28. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
The day before yesterday an express arrived at Court from
the Downs with news of the seizure by the fleet of two French
armed barques, flying the Most Christian's standard, which were
cruising not far from these coasts. (fn. 1) This caused great rejoicing
and the Court has seemed pleased about it beyond all belief,
as they have been anxiously and agitatedly awaiting some such
event as reparation for the royal barque seized at Calais. (fn. 2) On
hearing the news the ambassadors remonstrated immediately,
though without any hope of obtaining the release of the vessels.
They met with such a quick and decided refusal that they could
hardly open their mouths to reply. But they willingly practise
patience, and do not think of renewing their offices, thinking
that if quiet can be secured for the future by such satisfaction
the incident will not have been unfortunate. Here, however,
they still seem full of ardour and think they cannot relax their
jealous observation of the movements of the French naval forces,
and they fear that these will cruise about these narrow seas,
although the ambassadors here have assured them of the contrary
several times. Under the shadow of such apprehensions but
perhaps with another object, all the merchantmen in the river
have been stopped this week. They have selected twenty of
the best of them and ordered them to be fitted out for war with
all speed, so that they may be ready to sail with his Majesty's
twelve, which will be completely equipped in a few days.
When these forces are united with the fleet now in commission
they will increase its numbers to sixty sail. They will all be
large picked ships, admirably armed. Thus those will not be
far wrong who think that so great a movement does not spring
from little designs, but that they intend to do something of great
consequence. The French are uneasy, because they know that
the materials are always ready for exciting fresh disturbances ;
but the Dutch seem much more disturbed, and they have very
good cause, because they know for certain that last week fourteen
of the best ships of the fleet were unexpectedly sent towards the
North to encounter their fishing boats, which recently sailed
as I reported. Their instructions are unknown, even the decision
being kept so secret that it was not divulged until executed.
The Ambassador Beveren spoke to me about it the day before
yesterday with very strong feeling. He seems to fear some grave
disorder, and is the more convinced of this because the very
strong arguments he adduced for the restitution of the Dutch
warship seized with the Dunkirk tartana have not so far made
any impression. He dreads an untoward result, as the United
Provinces are not so strong at sea, even when strengthened by
the 30 ships which they are arming at present, that they can
pretend to be equal to resisting their enemies and England as well.
On the other hand a report is circulated, it is supposed with
design, to the effect that these forces may be destined to act
against the Austrians, his Majesty being especially offended by
the reply said to have been given by the emperor to the Earl of
Arundel in the audience granted to him at Linz, after repeated
instances. They keep the tenor of this secret, I know not
whether through fear or shame, so that I cannot give your
Excellencies any sound information about it. What I have
heard is that instead of a reply to Arundel's instances, according
to instructions, for a definite and categorical answer, the emperor
offered the feeble excuse that he felt the weight of his years too
much to apply himself to the conduct of grave affairs, the care of
which now fell upon the King of Hungary, and so he must address
himself to him if he wished his negotiations to make speedy and
Such is the rather vague account which has issued from the
Court. But I have had it from one who is able to speak on good
authority. Yet it is so extraordinary that it makes the wisest
doubtful, indeed some would refuse to believe it if great
commotions and whispers of serious dissatisfaction were not
circulating at the same time.
In all these negotiations the arrival of the ambassador
expected from Spain has happened very opportunely. He
reached this kingdom at the beginning of the present week,
and is now staying incognito at Greenwich, where he is
preparing a great equipage for his first appearance, in the
most pompous and magnificent manner. He came on one of his
Majesty's galleons, (fn. 3) on which he left two millions of francs,
which it will take to Flanders with the first favourable wind.
They await his negotiations with great curiosity. It is thought
that at the very first he will touch upon the proposals for an
alliance, already opened by Nicolaldi, possibly in the belief that
the present strained relations with the French and Dutch may
afford the best opportunity for pushing them. But no one believes
that he will attain this end so easily, as it will require something
very urgent to bring England to such a resolute declaration in
They say that a son of the late Marquis of Aytona has been
seen in London. He has come from Flanders and is seeking for
an opportunity to proceed in safety to Spain. (fn. 4) He keeps his
incognito and they have taken no notice of him at Court.
The Persian merchant went to kiss his Majesty's hands last
Sunday, and presented his king's letters. The king received him
very graciously, but the reception of the courtiers was not so
courteous, as moved by curiosity to see his remarkable dress they
greatly crowded and incommoded him. There is a sharp dispute
between him and one Richard Gatwood, who arranged for transporting
his household and goods. He claims 3 per cent. for hire
for some cases of reals, amounting to about 20,000, after he has
received 740 for everything, in accordance with the agreement.
I sent for him and gently urged him not to be so grasping and
to show himself reasonable ; but I found him so obstinate that I
was forced to tell him that I should find a way to make him
recognise what was right, hinting that I should inform the
ministers here. He then told me, more insolently than ever that
I might do what I liked it would make no difference to him, as
the interests of individuals and of merchants had nothing to do
with those of the state. I told him again not to be so hot, as if
he happened to prove in the right I undertook to have the right
done to him, but it was of no use as he remained most obstinate
and left me most disdainfully, saying that the republic had no
power to give orders here and he did not care what I might do.
Accordingly, because of the wrong which he wishes to do to the
Persian and his insolent behaviour I made complaint to the
Secretary Windebank, who promised to see that the money was
restored and the man put down. But things are carried out so
slowly that although I know he urges it on with all diligence, I
cannot feel sure of the issue. However I will not abandon the
affair until I see what can be done. If I do not have some satisfaction
before Sunday I will speak expressly to his Majesty.
Meanwhile the reals remain in the ship, without the captain or
the merchants concerned choosing to receive them into their
custody, and they declare that if they are stolen they will not be
responsible. The leading man among them, or rather the one
who has shown most arrogance is this same Richard Gatwood,
who is the same who made the agreement at Venice jointly with
Michael, his brother, who is said to have remained at Venice,
with a house and business common to both. This has made me
decide to give your Excellencies full particulars of the matter, so
that, if you think fit to take any steps against the belongings of
that man, as a surety for the Persian, who has petitioned me for
this, at least until the affair is settled here, you may have something
solid upon which to take action. For my part I think that
their barbarous manner of behaving merits severe correction
His Majesty has been staying at Bagshot all this week. He
proposes to come on here to-morrow to meet the queen, and then
they will both proceed on their destined progress without further
delay. (fn. 5)
The Senate's letters of the 13th ult. alone have reached me.
Windsor, the 24th July, 1636.
29. Giovanni Battista Ballarino, Venetian Secretary in
Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The earl of Arundel has so far avoided a meeting with the
Count of Ognat, and it is asserted that he will not come back here,
but that he will stay at Prague until he goes to Ratisbon.
Linz, the 25th July, 1636.
30. The Ambassador of the King of Great Britain came
into the Collegio and said :
I have come to your Serenity these last months to recommend
the interest of English merchants, who complained of divers
grievances. I never came before I was sure of the reasonableness
of the request. I have previously presented some
requests from those merchants, and they were graciously received
by your Serenity, who took some steps in consequence, of which
I am informed my king. Since then the same merchants have
suffered some wrong at Zante and Cephalonia, which aggravates
their case, as shown in this paper. Your Serenity will see this
and will relieve them with the more zeal ; that will also serve
the interests of the republic, because of my king's appreciation.
I may add that as your Serenity made a gracious response some
days ago to a request of mine for these merchants, I informed
his Majesty, who was pleased and from him you may always
promise yourselves the most perfect response. He then handed
a memorial to his Serenity.
The doge replied : We always have the interests of merchants
at heart, especially of English ones. They are always welcome
and favoured, owing to our excellent relations with his Majesty,
but also because of the benefit from trade at Zante and Cephalonia
and elsewhere, as well as in this city. Your prudent request
shall be considered and these Signors will examine the paper.
In the mean time we assure you that we intend the public order
to be carried out.
The ambassador said, I thank you Serenity and have no doubt
of your decisions being carried out, and I know that you will
consider the petition I have made on my king's behalf. I made
a special request here for the merchants Hider and Opson,
upon which the Senate's reply was brought to me. I especially
asked for the deposit which Opson requested, which has not yet
been thoroughly carried out. When this was reported at Court,
fresh orders came immediately from England to hasten on the
affair. I waited, knowing full well that your Serenity would not
leave it unexecuted. Yet I must recommend it again, although
I know that you mean to satisfy his Majesty's desires.
The doge replied : We repeat that we have the interests of your
merchants at heart. The Senate will decide what it thinks
proper in this matter in their favour. It only remains for the
interested parties to solicit, and if they present a petition every
proper satisfaction will be given them, the magistrates being
instructed to carry the decisions of the Senate into effect. Your
lordship may rest assured of this, and we have the highest regard
for you. Without saying any more the ambassador bowed,
took leave and departed.
31. 1636, the 4th August.
By order of the Savii that the Five Savii of the Mercanzia
shall examine the attached memorial presented by the English
ambassador in favour of English merchants trading at Zante
and Cephalonia as well as the sentence passed by Antonio Pisani,
when he was General in the three islands, and give their opinion
in writing upon oath.
The two last Proveditori from Cephalonia shall do the same.
Most Serene Prince :
We, the Savii of the Mercanzia have examined the paper
presented by the English ambassador. It consists of two items,
to afford facilities for English merchants to trade at Zante and
Cephalonia, and to make some alterations in the duties. As the
parties, who have come from Zante and Cephalonia to bid for
the duties, have heard something of this petition, they have
stated freely that they have no instructions to take part in the
bidding while there was a prospect of some change. We told
them to come, as the duty would be put up on the same terms.
This was in order to find out the value of the duty, as if your
Serenity made any change they would be advised of it and they
would remain as free as before. We put the duty up, therefore,
and 81010 ducats were bidden, an increase of 12810 ducats
a year, and this was the second auction. The loss of this increase
must be considered with respect to the reply to the memorial.
The first point of the English is that when ships come to lade,
the customers, even when asked, will not be present at the
weighing and stamping, causing serious loss through delay.
They ask that if the customer does not go the same or the next
day the weighing and stamping may be done by the public
weighers and ministers alone, according to the decision of the
General Pisani of the 17th April, 1632. We think that the
extortions may be removed, but as the presence of the customer
is necessary at these functions we think that your Serenity
should decree some penalty if he does not appear without delay,
to be levied at once, and if he still persists, that the ministers
and rectors shall depute some sufficient person to act together
with the ministers aforesaid.
In the second article they say that the plantations of currants
in the island of Cephalonia have increased so much as to cause
them grave inconvenience and this prejudices their lading in the
only ports decreed by the old capitulations, and so the customers
make improper gains by granting them licences to lade at other
ports. They therefore beg leave to lade at those ports, in order
to escape this charge. We would represent that while the lading
was confined to Argostoli and val d'Alessandria, there was more
security against smuggling and the increase of currant plantations,
which cause a dearth of grain in the island, while to grant so many
places may facilitate smuggling and increase the burden upon
ministers for the weighing and stamping. Yet the merchants
are exposed as they state to unlawful charges to the profit of
the customers. We leave the reconciliation of these opposites
to your Serenity.
They ask thirdly that when three or more vessels are lading
at the same time the ministers may have instructions to choose
officials to assist in stamping the casks and crates, in the presence
of the customers or their deputies, to avoid delay. This seems
reasonable, and we think that your Serenity might instruct the
Rectors to this effect, but this favour should be done without
expense to the State.
They ask fourthly that they be not subject to extortion from
the customers for the faults of others, such as smuggling by
sailors. We do not see how a distinction can be made between
the interests of the merchant and those of the officers of a ship
in the matter of currants in considerable quantity, as the trade
is in the hands of companies who have the sole right of sale in
England. We therefore do not think that any change should be
made, but we do not think that the merchants ought to be
molested for a small quantity of currants which the sailors
may have taken for their own profit.
They ask fifthly that a Stadiere may be sent to the islands to
test and stamp all measures, as both public and private measures
get worn out and the merchants are defrauded in buying currants,
and the state also suffers. We think this both reasonable and
necessary, as if your Serenity receives the duty of the tenth
from the new plantations when the measures are altered, you are
undoubtedly grossly defrauded. It is also customary in all
cities and fairs to stamp the measures annually, It would be
advisable to appoint some one for this purpose, and he should
profit from the numerous individuals of those islands who would
need him, while people would come from the Morea, where there
is no one capable of doing this.
To the sixth article for the export of a certain quantity of oil,
wine, acids and other things by their ships, without paying
duty, we think it a delicate matter as under this cover the duties
might suffer severely, and it would affect the auction.
Seventhly they ask that the duty may be paid at Argostoli,
where the English merchants usually live, as it is seven miles
from the fortress of Cephalonia, where they have to go and pay
the new duty, and they are in danger of being robbed by the
numerous brigands, or that their lives and money may be
protected in some other way. We think that Argostoli is not a
suitable place for keeping the public money, as the site is open,
but their request for protection is reasonable and the Rectors
should be strictly charged to keep the roads clear of malefactors,
as they may easily do by means of the two armed boats of the
guard, which are always there. If the merchants, having some
large payments to make, should desire greater protection, we
think that the Rectors should grant them a sufficient escort, at
their request, and without expense.
They ask eighthly for the confirmation of General Pisani's
decree of the 17th April, 1632. It comprises facilities for the
merchant to recover debts, if he has a written or signed paper,
by direct process, but if not, proceedings shall be by the ordinary
forms of justice. This seems reasonable and for the benefit of
merchants and islanders alike. Then that the merchants may
have currants weighed and stamped even in the absence of the
customer, if he does not come promptly when advised by them.
We have already remarked upon this. The third concerns the
relief of merchants from charges made by public officials, in
raising contributions under the name of gifts. We think it
proper to relieve merchants from extortion and to facilitate trade.
The fourth is about forbidding the cutting of currants before
they are ripe and taking them from the altars before they are
thoroughly dry, injuring the crop and the purchaser. We have
no objection to this.
Ninthly they want Londons, half Londons and tin relieved of
the new impost asserting that this would not affect the duty,
which is so heavy that the goods are not taken to the islands,
indeed it causes harm, because the ships discharged such goods
in the Morea, and the import duty of 2 per cent, and the export
duty of 4 per cent, are lost. This affects the articles already
arranged and the companies here declare that they do not mean
the duty to be altered. But the question may well be discussed
and a decision taken, as we hear that but little of the goods in
question is unladed in the islands, and much goes on to the Morea,
with obvious loss to your Serenity.
Finally they ask for instructions to the Rectors to bridle those
who slander and maltreat the English living in the islands. This
seems reasonable and foreigners living in your Serenity's
diminions should not only be respected, but receive honours and
Dated at the office, the 12th August, 1636.
Girolamo Lando, knight.
|32. 1636, the 4th August.
By order of the Savii, the two last Proveditori from Cephalonia
shall give their opinion in writing upon oath upon the memorial
presented by the English Ambassador in favour of English
merchants trading at Zante and Cephalonia.
In fulfilment of the order of your Excellencies, we the undersigned
have to state :
First that we think the decision of the General Pisani should
Secondly, we think that as the plantations of currants have
really increased, the merchants should be able to lade at the
ports of Asso and Theachi, in addition, and should be content
with this, as the ports of Pilaro and Leo are unsafe for large
Thirdly, we think it would be a convenience for the merchants
and equally to the interest of the state for the Proveditore of
Cephalonia to have instructions to choose a trustworthy official
to assist the customer when several ships are lading at once, if
your Excellencies do not think it too costly, as the merchants
ought not to bear the charge, for fear of fraud.
Fourthly, we think it reasonable that the merchants should
not be made responsible for the frauds committed by sailors
and others, if possible, but the damage done is often discovered
after the ships have gone, and no other way of recoupment is
possible. The merchants can easily prevent it by keeping
control over the sailors.
Fifthly, we think that some one should be appointed to test
the measures every year.
Sixthly, with regard to the export of wine, oil etc. we have only
to say that by decree of the Senate of the 25th July, 1626, English
ships have permission to export such things from this city without
duty, if they have brought them here and paid the charges. There
is no difference between export from this mart and what they
ask. On the other hand the island of Cephalonia will suffer
some inconvenience if nine or ten ships, which sail with currants,
take away the things in question, which they might need more
for themselves if they were released from interest in the export.
The duty thereon might suffer somewhat, while the island, which
only produces enough oil, every third year for its own needs,
would suffer no little inconvenience and loss.
Seventhly, your Excellencies alone can weigh the pros and
cons of making payment at Argostoli. The universal practice
is for state payments to be made in the Chamber only, and the
merchants can easily get men from the ships to escort the money.
Eightly, we have given our reasons for the confirmation of
General Pisani's decree of the 17th April, 1632.
Ninthly, it would be profitable to the islanders for Londons,
half Londons and tin to be exempted from the new impost, as
they could dress in the cloth at a cheaper rate, and to the
merchants, who need not go to the Morea, if they do so : but this
must be left to the prudence of your Excellencies.
Tenthly, they well deserve the protection of your Excellencies
by a public order to desist from hurting them in deed or word,
with a promise of severe punishment for those who pass the bounds
of moderation and charity.
Dated at our house, the 13th August 1636.
Signed :—Nicolo Erizzo.
|33. Memorial of the English merchants trading at Zante and
Cephalonia presented to the doge by the English Ambassador.
The new impost at Zante and Cephalonia is paid for the most
part by us English merchants for the export of currants to England
and other places. Contrary to the wishes of the republic we
meet with many difficulties and obstacles in our business, raised
by those who seek their personal advantage by indirect ways.
Now that the duty is to be put up to auction we have decided
to lay our grievances before your Excellency, so that we may
obtain relief through your intervention, as the representative
of his Majesty.
The ten articles which follow are referred to seriatim in the
reply of the Five Savii above.
|34. Judgment of Antonio Pisani. (fn. 6)
The English merchants, who trade with large capital at the
islands of Zante and Cephalonia not only with advantage to our
subjects, but also to the revenues of the state, have petitioned
for relief in various particulars. After a due consideration of
the matter, we have resolved :
(1) that in Cephalonia, as here, English merchants who have
written papers or signatures for their debts, can obtain the
assistance of chancery against their debtors, to be executed
forthwith, after it has been signed by the government, without
prejudicing the rights of the parties to appeal afterwards ; and
creditors of the English shall have the same privilege. But debts
not so authenticated must go by way of citation, trial of the case
and sentence, before execution.
(2) in order to relieve merchants of delay in getting their ships
away, they may weigh and stamp their currants provided one
of the following is present, one interested in the new impost,
one interested in the import and export duties, the public weigher.
The customers may send any one for their own satisfaction, but
the merchants are not obliged to wait for him. If the customers
are advised and do not send, the weighing can proceed, provided
the others are present. Every time the customers are advised
and do not send, they shall be fined 100 ducats upon the duties
for each occasion, and shall be responsible for any harm suffered
by the ships, two guards being placed upon each ship, to watch
day and night over the interests of the duty.
Thirdly, the order of the 4th December, 1631, is annulled, at
the instance of the customers, who ask that the present order
may have effect. Further that the aforesaid offices of guards,
assistants, weighers etc. shall not constitute any charge upon the
merchants, even under the name of gifts, as the public interest
would be prejudiced thereby, upon pain of outlawry, imprisonment
and the galleys for those who transgress.
(4) Whereas some, for malicious ends cut the currants before
they are ripe, to profit by the weight, and take them from the
altars before they are dry which cannot please the English,
because the fruit must often be thrown away, so that the
merchants sometimes refrain from buying, and the duties suffer,
we order that every year the Proveditore shall proclaim that
every one must let his currants ripen properly and dry thoroughly
on the altars and clean them from all wastage, upon a penalty
which the representative of the state shall decide.
These presents, registered in the chancery here and in that of
Cephalonia, shall be duly observed and carried out.
At Zante, the 17th April, 1632.
35. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Ambassador Beveren has succeeded in staying the fourteen
ships which had been commissioned to sail northward to stop the
Dutch fishing boats. The reason they agreed to his request
was the hope that the Dutch, intimidated by such resolute action,
would decide to treat for the composition which they have asked
for here from the outset. But they are more intent upon gaining
time than disposed to enter upon negotiations. So they temporise
with offices and lull them with gentleness when they threaten
violence, believing that by putting things off they can quietly
enjoy the benefit of all the present season at least. The king,
however, seems to think and decide differently. The twenty
merchantmen and twelve royal galleons are being got ready with
all diligence, with the idea of sending them all against the Dutch
if they will not see their duty.
Beveren also made another attempt to recover the ships
detained, but he found their reply firm, although ambiguous as
usual. He added to this a remonstrance about their continuing
to transport so openly to Flanders money coming from Spain,
and said that English help to the Spaniards did his masters more
hurt than the arms of their enemies. They told him that they
were not at present doing anything extraordinary in favour of
the Spaniards, and hinted that for the 1½ or even 2 per cent.
profit which they make from this passage they would do the same
for any one else, although one needs much persuading to believe
it. It is enough to consider the results : the two millions
recently brought by the Ambassador Ognat having been seized
for past debts. He still remains incognito at Greenwich, and
apologises by saying that he is not ready to appear publicly.
His Majesty, who is impatient to hear what he brings sent him
word that if he wished to see him last Sunday at Windsor, he
would gladly arrange it, but he excused himself for the reason
stated, and practically let it be understood that it would be
enough for him to begin his offices after the king had returned
from his progress.
They do not like the delay and make unfavourable deductions
therefrom, especially as Caesar's minister no longer appears at
Court either. He remains quietly in the country as if his business
was to amuse himself with hunting and walking. The French
think that this behaviour ought to make the ministers here somewhat
more sensible than they seem to be that it would behove
them to mitigate their severity against their country and the
Dutch. They do not neglect to advance this in their interests
when occasion offers, although with little profit.
The Ambassador Giustinian informs me that Ognat brings
instructions to reopen relations with the ministers of the republic,
admitting their claims. I hope to receive clear instructions from
your Excellencies before he is ready to visit me. Meanwhile
I will maintain a due reserve and will try to discover his intentions.
On Saturday a courier reached the Court sent in all diligence
by the Earl of Arundel from Linz. He brings very full despatches
to his Majesty and the Secretaries of State ; but they keep the
contents so secret that it is not possible to find out any particulars
for certain. He says he has seen the emperor four times, and has
fully set forth all his instructions, omitting none of the
exhortations or protests required by the importance of this
well seasoned affair. It seems that Cæsar's replies so far have
been insubstantial, or at least they are considered so here, as
they announce the scantiest satisfaction. They were sorry
to hear of the earl's intention to proceed to Vienna to see the
Queen of Hungary, indeed they entirely disapprove of it, as they
do not think it seemly for him to abandon business for compliments.
Those who have little liking for him are bitingly sarcastic
about this action, and the Prince Palatine, who is prejudiced,
objects most strongly, and gives no credit either to what he
negotiates or to what he writes.
The Dutch ambassador, who was lodged more than thirty
miles away from me, came on purpose to see me the day before
yesterday to repeat the request made me by Curtius on the Palatine's
behalf to communicate any advices I might have from Germany
touching his interests. I confined myself to the terms of my original
answer, trying to oblige the prince with my lips when I cannot and
ought not to do so in effect.
Lord Leicester in Paris has begun to negotiate with the
commissioners appointed for him about the restitution of
Lorraine. They say he has made four proposals about this,
which they will not allow to be known here. They expect him
to send the replies, but they seem to attach little importance to
what is negotiated in France, as they aim more at making the Austrians
jealous than at concluding any agreement with that crown.
His Majesty is making great strides with his progress, because
the plague follows rapidly in the places which he has left. They
have bad news from London this week, the number of deaths
having increased considerably.
Last Sunday I spoke to the king expressly in the interests of
the Persian. I asked him to give orders for the immediate
despatch of the business, as the money was in the hands of the
merchants without any receipt, and in the course of time some
confusion might arise, even greater than the first. I complained
of Gatwood's behaviour and showed that he deserved some
correction. The king listened attentively and promised that the
matter should be dealt with as justice and reason require. But
what has been done so far seems to contradict this, as the matter
is placed in the hands of the Mayor of London. He belongs
to the order of merchants, and as he may be interested with these
also in various ways, it is possible that he will administer such
justice as pleases him, not what he ought. This is the way
things are done at this Court, and the greatest affairs are frequently
ruined by carelessness or confusion of orders (in questo modo si
maneggiano gli affari a questa corte et i maggiori ben
spesso, per negligenza o per confusione di ordini, si vedono precipitati
In obedience to orders I have done my utmost to help this Persian,
but I have not been able to achieve more. I have interested the
Earl of Denbigh, father of the Ambassador Fielding, in the
matter. He gladly took it up with great spirit, professing great
obligations to the Persians for the favours which he received in
those parts. (fn. 7) But the efforts of anyone you please are helpless to
change their disposition here with respect to gratifying strangers,
I do not know if it be from lack of will or lack of habit. The Persian
has again prayed me for the arrest of the belongings which the
English brothers, Michael and Richard Gatwood have at Venice.
He protests that this can be done legitimately because of the
violation of the contract which he made with them there.
Westcourt, the 30th July, 1636.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]