl'
ambasciatori nondimeno sia restato sopra di se in modo che non
lasciera passar forse le loro rappresentationi senza farvi sopra
qualche matura riflessione). But so far nothing more has been
done, or at least, with his Majesty so far away, no news has
come of anything.
Owing to the need of victuals and to sickness, which has
carried off more than six hundred men, the fleet has withdrawn
to the Downs, with the idea of withdrawing altogether for this
year, unless the king orders otherwise. This arouses murmurings,
so much so that people think it would have been better
if it had never sailed at all.
The quarrels among the six deputies for administering the
royal treasury have increased to such an extent that the king
will not be able to postpone appointing a Treasurer any longer.
Every day makes it more apparent that the choice will fall
upon Lord Cottington, because, besides the king's manifest favour
to him personally, his skill and experience in such matters put
him beyond dispute above any one else at Court.
Some weeks ago his Majesty decided to have some building
done at Oatlands for his private satisfaction, and in particular
to enclose a large park for deer with a long and very high
wall. The cost was estimated at 50,000l. When the question
of raising the money came before the six commissioners, the
Archbishop of Canterbury, moved by his very choleric nature,
began to say with great heat that this was no time to devote
so large a sum to such vanities and he marvelled greatly at
those who encouraged such ideas in the king. They certainly
showed scant devotion to their office or else lack of prudence.
Cottington, well knowing that they must not cross the king's
wishes unless they wished to give him great offence, answered
the archbishop with equal coolness and circumspection, remarking
on the ardour and freedom with which he had been led to
speak. He then said that they had not met there to debate
whether his Majesty's decision was bad or good. It did not
behove them to discuss his pleasure, whatever it might be, but
they were sent for merely to see that it was satisfied. He
really did not think the king was so poor that means could
not be found to gratify any particular pleasure of his, even at
considerable cost, and he himself, and he knew he had not
acted wrongly, had advised his Majesty to do this. At these
words the archbishop became only the more angry, anathematising
and condemning in severe and biting terms the behaviour
of his colleague, which the other resented, so that the meeting
broke up in some confusion. (fn. 5) The king was very pleased at
Cottington taking his part, and especially for taking on himself
the onus of having advised that course, when he had never said
a word to his Majesty on the subject. Since this incident the
archbishop, who had really ascended to the highest grade in the
royal favour seems to have declined to some extent, while Cottington,
on the other hand, has made great advance therein.
Accordingly the former tries every way to prevent his becoming
treasurer while the latter, by the craft, is much more successful in
holding his ground than the other is in hurting him so that every
one believes that the affair will finally terminate in his favour.
The news received from Flanders and Germany grows worse
and worse. Letters of this week report that the Dutch have not
taken Fort Schench, which is well supplied. The surrender
of Heidelberg castle to the Austrians is asserted. They say that
a great part of the garrison will enter the Imperial army. The
news of the Austrian successes seems to have damped their ardour
here against the French, and it would seem that their suspicions
of that nation are now completely dissipated. There is some
talk of a considerable reverse inflicted on the troops of Galasso
by Duke Bernard's force united with that of Cardinal Valetta,
but this has not yet been confirmed.
The insolence of this most licentious people, which has never
known restraint, has been on the increase for some time past,
especially since the rumours of differences with the French at
sea. Not a day passes but they molest foreigners, whom they
generally believe to be French and call by that name in derision.
Thus last Tuesday, when two of my servants in livery were
coming towards this house, three young apprentices recognised
them as foreigners and began to call them names and then tried
to push them into the mud, forcing them to draw back. As none
of the parties were armed, a bout of fisticuffs began between
them. The bystanders, seeing that the fight was between foreigners
and Englishmen, took the side of the latter, and a furious
tempest of the mob, with sticks in their hands, descended upon
my men, from which they were compelled to take refuge in a
house on the square here. When they had arrived half way
my other servants heard the noise, they hastened to their assistance,
without arms as they were, snatched the sticks from the
hands of the English and followed them up with such persistance
that they drove them right out of the square ; (fn. 6) but with the
popular fury steadily increasing against them they very soon had
to retreat. Amid this confusion an English porter died of a
blow on the head, and one of my lackeys, being severely hurt
and unable to escape with the others, fell into their hands and
was taken prisoner.
When I heard what had happened I lost no time in sending
my secretary to the Secretary of State Windebank to tell him
about it and ask him to have my servant set at liberty, taking
knowledge of those who were guilty of the insults and ordering
their punishment. He replied that he deeply regretted what had
occurred and he knew full well the insolence of this mob. I
was not the first ambassador here to experience the effects ; those
of France had known the like, one by the arrest of a priest in
his own house ; the other by ill treating a servant who took
refuge in the house, and when they could not have him, they
hurled stones and insults at the house. He asked me to condone
this temerity, which is natural and incorrigible here, in the
assurance that no means would be neglected to render me well
content and satisfied. He did not see how he could release the
prisoner at once, because when fatalities occurred the law did
not allow any one to be released without a full enquiry into
the cause, but he would do everything possible for me.
Such is the present state of this affair. It troubles me more
to importune the ears of your Serenity about it than for itself.
Human foresight cannot prevent the accidents of fortune, but
I have thought it right to send you this account. Meanwhile I
will do what I can for the release of the prisoner, and I already
have several witnesses from the English themselves that he was
not the murderer. I will inform your Excellencies of what takes
place, and hope that everything will soon be satisfactorily settled. (fn. 7)
I have received this week the Senate's letters of the 6th ult.
London, the 16th August, 1635.
527. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Spain,
to the Doge and Senate.
They have sent a courier to the Resident in England, apparently
to offer excuses and protests that his Majesty has had
nothing to do with the emperor's declaration about the Palatinate,
which was all arranged in secret concert between the emperor and
the Duke of Saxony. So far as his Majesty here is concerned he
is ready to give that king every reasonable satisfaction. The
Count Duke has performed the same office recently with the
English Resident here. This is a trick which they have often
played, but it is difficult to believe that the English will admit
their pleas. With regard to the marriage of the English princess
to the prince here, so much desired by England, I think
it is impossible they can persuade that monarch that they mean
Madrid, the 17th August, 1635.
528. That the English ambassador be permitted as a favour,
to export the goods described in the enclosed note, without payment
of the duties.
Ayes, 125. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
On the 21st August in the Collegio :
Ayes, 21. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
|529. Note of goods to be sent to Constantinople for the use
of the English Ambassador resident there.
|Roman, of gold
|duty estimated at about 10 ducats.
|530. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
This fleet keeps approaching the river here under the pretext
of replacing the men disabled by sickness and of renewing their
salted meat and biscuits, which have gone rotten in great part,
and this alone makes it more and more evident that its activities
are ended for the present year. With this failure of vigour the
French uneasiness about it is dissipated, so that the ambassadors
have practically ceased to think about going on with the matter
of the sovereignty of the sea. Although the sailing of another
and much more numerous fleet is already arranged for next year,
they have considered it more opportune to postpone treating
about it until another time, and to employ the present for the
advancement of the alliance, as they are urged on by their own
side, which has become very languid in Flanders, and one may
even say that they are solicited by the ministers here to some
extent. Speed would greatly assist this affair, but the absence of
the Court and the diversions of his Majesty leave no hope of
any solid negotiations for a month, and it is thought that another
very difficult point will prevent the effectuation.
The six commissioners deputed for the business have pressed
very strongly, before they proceed with the matter, that they
may be shown the final articles of the treaty between the Most
Christian and the States of Holland, declaring that without this
satisfaction they have no power to proceed with the negotiations.
Up to the present they have given them to understand that it
is proposed to concede this and that an ambassador extraordinary
especially sent from Holland for these negotiations will bring
these articles with him. But in the present state of affairs in
Flanders, where things are going so entirely differently from
what they expected at the beginning, and it is not consistent
with the interest or reputation of the allies that these agreements
should be seen which contain particulars and compacts which
are absolutely beyond their powers in the present state of their
fortunes, the French are determined to keep them secret, so it
follows as a consequence that the direction of this transaction
must be postponed until some middle term has been found which
will give due satisfaction to both parties, and the negotiations
will be altogether broken off here, since they seem determined
here not to proceed to any resolution without knowing those
articles first. And the greater the efforts that are made to
conceal these articles the deeper the jealousy and suspicion
that they conceive here.
I have nothing to add to the decision about the Palatinate.
His Majesty has confirmed with some reluctance the decision to
send a gentleman to the Imperial Court. This individual (fn. 8) has
orders not to delay his departure beyond next week. His instructions
are announced as follows : in the first place to make
a vigorous representation of the regret felt by his Majesty at
seeing the peace with Saxony arranged to the perpetual exclusion
of the interests of his nephews, contrary to the intentions,
frequently ratified to restore them to their former free possession
of their own dominions. Further he is to ask that the
agreements shall be revoked upon this point. Finally he is to
protest that if they will not concede this amicably, his Majesty
will be compelled to render that justice to himself that he seeks
in vain from others, and so if he is seen to take certain steps,
his action will be sufficiently justified in the eyes of the
world, and if anything occurs which they may not like the
Austrians will only have themselves to blame. However, in
spite of this high tone I am informed that the protest will be
made in the mildest manner, which means that the whole affair
will end in words.
The ambassador for Spain has received his commissions and
his departure is being hastened. He also is to make strong
representations for the adjustment of the affair, but he seems
in no hurry to set out.
The leading parliamentarians here, while these disturbances
prevail, make their calculations for the future, and in the hope
that the king is determined to settle the matter by force of
arms, seeing that he cannot do it satisfactorily or honourably
by negotiation and without abandoning the advantage of his
nephews, delude themselves with the belief that they will see
parliament convoked for next winter. They base their belief
on the impropriety of such an expedition, judging it such from
the vain results of Anstruther's past negotiations, and it is
strengthened by the apparent necessity in which his Majesty finds
himself not to suffer himself to be deluded more and more
every day in matters of such consequence. Upon this basis
they have had adroit representations made to the king that they
are most anxious to see such an affair terminated in the largest
fashion. At the same time they have made specious overtures
to him, saying that whenever he decides to summon parliament
he may put aside all the satisfactions that concern past affairs,
with the object disclosed upon other occasions, the only intent
of parliament being to undertake in a generous and resolute
manner to uphold the reputation and glory of the English name
at the height that it deserves as well as the ordinances and forces
of the nation, for which purpose they express themselves as
ready to provide the king with what he may consider necessary,
particularly at present, to kindle and to maintain the war against
those who unlawfully retain the states and jurisdictions pertaining
to the Palatine House, and thereby prejudice its interests
as well as the dignity of this crown (con questi fondamenti
hanno fatto destramente rappresentar al Re esser loro grandemente
antiosi di veder tal negotio con le maggiori forme terminato
et fattagli insieme far qualche apertura speciosa, con dire che
ogni volta sia rissoluto a voler chiamar il Parlamento potra metter
da parte tutte le soddisfattioni che si voglia ruminare le cose
passate con quel fine che sono stati altre volte divolgati sola
intentione del parlamento essendo che con rissolute et generose
maniere d' intraprender di sostenere la riputatione et la gloria
del nome Inglese a quel segno che merita l'ordine e le forze
della Natione per il cui effetto bene si mostreranno pronti di
provedere il Re di cio egli conoscera necessario particolarmente
al presente per suscitare e mantenere la guerra contro quelli
che trattenando illegitimamente li stati e le giurisditioni spettanti
alla Casa Palatina pregiudicano alli interessi di quella
e alla dignita di questa corona).
These representations having been considered, the king has
intimated that he greatly appreciates the good will of his subjects.
He declared that when occasion arose he would make such
capital from it as he felt sure he could promise himself from
their devotion, but with the intention, so far as one can gather
his Majesty's objects, of doing nothing at all, in the hope of
finding other means of meeting what future days may bring
forth. To tell the truth it looks as if he might reasonably promise
himself anything, since he has achieved with such ease the arming
of these present ships and consent to the contributions for
fitting out the others which are to put to sea next year.
Great disturbances occur every day in these waters, and although
these consist in the mischief which the Dunkirkers, the French
and the Dutch inflict on each other, it is the English ships and
goods which seem to suffer the most harm. The Dutch recently
took an English ship which was proceeding to Dunkirk with a
rich cargo, and the Dunkirkers a French one which was coming
to this kingdom with many passengers, who were all incontinently
thrown into the sea. The confusion is really considerable and gives
the merchants here good ground for complaining at the lack of
security for their trade, and to others to disparage the operations
of the Earl of Linge, who sailed with so many ships, only to
do harm instead of increasing the reputation of this nation.
News has just arrived from him that he has made reprisals in
the Downs on a Dutch ship, and that he has gone in person to
Court to know what to do in the matter, and what he is to do
in the future with the fleet, if his Majesty orders the fresh
supplies of men and munitions that are required.
The Ambassador Scudamore left last week for Paris, where he
may be arrived by now.
I have received the state despatches of the 19th ult. It is
unlikely that any negotiations of importance will be transacted
before his Majesty's return. I fear that my despatch of the
10th inst. has been captured on its way to Dunkirk by Zeeland
My repeated instances to the ministers here have not succeeded
in obtaining the release of my servant, who was made prisoner
last week. They tell me that they have not the power to do
it, unless I procure the security of some merchant, the more so
because they find by their enquiry that things are somewhat
different from my first representations. I would on no account
agree to this, and as Windebank informed me that no one but
the king himself could order his release, I begged him to put
his Majesty in possession of the real facts, since those obtained
by questioning the bystanders are all prejudiced. He promised
to do this and assured me that his Majesty would order complete
satisfaction to be given to me. He seemed to regret deeply
that the law ties his hands so. I shall wait for the reply, and
if it does not prove satisfactory I shall go myself to speak to
his Majesty, on whom alone, they tell me, decisions in such
London, the 24th August, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
531. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to
the Doge and Senate.
Despite the remonstrances of the English Resident with regard
to the emperor's declaration about the Palatinate, the ministers
here speak as if they were confidant that the conclusion of the
alliance is very near. This excites misgivings in the Imperial
Ambassador that there has been some promise to marry that
king's daughter to the prince here.
Madrid, the 24th August, 1635.
532. Stefano Capello, Venetian Proveditore of Zante, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Inquisitors arrived yesterday morning and left to day for
Candia. They found that 12,000 reals had been lent by the English
merchant Henry Ider, which ought to be refunded to him
by the Chamber of Cephalonia ; the deplorable state of the people
here and of myself being recognised and pitied.
Zante, the 18th August, 1635, old style.
533. To the Ambassador in England.
In reply to your letters of the 21st July with regard to his
Majesty's interposition for some accomodation with Savoy, you
will avail yourself of the enclosed copy of a reply given by us
on the subject. You will evade every attempt made to broach
the subject, as being something incompatible, and will let them
understand this in indirect ways, in order to prevent any open
move for interposition.
Ayes, 107. Noes, 1. Neutral, 0.
534. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
The damage suffered by the merchants here at sea becomes
ever greater, but although the hurt done them by other, nations
is equally detrimental, apparently it is only what the French
inflict that moves them to resentment and complaint. Some days
ago a vessel of theirs, said to be very rich, was taken on its
way here from Spain by a French ship. (fn. 9) They sent to inform
the king at once, with a petition to obtain redress for them
by his strength and authority. The facts were much misrepresented
to his Majesty, it being asserted that the English on board
were inhumanly outraged and tortured. This and the ill offices
which are always performed by some of those who have familiar
access to his Majesty, who seize every opportunity of discrediting
the procedure of France, led him to decide to make
a very strong remonstrance to the French ambassadors here,
threatening revenge if the things are not promptly restored.
The ambassadors, who had no previous information about
the matter, were surprised at this sudden and violent complaint.
They neither denied nor confirmed the event, but said they would
write to France, so that, if it should prove true a proper remedy
might be applied to satisfy his Majesty. At the same time they
assured him that such excesses could only have been committed
by outlaws, and if they were caught they would suffer the most
severe penalties, as the Most Christian has nothing more at
heart than the maintainance of perfect relations with this crown.
His Majesty seemed quite satisfied with this, but the people,
where the French are concerned, always become more rabid and
overbearing than they need. They do not cease their outcry,
but give rein to their rage in the greatest execrations and call
furiously for vengeance. This causes some apprehension to the
ambassadors themselves, as they can hardly venture into the
streets without exposing themselves very often to some impertinence
from the lower classes. Thus when M. de Poygne was
passing near the queen's house a few days ago, a dead cat
covered with fifth was purposely thrown into his coach, with a
volley of outrageous words. Such audacity is intolerable but
incorrigible all the same.
General Linge returned from Court yesterday evening and
went straight to the Downs, where the fleet still lies. It has
not been possible to discover whether he takes orders for replenishing
or disbanding, but events will soon show the truth.
By the despatch of last week the Resident of Savoy here had
orders from the duke, his master, to inform his Majesty of the
duke's decision to make an alliance with the Most Christian ; (fn. 10)
to explain the sound reasons which have led him to take this
step, assure him of his good intentions and invite him also to
move to support the public cause now that the Austrians have
afforded him so great and solid an incitement over the interests
of the Palatinate. Upon this point also he is to offer to his
Majesty all that his Highness can do assuring him that the duke
also is unable to see without concern, the imperial arms make
themselves so powerful in Germany, and it is their common
interest to prevent them from making greater and more important
progress. This is the substance of the Resident's instructions,
which I have gathered from a most safe quarter. In order to
execute them he set out immediately for the Court, which being
very far away, (fn. 11) has not yet allowed enough time for him to
return here. He has not yet had time to get back here.
As a matter of fact, amid the present general fluctuations,
beyond what directly concerns the crown, they seem to pay no
attention to considerations and representations. The instances
of the French and the solicitations of the Spaniards certainly
make but little impression upon them. Amid the various opinions
of those who take part in the government there arises a third
party, which balances every other opinion, and shows how useful
and opportune it is to stand and look on at the tragedy of
others as spectators and enjoy peacefully that blessedness which
God has chosen to grant to these realms amid such universal
calamities. With this object solely they have allowed the proposal
to collect troops to fall through, and with the same idea
it is believed that the action of the fleet will be neglected, for
although it is ordered for next year, in greater strength, it is
quite clear that the king has done so more for the purpose of
gaining authority over his people than from any idea of using
Nevertheless the parliamentarians here are more ardent than
ever in their desire to have a parliament. Their courage keeps
rising and they base their hopes on the reason the king has to
avenge himself for the wrong he has received from the Austrians,
by failing to restore the Palatinate as promised. They loudly
claim damages from these and say openly that those affairs
ought not to be allowed to go nearer to ruin, because then England
will have to receive those princes, and owing to their
number and quality it is good counsel to make every effort before
coming to such a pass, and to keep them away. These
arguments are so strong that even the warmest partisans of
Spain do not know how to confute them, especially as they do
not dare to hold language at variance with the opinions of his
Majesty, so to discredit them they take the course which they
know to be most in consonance with his genius, which is to
encourage his constant intention not to have a parliament, without
the support of which they clearly see that great resolutions
cannot be taken up or at any rate prosecuted.
Gordon, who comes here with the credentials of the King of
Poland, though with scant facilities for negotiating, still follows
the Court. Notwithstanding reports to the contrary which the
Spaniards circulate, he maintains stoutly that that monarch is in
favour of the agreements with the Swedes as much as he possibly
can be. It seems nevertheless that according to the news
of those affairs which has arrived recently the negotiations
appear to be making very slight progress. In addition to their
being confined to treating for the truces only, the deputies disagreeing
with the proposals about the time and numerous other
difficulties in the way make it seem as if both sides were near
the point of separation.
A courier, said to be from Florence passed through the city
yesterday in haste towards the Court. Much curiosity is felt
here. They say that he has been sent by the Grand Duke on
some secret business and that he brings news of French successes
The death of the Marquis of Aytona, (fn. 12) confirmed from all quarters
is considered a great loss for the Spanish army, as it is
thought that there is no one of equal prudence and good fortune
to succeed him. They talk freely of the Duke of Lerma
taking the appointment.
Letters from Germany to the merchants here report the steps
taken by Sassenhausen, commander of the garrison of Frankfort,
to prevent the citizens from coming to terms with the emperor,
and the move of Duke Bernard to assist him ; but the news is
not yet confirmed.
The fleet which left Dunkirk three weeks ago is said to have
dispersed the Dutch fishing fleet, of which there is no news. It
is reported to be completely broken and dispersed, but of this
there is no certainty.
They expect his Majesty at Windsor, back from his progress,
within a fortnight. He proposes to stay there some weeks. The
queen has spent her time so far at Oatlands, where she has
passed it in getting her maids to perform pastorals and comedies
and other pleasant diversions. The day before yesterday she
came to this city, intending to stay at least a week, but the
news reached her yesterday that the prince had fallen ill with
a slight fever, so she decided to leave in haste to see him,
I have received this week the state despatches of the 27th July.
With regard to the move for an adjustment with Savoy, the
Resident here seems to have abandoned all idea of any further
attempts to that end. However, I will keep my eyes open.
London, the 31st August, 1635.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]