615. Giovanni Battista Ballarino, Venetian Secretary in
Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
On Wednesday in last week a courier arrived from England in
twenty days with a letter to the emperor and instructions to
Teller to press for some definite resolution about the Palatinate,
and to say that any delay in answering would be interpreted as
a sign that Cæsar was reluctant to give satisfaction and that
action would be taken upon the courier's return. The messenger
reported that couriers had also been sent to Spain and Sweden,
but he may have spread this report with design. This action
has made the emperor and his ministers anxious ; but when
Teller went to audience of his Majesty soon after he remarked,
as if on his own account, that the difficulty could not only be
adjusted, but that England might be brought to make a defensive
and offensive alliance with the Catholic if only they would listen
to justice and reason. For this purpose his Majesty should send
a special embassy to London, as this would certainly please his
king. The emperor seemed inclined to do this and said that they
would answer the letter, showing their good will, but that the
Duke of Bavaria is the sole cause of delay and Cæsar cannot
refuse to hear him.
Meanwhile Verteman's despatch has been postponed for some
days, and they may decide to send an ambassador, the only
doubt being a question of prestige. Some think it would be
better not to take any resolution, to compel England to arm,
and then do, as an act of necessity, everything that is asked
to give complete satisfaction to the Palatine. In this way
Bavaria would have no just cause for complaint, and if England
was armed they would more easily reap the fruits of an alliance,
which would otherwise be liable to uncertainty.
All are not pleased with this idea, though they do not mind
about Bavaria, whose loyalty to the House of Austria is suspect.
They might grant the Palatine his hereditary dominions. Bavaria
is considered to be very friendly to France at heart. They know
he is responsible for the objections raised by many to the diet.
It is believed that neither Cæsar nor Bavaria will be able to
realise the results of their exertions unless England is first
satisfied and a general peace made in the empire.
Vienna, the 2nd March, 1636.
616. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador at the Hague,
to the Doge and Senate.
The Prince told me that he had seen letters from one John
Zavadesky, a Pole, to one of the ambassadors in Poland, stating
that the ecclesiastical estates had at last given their consent
to the marriage of the king with the Palatine princess, and
he was to go to England by way of Holland to conclude the
affair. The whole Court is on tiptoe for the confirmation of the
news, as this alliance is considered most important and advantageous
for the common cause. They say that the pope has said
under his breath that he will not refuse his blessing once the
marriage is concluded.
M. di Beveren saw me on Monday and said that he was leaving
this week. He is a gentleman of breeding and talent and
displays an aptitude for negotiation.
The Baron di Rasechurt, Grand Master of the Artillery of the
Duke of Lorraine, has left Brussels for England by order of the
duke, his master. (fn. 1)
The Hague, the 6th March, 1636.
617. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
The pleasures of the carnival prevent all serious business. The
chief news is the king's choice of the admiral of the new fleet
in the person of the Earl of Northumberland. He is one whose
years have not yet given him great experience of naval matters,
but as he is of very noble birth and endowed by nature with
great prudence and ability they hope for good results. He is to
sail by the middle of April with twenty five of the best ships
and to wait for the others at sea, which will be sent to him
in a few days. His commissions will resemble those given to
the Earl of Lindesay last year, namely to scour these seas, keep
a free way for all nations and to get others to render obedience
and recognise the supreme authority of the king's flag. He will
also have orders to prevent all those who have not first obtained
licence from the king, from fishing, a claim lately revived, which
greatly disturbs the Dutch. The earl declares that he will carry
out his instructions with punctuality and rigour without regard
for any one soever, if they will not render obedience, and that
he will enforce them even against superior numbers. The Court
expects much from his resolution believing that he will do his
utmost to win reputation and respect from the successful conduct
of this, his first conspicuous and important charge. The French
seem to pay little attention to the sailing of the squadron or to
the earl's threats. They say that their king will not have a
single ship with his flag flying in the Channel, as the whole
French fleet is destined for the Mediterranean.
The affairs of the Palatine both at Paris and Vienna remain
stationary, and nothing is done here. M. di Seneterre is waiting
for leave to return to France. The Spanish Resident Nicolaldi
has obtained permission without difficulty for the conveyance
to Dunkirk, under convoy, of a million of francs lately arrived
on board an English vessel. (fn. 2)
His Majesty has not come to any decision about the sentence
reported in Ireland, and so it remains in suspense. Meanwhile
the Viceroy there has obtained leave to come here to Court to
exculpate himself from the charges made against his rule in the
last troubles. The king thinks highly of him and says he has
been very well served, so his coming will only serve to defeat
his opponents. Some indeed think that he may take this opportunity
to induce his Majesty to give him the treasurership,
both to make use of his services in that important office and to
satisfy the Irish, who would gladly see him removed from that
government. In spite of these rumours Cottington does not lose
his well founded hopes, secure that the king is satisfied with
his present management. Meanwhile newer rumours that his
Majesty inclines to give the treasureship to the Bishop of London
do not disturb him, while it is quite certain that the vacancy
of this office occasions quarrelling and strife among the courtiers
who are most in credit, and all these confusions do not tend
to the service of the crown, so in one way or another it is
thought that the king will soon be compelled to come to some
The Secretary Coke has recovered, and although feeble under
the weight of his 76 years he appeared this week at the Council.
Little more is said about the disposal of his office, and it is
thought that so long as he continues to discharge it in good
health, it will not be taken away from him. The Earl of Carlisle
also is much better and likely to live. The king comforted
him greatly by the honour of a visit, when he stayed some
hours, giving him every sign of affection.
The day before yesterday a courier brought news from Italy
which greatly distressed the Court, of the death at Florence of
the eldest son of the Earl of Pembroke. (fn. 3) His Majesty feels it
especially, because of the loss to the earl, who is his Lord
Chamberlain and whom he particularly loves, and because the
young man recently married by his order a daughter of the late
Duke of Buckingham, whose memory is deeply rooted in his
affection. As a sign of his grief at this event he has ordered
the abandonment of some entertainments which were arranged
for these last days of the carnival.
I have received the ducal missives of the 26th January.
London, the 7th March, 1636.
618. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
Panzani has received letters from Cardinal Barberino this week
about the change of the inscriptions in the Sala Regia. He has
tried to justify the reasons given for this step with the foreign
ministers and with people of Catholic leanings. He stated that
Pope Alexander went to Venice not as a refugee but in triumph,
and there made peace with the emperor. The republic arrogated
too much to itself. Previous connivance was no reason for the
continuance of what investigation proved to be wrong.
To prevent the spread of bad impressions I have spoken to the
French ambassadors and to other leading ministers of the Court.
I showed them the validity of the claims of the most serene
republic and that the eulogy had been ordained by Pope Pius IV.
This was not a private matter. Your Excellencies felt bound to
preserve so precious a capital. I certainly convinced all those
with whom I had occasion to speak, so I think that Panzani's
eloquence and art will be spent in vain. (fn. 4)
London, the 7th March, 1636.
619. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Ambassador Poygni showed me in confidence the reply
given to the English Ambassador in France about the proposed
exchange of Lorraine for the Palatinate. It is to the
effect that the reply was not such as his Majesty had a right
to expect after the care he had shown for the interests of the
king of Great Britain. Public report gave out that a person
had been sent to the emperor with the same proposal, and he
thought it best to wait and hear the emperor's decision. The
ministers here admit that this version is substantially correct.
They say they are well aware that if it was seriously proposed
to take this step the French would have nothing to do with it.
The suggestions which they have had submitted are designed
solely for the purpose of obtaining a legitimate pretext for declaring
war against the Spaniards. They have had this clearly
stated to the Secretary Botiglier by the ambassador, but he has
not chosen to listen, possibly because they are intent on other
objectives. The reply can only serve to confirm England in the
opinion they hold of the lack of sincerity shown by France in
dealing with this question. That the courier sent to the emperor
took nothing beyond the petition for the investiture of the
Prince Palatine, recently emerged from his minority. This was
a necessary office about which they cannot reasonably raise objections
But it is quite easy to see that all this cackling is not natural
but merely raised for the purpose of keeping the Prince Palatine
quiet, because at bottom the reply given assuredly did not displease
them, since delay is the sole point at which they are
aiming in the conduct of this affair, and they try to gain it by
underhand means. For although the time calls for action, they
believe that prudence counsels sitting fast rather than an adventurous
policy. They have never even been willing to admit
that Teller has powers to engage in any particular negotiations,
but they raise their eyebrows and say that he has only gone
to demand of the emperor whether the declaration which he has
made in the treaty with Saxony touching the interests of the
Palatine, represents his final determination. They deny any
knowledge of the appointment of commissioners to treat with
Teller, and declare that if he has gone beyond his instructions
he has done so of his own caprice, and not by order from the
Court. However they do not go so far as to blame him or to
say that they will punish him if he has gone beyond the limits
of his instructions. This makes it probable that they propose
to adopt this method to attribute to the imprudence of the minister
all the unpleasant results which they will gather from these
negotiations at that Court.
The Palatine himself is also of the same opinion and he complains
mildly that they do not talk to him straightforwardly, but
he has to conquer by tact and patience the hardness of all the
most knotty interests, and he certainly uses them very suavely.
The expenses originally incurred for his table and household,
although the coming of his brother, Prince Rupert should have
led to their increase, have been greatly reduced, as they make
30l. sterling a day suffice, where they began with 70l. He does
not like this change, because of the consequences, but he dissimulates
his feelings with great prudence. He is somewhat distressed
to see the marriage between his sister and the Polish
king cooling off, indeed he has almost given up hope of it,
alarmed by the current report that the states of Poland will not
give their assent from fear lest, upon its conclusion, all the
brothers may proceed to the kingdom to share their sister's good
fortune and this may give the English an opportunity to rid
themselves of the burden which they bear for their sakes. The
Palatine's councillors have spoken freely about it to the ministers
here, telling them that without some good resolution from this
quarter the marriage will never be concluded, the form of religion,
upon which the Poles are now haggling, being only a pretext for
delay, and if the first and more important difficulty were removed
they would not oppose the gratification of their king any longer.
Their answer here is that this cannot be the cause of the
difficulty, because the Poles are quite satisfied about the upright
intentions of his Majesty towards the interests of the Princes,
his nephews as shown by the treatment which they receive here
and the promises never to abandon them. To this they reply
that deeds are needed, not polite phrases, as time is passing,
the negotiations are growing old and meanwhile the French and
Spaniards will be compelled to come to some agreement between
themselves, leaving those who remain outside it to bear the
burden. Such arguments hardly admit of a reply, but the king
and Council do not feel the necessity of making one and they
are constantly trying to find the best way to console him.
Letters received yesterday from Calais report the arrest there
of a gentleman found on an English ship, who stated that he
was coming with commissions from the Princess Margaret, now
governor in Portugal. (fn. 5) Many think this was a trick to get him
out of a difficulty, and they seem unconcerned about the matter
here. The letters also report Spanish designs on La Fere.
A gentleman has left London this week on his return to the
queen mother at Brussels having been sent by her merely with
congratulations on the birth of the last Princess. He is said to
have done nothing else and it is probable as he stayed a very
short time and the matter is in other hands. However this may
be it is clear that he returns with very great presents of
jewels, said to have been given to him personally, but they say
with more likelihood that he is to hand them to his mistress.
From time to time that princess will obtain some relief from this
Court, because there is much sympathy for her present condition ;
but there are great difficulties in the way of getting the king
to admit her into his dominions as she desires. However, if
she suddenly decides to come they may receive her and treat
her well in the end.
At last, after much trouble the French ambassadors have obtained
the king's pardon for the condemned sailors. They will
be set at liberty on the payment of a sum of money and the
ship restored to the captain. (fn. 6) The Dutch ambassador has not
had the same good fortune for his, who are still in prison
without his being able to obtain any prospect of their release.
Their Majesties propose to go to Hampton Court next week,
to spend all Lent there. They have decided not to make the
customary stay at Greenwich this year from fear of the plague,
which has caused some ravages about there these last months.
I have received this week the usual advices with the state
despatches of the 15th ult.
London, the 14th March, 1636.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
620. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Spain,
to the Doge and Senate.
Two days ago a courier from England brought orders to the
ambassador to express to his Majesty his king's gratification at
the manner in which the emperor and the Catholic were dealing
with the affairs of the Palatine family. The office gave great
pleasure at the palace and did much to relieve them of the
apprehensions which have perturbed the ministers here not a
little of late. They are again feeling confident of making an
alliance with that crown.
Madrid, the 14th March, 1636.
621. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
After the office of Treasurer has remained vacant a whole year
the king has at length satisfied the curiosity of the Court and
ended the agitation of the claimants by giving it to the Bishop
of London. He unexpectedly gave the bishop the staff after the
council on Sunday, and with it the position in the Council that
usually goes with that dignity. Although one cannot say that
this person is of more than ordinary birth, yet as he has
always lived with irreproachable moderation, he has won the
favour of the Archbishop of Canterbury, to such an extent that
in a short time he has raised him to the bishopric of London,
and amid the fluctuations of so many powerful pretenders has
carried him into this most important office contrary to the expectation
of every one.
The Court cannot help approving his Majesty's decision, yet
it seems that they would rather the choice had fallen upon some
one with greater experience of the estates of the realm and
more versed in the affairs of the world. They do not think that
one who has never had occasion to deal with anything but ecclesiastical
affairs can have the capacity required for discharging
such an office. Some complain freely that the most conspicuous
offices and the greatest authority in the royal Council are falling
by degrees into the hands of ecclesiastics, to the prejudice of
the nobility and of those houses in particular which have always
loyally served the crown. Others are distressed at seeing the
hopes of those who imagined that they stood high in the royal
favour dashed by this blow. The announcement is quite sufficient
to show everyone to what a pitch the power of the archbishop
has arrived, as it is certain that by his advice alone he
has achieved what neither the offices of the most important
lords nor the king's own inclination sufficed to do for others in
such a long interval. I have had no opportunity to see the new
treasurer yet, but I will do so to-morrow morning, as an appointment
has been made, and I will try to win his good graces, as
that may help the interests of your Excellencies.
The gentleman arrested at Calais by the French was not a
messenger from the Princess Margaret, Governess of Portugal,
but the Steward of the Duke Charles of Lorraine, sent on a
private mission to the king here, who is much disturbed at this
and insists on his being released. The French ambassadors have
promised to write to France accordingly, and hold out hopes that
the affair will be settled satisfactorily.
They have decided not to send any reply to the Ambassador
Schidemore about the answer received, before the courier returns
from the Imperial Court. He is expected in a few days. They
believe that the Aulic Councillor sent by the emperor has set
out for here, and if this is confirmed they will not move a
stone before they have heard what he has to propose. Meanwhile
the Palatine's affairs will remain at an absolute standstill,
while the French ambassadors cannot do anything so they also
will suffer the pangs of idleness at this Court, which at the
present moment are shared by all. M. de Seneterre complains
of having lost a year here without effecting anything. He is
pressing for permission to return to France, but he is unlikely
to get it until they see the results of the new embassy expected
Letters have arrived this week from Gordon, the English
Resident in Poland. He reports that all the differences between
the king there and his estates over his marriage with the Palatine
princess are adjusted, and that for the ratification of this a
Polish ambassador will very soon come this way. He states
more definitely that it will be the same one who came here
three years ago with the first proposals when his Majesty was
in Scotland. (fn. 7) The Dutch ambassador confirmed this to me, adding
that he is to go to the Hague first to receive the word of
the princess's mother. The news comes from a person of great
credit and the declaration of the Dutch ambassador makes it look
well authenticated, yet for reasons which I have given before
and because they have so often been disappointed by so many
false announcements, they are very cautious both in believing and
in publishing the matter.
They say at Court that your Excellencies are on the point of
concluding an alliance with Spain for the defence of the Milanese.
Some of the ministers and the Secretary Cuch in particular spoke
to me of it as if it was certain. He said he regretted it as
he would rather the republic had worked for peace. I expressed
my amazement and said I had no inkling of any such thing.
As he insisted I was forced to tell him that his informant must
be very ignorant about the republic and very ill versed in affairs.
I felt sure that his Majesty would pay no attention to such a
report. The French ambassadors laugh at it as a hoax. They
say the story proceeds from Lord Fildin ; but I will not venture
to assert so much as it seems unlikely that he, who has a reputation
for prudence, should have written anything so absurd.
From time to time false reports of this kind are circulated here,
but I do not attach too much importance to them, as I know
they are idle inventions which generally die at birth. I feel
sure that what I said to the secretary did good.
I have received this week "the state despatches of the 21st
London, the 21st March, 1636.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Cons, di X
622. In the Council of Ten.
That the jewels of the Sanctuary and the Halls of Arms of
this Council be shown to the Counts of Liegne, Frenchmen, and
to two English gentlemen.
Ayes, 15. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
623. To the Ambassador in England.
Approval of his behaviour to the Prince Palatine and his
brother, reported in his letters of the 15th and 22nd ult. Enclose
exposition of the Resident Rolandson on taking leave.
When an occasion presents itself he is to express to the king
and ministers the satisfaction given by the Resident, in his
negotiations, his modesty and discretion and his manner of
dealing with affairs of state and of the English merchants.
That 300 ducats be paid to the representatives of the ambassador
in England for couriers and the carriage of letters.
Ayes, 128. Noes, 0. Neutral, 3.
624. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
Before going to Hampton Court his Majesty wished to give
the final orders for the equipment of the new fleet. Last Sunday
in the Council, attended by the Earl of Northumberland, then
first admitted as a councillor, the king nominated the vice
admiral and all the captains of ships. Pennington will be vice
admiral, a man considered prudent and of tried worth. As the
captains are numerous it was necessary to select them from
all sorts of people, as the kingdom is not so rich now as in the
past in those who understand the profession well. However they
have chosen the best and they hope for good results. All that
remains now is to gather the sailors and provision the ships
with food and munitions of war. The general seems to take
especial care of this and hopes in a few days to have everything
ready to sail.
The Dutch ambassador extraordinary who has been expected so
long has arrived at last. He made his public entry on Wednesday
and will have his first audience the day after to-morrow. During
these three days the king will defray his expenses, but no more.
Such is their unalterable decision ; they say it is the general
practice and has been recently adopted in France. I sent my
coaches to meet him and passed the ordinary compliments as I
hope to have his confidence. They say he has brought with
him seven horses, a service of ambergris and a quantity of fine
pictures to present to the king on behalf of his masters. This
first courtesy will prove acceptable and will certainly not prejudice
his negotiations. No great curiosity is shown about these
as their purpose is already known within a little.
The French ambassadors will now be able to push on with
their negotiations but to change their disposition for quiet here,
and to put heat into their lukewarmness, even if they intend to
do something, is not a work of which the end will appear soon.
The courier expected from Germany also arrived at the beginning
of the week, but not with the good news expected. He
brought despatches from the Secretary Teller with an account
of his negotiations. That minister only reports the emperor's
assurances of his readiness to give satisfaction to the king here,
but with an intimation that a diet must be summoned to decide
about the Upper Palatinate and the electoral vote. This means
that for the moment they only propose to discuss about the
Lower Palatinate, and for this too they ask for some one with
more ample powers than Teller. That minister confirms the
despatch of the Aulic Councillor, but does not hold out hopes
of his starting soon and seems to think that he will not come
at all unless they send some one else from here with full powers.
The ministers here do not approve of this style of negotiating,
and they infer that the emperor is unwilling to conclude anything
and is only trying to gain time, and that the Spaniards will
not let go of what they hold without an equivalent. This means
a declaration by England in their favour, and possibly that
might not be enough as they claim compensation for the expenses
incurred by them. However, it is thought that sufficient powers
will be sent to Teller, as that way is considered the safest. But
the most sagacious suspect a snare in the report spread by the
Spaniards that the emperor will raise no difficulty about investing
the Palatine with the Lower Palatinate, as they hope, by
this worthless concession, to pledge England not to unite with
France, and they reserve the question of the fortresses for future
discussion, which they will always be able to find pretexts for
postponing. This is a prudent consideration ; but they will not
see it here, or they do not seem to pay any heed.
No instructions have been sent to the Ambassador Schidemor
since the arrival of these advices, as they know that they will
not produce a favourable impression in France, and when the
French ambassadors resume negotiations they answer them more
curtly than ever, In dealing with them they think nothing of
throwing the gravest affairs into confusion over some simple
question of decorum. This does not arise from lack of knowledge
of affairs, but, and I say it without reserve, from rooted
animosity against the French nation. It seems that not even
the most urgent interests of their own king or that of his
nephews suffices to eradicate it from the hearts of many who
have the chief control of affairs here. This is a very notable
failing which will always disturb any good resolutions made
by his Majesty.
Fresh confirmation has arrived this week about the adjustment
of the King of Poland and his republic over his marria'ge with
the Palatine princess, to the great satisfaction of the king here
and the Palatine brothers, who now speak of it as certain. The
coming of the Polish ambassador to this Court for the confirmation
of the marriage is also confirmed, and they think it will,
not be long before he arrives.
Under the escort granted by the king here of two of his
ships the Spanish Resident has sent the money reported to
Dunkirk this week, but he has not yet sent the four ships
which he obtained permission to send to Spain for the passage
of the ambassador who is to come to reside at this Court. They
do not like this delay, both because they want the ambassador
to come, and because many believe it a joke, as they hear from
Germany that he is staying with the Count of Ognat, his father,
with little intention of coming here, unless he is again urged by
a more vigorous impulse from his Catholic Majesty.
London, the 28th March, 1636.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
625. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
After I had sealed the preceding and was about to send it
off the state despatch of the 29th ult. reached me with news
of the receipt of the book I sent and instructions. I may add
that the author of the book took occasion to answer another
book, written many years ago by the Dutchman Grotius now
acting as Swedish ambassador in France, entitled "Mare Apertum,"
in which I fancy the author tries to prove that no bounds
can be set to the sea, and that no prince can claim special
jurisdiction there. I have tried hard to obtain one for your
Excellencies, but as it directly attacks the claims of this crown,
no one ventures to publish it, and consequently it is very
difficult to obtain. I have been promised one and hope that it
will reach me in time to send with my next despatch, although
I am practically certain that you will have had it a long time ago.
Those who claim to be injured by the book in question are
really all those who have occasion to cross these waters. The
Spaniards and the King of Denmark have expressed themselves,
but only under the breath so far. The Dutch make a great
outcry because of the fisheries. The French make the most
fuss and they say freely that this year, when they are busy
elsewhere they are determined there shall be no ships flying
the royal flag in these waters; but when the aspect of things
has changed they will not recognise any superior, as the English
can adduce no solid reason in support of this pretension except
that they have maintained it by force in times past, a thing
they might not find it so easy to do in the future.
The Spaniards, Danes and Dutch do not speak so resolutely,
indeed they show a disposition to humble themselves, but on the
grounds that the practice at sea has always been for the wea"ker
to yield to the stronger. In this way they hope to avoid unpleasantness
and not to prejudice their rights. They say that
the author of the first book is writing a reply to this. As
soon as it is printed I hope to have a copy, and I will' send
it to your Excellencies as directed.
The sentiments of the king here upon the question of the
States of Holland coming to terms with the Spaniards, of which
you command me to inform you, are the same as I reported,
the same interests remaining constant; but the jealousy has in
great measure disappeared owing to the assurances of the Ambassador
Joachimi. The ministers here, however, keep their
eyes open, and are anxious for the continuation of the war. If
the negotiations had been pursued they would have made some
remonstrance to the Ambassador Extraordinary, but with a change
of circumstances there followed a change of plan.
London, the 28th March, 1636.
626. The Secretary Thomas Rolantson, who was Resident
for England, came into the Collegio and spoke to the following
The spring is approaching and invites to travel. I am to
return to England by his Majesty's order, and I have now
obtained leave from the ambassador to go, so I have thought it
my duty to come and inform your Serenity, and thank you ,for
the favours and honours which I have received, and also for the
English merchants out of regard for the king, my master. I
will tell him all, and wherever I may be, at the English Court
or elsewhere, I shall always be your devoted servant. Before I
leave be pleased to let me know your wishes so that I may
serve you, as is my duty. (fn. 8)
The doge replied, We have always seen you gladly as the
minister of your king and for the modesty, discretion and prudence
with which you have treated. We shall always be glad to
do you a service. If the Signors here have anything to add,
they will do so; meanwhile we wish you a pleasant journey.
With this the secretary bowed and departed.
627. Giovanni Battista Ballarino, Venetian Secretary in
Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
When the emperor thought that Verteman had already started
for England, new difficulties were raised by the President of the
Chamber about the money he wanted for his journey and because
he wished to be something more than a Resident. This delay
in a matter which they want to see settled has annoyed his
Majesty so much that he would have nothing more to do with
that minister and sent for Radolti, councillor of the Chamber,
to give him the appointment, on the definite understanding that
he must start in two days. Radolti accepted and left this city
on Thursday evening with only two servants. I have seen his
written instructions which are merely to point out to England
all the reasons, supported by the decree of a diet, why the
Palatine family ought to recognise the clemency of Caesar. That
he will receive their submission orally or in writing and in
return will assign to them sufficient property to enable them to
maintain themselves in a condition befitting their rank. They
demonstrate that the question of the electoral vote cannot be
discussed now, not because of Bavaria, but because of the articles
of peace with Saxony. In short there is no section of the instructions
which does not leave an opening for settling the
difficulties and meeting the claims of the Palatine family.
Radolti himself remarked to my informant that they had not
thought it expedient to put in writing the instructions of most
consequence. These were simply set forth verbally and fairly
stated by the emperor in the presence of his full Council, to
which he had Radolti introduced to inform him of what he was
I find that the aim of the Austrians is on no account to
alienate the favourable inclination of the English crown, but if it
can be induced to enter into an alliance upon honourable conditions,
this minister is to embrace the opening and not to lose
the opportunity, promising the despatch of a special ambassador,
if England will do the same as well as every other possible satisfaction
which can justly be desired. With respect to the merits
of the affair Radolti is not to conclude anything execpt in case
of most obvious advantage and where there might be danger
of losing it through delay. But if they insist at that Court upon
despoiling Bavaria or on prejudicing him in any way, after
exhausting every effort to induce those princes to relinquish
such claims Radolti is to undertake, in the last resort, to send
a report to the emperor and to await his reply, so that with
the time thus gained they may be able to adopt that course which
the circumstances of the moment may suggest. I fancy that
Radolti has powers to treat for the exchange of the Lower
Palatinate against states in Flanders or elsewhere, with the full
concurrence of the Spanish ministers, but not to conclude anything
without reference to Cæsar.
Teller recently sent an express to his king, without informing
any one. He openly shows his mistrust of all the foreign
ministers and sees them alone. To me he absolutely denied
having sent off a courier, of whose despatch I was aware, and
he has always kept silence about his negotiations, although I have
tried to win his confidence. I am told that Teller will soon be
returning home, his further stay here being rendered useless by
the despatch of the minister sent by the emperor.
Vienna, the 29th March, 1636.
628. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Spain,
to the Doge and Senate.
The English Ambassador has presented a new memorial to his
Majesty asking him to use all his influence with Caesar to give
the Prince Palatine the investiture of the Palatinate. They are
anxious to take up this matter here feeling confident of concluding
an alliance with that crown with greater ease. No reply
has yet been made to the ambassador's offices, although one will
be given soon.
Madrid, the 29th March, 1636. Copy.