408. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The differences about ships between the French and the English
merchants will be adjusted at last with entire satisfaction to the
Paris, the 2nd March, 1638.
409. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The Treasurer of Scotland, after his arrival at Court, had several
interviews with the king about the disturbances of that kingdom,
which are not yet appeased. He told him of the obstinacy of the
people there in refusing to hear of any alteration in the old rites,
or accepting the interim of 5 years. The mere thought of changing
those which they now practise fills them with horror. Besides the
question of conscience, which exercises a very strong influence,
they consider the prejudice which would result to the kingdom, which
has been governed by its own laws for so many centuries, in civil
as well as ecclesiastical affairs, and it would never allow itself to
be subordinate to this one, as it would if the churches there received
orders for their worship from the Archbishop of Canterbury. They
ask that their parliament may be summoned and the new doctrine
laid before it. If it approves they will obey without cavil. As a
good servant of his Majesty and a good Scot, although he cannot at
heart condemn those principles, he protests that he had never declared
as much to any one, but had urged them, although uselessly, to obey,
as his office obliged him. He begged the king to look benignantly
on the interests of his native kingdom, and not reduce it to despair,
and ended by praying God to enlighten those who give him such
pernicious advice, against his interests and the repose of his subjects.
He told a correspondent of mine that he had spoken thus to the king.
He added in the deepest confidence that if they want that book to
be read they must send an army of 40,000 men to defend the minister
who must read it, for all the above reasons. But they have not
affected his Majesty who clings pertinaciously to his intent, indeed
he has intimated with indignation that he means to punish Edinburgh
in an exemplary manner, as the first to show disobedience and afford
an example to encourage the others. He said he would remove the
Courts of Justice the magistrates and the royal Council to Stirling,
which would mean its ruin. All the Scots who serve at Court are
very sorry to hear this violence but the king will not listen to better
counsel, so further disturbances are expected in those parts.
On the announcement at Court that the Earl of Bokem had
gone to France to congratulate the king on the news of the queen's
pregnancy, the queen here declared that it was not true, but that
the earl had gone on his private affairs with the king's permission,
who had given him letters. Your Excellencies will hear from the
spot. There are various opinions here. The absence of the
Court makes it difficult to check things.
The king remonstrated some days ago with the Ambassador
Bellievre about the behaviour of the Ambassador d'Estampes
at the Hague to the Prince Palatine, to whom he did not give the
title of Elector or even of Highness. Bellievre said this was
through inadvertence, as in French they used "Vous" for
everyone, and it was used with the Duke of Orleans and even with
the king himself. The excuse did not satisfy his Majesty, who
said they could find titles if they were not reluctant to use them.
The Ambassador has published more exact details about the
Pearl settlement. He says that the sentence of the Admiralty
of Paris, confiscating the ship, is commended, but the Most
Christian, out of pure favour has declared for its restitution to the
owners with 42,000 francs for all other claims for which the
English should pay 8000 francs to the masters of the French
barques taken and revoke the letters of reprisals. That done the
arrest will be removed and trade resumed as before. The English
ambassadors report the same conditions, but give the amount as
63,000 francs. The merchants interested are dissatisfied, and
swear they know the goods in the ship were sold for more than
80,000 florins. They say the Most Christian has done a great
wrong to the King of Great Britain, infringing the articles of the
last peace between the two crowns, one of the chief articles being
that the kings should not sequestrate the goods of merchants on
land or in ships for any quarrels at sea, but only act by letters
of reprisals or upon the body of the ships. The king here had
better reason to seize the goods of French merchants when the
Pearl was taken, but mindful of the articles, he merely granted
letters of reprisals, without proceeding to violence. They
do not know how they can trust their goods in France after
this, as they are sure the French will always act in the same way
to the serious disadvantage of this mart.
News has come from Calais that the Dunkirk fleet is ready,
numbering forty sail, great and small, to proceed to Spain.
They have forbidden every kind of boat to leave the port, so that
the news of their equipage may not be published, as they intend
to make sail unexpectedly, to avoid meeting the Dutch, who are
waiting for them at sea, although some argue that the Spaniards
mean to attempt something with that fleet before they get to
Spain, as they are to embark three regiments, and therefore it is
thought that they will go to Galicia to take away 4000 infantry
for Flanders. The despatches from Italy for shipment at
Dunkirk are sequestrated there. The last I have from your
Serenity is of the 28th January.
London, the 5th March, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
410. The English Ambassador came into the Collegio and
spoke as follows :
I have informed his Majesty of the Senate's response to my
offices, and I am sure he will be pleased at this reception of his
intentions. My regret at the necessity which hastens my
departure confuses me in expressing my sentiments ; my only
consolation is that I shall be able to serve your Serenity everywhere.
I must add my king's gratification at the sentiments of the
republic towards general peace. I can assure you that his
Majesty will leave no means untried to further it. I have also
to express his Majesty's thanks for the kindness and protection
your Serenity has always extended to the Palatine house. You
are asked to continue this, as it is sure to be grateful to the
king. I also rejoice at learning from your reply that no prejudice
to public affairs will arise from your differences with the house of
Savoy. If this had been so it would have seriously affected the
public cause, and the hopes and confidence of princes in the
constant care your Serenity takes would have drooped. I will
try and see what I can do about these differences to remove the
dissatisfaction of your Serenity, by acts of respect which will
restore the former intimacy, which was so useful to the cause
and helped and honoured that house so much.
In leaving I have to recommend with all my heart the interests
of his Majesty's subjects trading in your state and in the islands
of the Levant. I hope this may be easy as your Serenity is so
disposed to uphold trade, which is the ornament of states and
princes. It will suffice if the most just laws of this state are
observed and that his Majesty's subjects behave reasonably,
and that trade is left open without excessive burdens. I say
this because I think the merchant Ider, who has traded so much,
with advantage to the customs, in Cephalonia and Zante has
practically retired to the Morea, as suspect of contumacy and
outlawry, since there is no lack of the envious who plot against
the property and interests of those who rise by industry and are
fortunate enough to improve their condition. He is a merchant
of repute and honour, very well known and esteemed in England.
I know that he would never do anything to hurt places from which
he derives such advantage. It will be enough if your Serenity
accepts this and if he enjoys the advantage of your orders. I also
understand that something has happened to a ship which trades
to your Serenity's dominions, called the Scipio, but you will see
about this from the memorials presented by others. I ask you
I am now arrived at the term of my consolations, as my first
content was to come into your presence and receive your kind
welcome, This memory will always remain in my heart. The
graciousness extended to my feebleness has laid me under an
obligation for life. My weakness has gained some light from
the rays of the public benevolence. Past incidents which have
separated me from your Serenity's favour have made me lament
my unhappy fate, but have never destroyed my confidence in
your considerateness. I shall proclaim myself everywhere as your
servant. In England and elsewhere I shall always testify to the
just principles and generous aims of the republic, the felicity
of your state and the mildness of your government. My tongue
cannot express his Majesty's appreciation of your sincere friendship
and of the treatment you have extended to me in my embassy,
but his letter here will do so. This was opened and read in the
The doge replied, We welcomed his Majesty's minister on his
arrival and we have welcomed you during your charge, as we
recognised your merits. So we accompany your departure with
all affection and cordiality, consoled by the reflection that you
will assist the public cause wherever you are.
We will give you every proof of our affection. God prosper his
Majesty and assist your affairs, bringing you every honour. We
are glad that you are taking a new employment on leaving here
and are sure that you will always have great affairs in hand.
We thank you for your cordiality and affection towards the
republic, which will always esteem you.
The ambassador replied, The more I advance in your Serenity's
favour, the more my mere deserts and talents are abashed. All
my life I will try to deserve your favour. His Majesty, as a sign
of favour has left it to me to nominate the person to remain here,
so that relations may not be interrupted. I have selected a
gentleman of birth and great ability ; (fn. 1) I am sure that he will
do well though he may not have all the experience necessary.
I ask your Serenity to see him and give him credence.
He then introduced the gentleman. The doge said, We are
glad that you will remain here, as we hear from the ambassador
of your high qualities. We shall always be pleased to see you,
and will show our regard in response to his Majesty's.
The gentleman said, I esteem it a great good fortune to be
appointed to serve his Majesty with the republic, and I will try
to deserve the honour. I will endeavour to maintain the very
intimate relations now existing. I will also try not to belie
the good opinion the ambassador has of me. The ambassador
repeated that he was a gentleman of quality and the best
intentions, the doge adding that it is easy for one who is well
born to succeed in everything ; both then bowed and departed.
|The King's Letter. (fn. 2)
Carolus, Dei Gratia Mag. Brit. Rex, fidei defensor, etc.
Serenissimo Principi ac Dom. Francisco Erizzo, Venetiarum
Duci, amico nostro carrissimo, salutem. Nobilissimum nobisque
perquam dilectum nostrum vicecomitem a Fielding, postquam
Legati nostri munere vobiscum aliquot annis est defunctus,
Jam ad alia negotia a vobis revocandum ducentes Idem Vestrae
Serenitati hisce amice significare rursusque asserere voluimus.
Nihil nos quod aut ad amicitiam quae inter nos, notrosque
utrinque subditos intercedit sartam, tectam servandum aut
ad constantem nostrum in V. Serenitatem Inclytamque Rempublicam
testandum affectum, vobisque gratissima officia,
veri nostri amoris argumenta, omni occasione praestandum facere
poterit unquam praetermissuros. Id quidem dicto nostro legato
vobis valedicenti pluribus relinquemus exponendum. Itaque
jam vos rogamus ut ei facultatem redeundi facere velitis.
Datam ex Aedibus nostris Regiis Westmonasteriensibus vigesimo
octavo die Novembris, anno gratie 1637 regni vero nostri XIII.
Vestrae Serenitati bonus amicus.
411. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassadors declare that the Ambassador Salvio
has received powers to ratify at Hamburg the negotiations for
an alliance between this crown and theirs ; that the Dutch are
advertised and they are only waiting for their deputies to open
the conference. They seem certain that the matter will be
settled in a few days.
Paris, the 9th March, 1638.
412. I, Giulio Girardo, went to the house of the English
ambassador. I did not find him as he had gone out for recreation.
I waited until half past five when he landed. I went to meet him
to present your Serenity's letter. He asked me to come up with
him, and I followed him to his apartments. I presented the
letter to him in response to the one presented in his king's name.
They wished him a happy journey and every prosperity. He
thanked me heartily and said he would always remember the
numerous favours he had received from the republic. He asked
you to excuse him if he had not done all he should in his legation,
and to recognise his good will and his esteem for the republic,
he would show his respect for it everywhere, more by deeds
than by words, and so I left. Two gentlemen accompanied me,
from whom I tried to find out when his Excellency would be
leaving and by what route. They said he would go Sunday
or Monday towards Padua and Vicenza, on his way to Mantua,
where the safest part of his journey would end.
413. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The Ambassador Ognati has recently been to audience of the
king with letters of complaint from the Catholic, because at the
instance of the captain of the English ship which brought him
from Spain to England, certain moneys and other goods belonging
to the ambassador were sequestrated to the hands of merchants.
The fact is that when the ambassador was about to embark at
Corunna he received information in an underhand manner that ten
chests of ryals were laded on the ship without the necessary
licence by one Giovanni Nicolo Franco, a Genoese living at
Madrid, to be consigned to his correspondents here. By arrangement
with the captain, who belongs to the house of Stuart and
claims kinship with the king, (fn. 3) he obtained an order from the
magistrate directing the captain to consign these chests to the
ministers of the Catholic, as contraband and confiscated to his
Majesty. In virtue of this the captain got the ambassador to
undertake to relieve him of any trouble which might arise on this
account, and allowed himself to be persuaded to hand over the
chests to him. When the news reached the principal he hastened
to this city, and when he arrived he had the captain arrested,
that being the first step in a suit here. The cause came on and
the Genoese showed his licence. The captain pleaded that being
in the king's ship, he had obeyed the orders of Spain, and asked if
he was bound in justice to restore the money and expenses.
That is precisely what happened, and accordingly Stuart went
forthwith to Ognati with a copy of the sentence and asked for the
relief which he had promised. He says he was told that the
money had been sent to Flanders, as pertaining to the Catholic ;
the obligation was made as by a minister and executor of the royal
orders ; he must go to Spain and they would right him, and so
forth. On hearing this the captain applied to justice for the
sequestration into the hands of a certain merchant of 1500l.
sterling, due to the ambassador, with some other goods he was
sending to Spain, worth an additional 100l. sterling. He obtained
this easily, and to suspend the action against the security he
appealed against the sentence. Such was the state of affairs
when the ambassador went to audience. He presented the letters
referred to, complained of the violation of the law of nations,
said that the money sequestrated belonged to his king, and urged
his Majesty to refer the cause to Spain where it originated.
The king took the office ill. He told Ognati that the persons
and houses of ambassadors were privileged, but their goods outside
the house were subject to the civil law. He marvelled that while
a foreigner demanded justice from him against a subject of his,
he should claim that it could not be obtained except in their own
tribunals. They do right to all without distinction as well
here as in Spain, the demand was unexampled and a slight upon
his royal justice. Perceiving from this that he would not obtain
what he asked the ambassador reduced his demands, asking
that the cause might be referred to the commissioners of the
Admiralty, who are seven lords of the royal council, with orders
to make a careful enquiry and pronounce sentence after consulting
his Majesty. They gratified him in this.
The Ambassador Bellievre has also seen the king to tell him the
nature of the adjustment about the Pearl. He also said something
about the alliance and seconded the offices of the Swedish
minister about sending an ambassador to Hamburg with full
powers to conclude, as those given to the agents do not suffice.
He intimated that they gathered in France that a minister
of his Majesty is in constant negotiation with the King of Hungary,
and that such things cannot fail to generate jealousy in his king
and the allies, at a time when they are trying to establish a solid
alliance against that quarter.
The king replied that these were only pretexts for delaying
the result. He kept no minister at the Court of the King of
Hungary, and indeed he had sent word to a secretary left by the
Earl of Arundel with the late emperor, that if he negotiated,
not only concluded any business in his name, he would have him
hanged. Thus, he remarked, whenever any report is designedly
circulated to the contrary of what I tell you, I protest that it
will be false.
All these particulars are supplied me by a person whom I have
tested, and who is in a position to know, from his relations
with one of the leading ministers. With respect to the secretary
mentioned by the king, I think he can be none other than Teler.
Although he is not ostensibly a royal minister, and they never send
him letters for audiences of the present emperor, whom they will not
recognise as such, yet with his Majesty's connivance he has letters
from some of the Lords of the Council commanding him to stay at
that Court and with the goodwill of that government, always with
the design of sending him instructions to conduct negotiations
whenever any opening is made. He is paid from the king's purse,
he writes to Court, they write to him and he exercises every function
of a minister of the state, although they will not admit that he is one.
The gentleman sent by the Earl of Holland with the ship that
went to Spain to bring the Duchess of Chevreuse here, (fn. 4) reports
the indecision of that lady about coming. In any case they have
prepared noble and well furnished quarters for her at Court,
where she will be entertained out of regard for her husband's
relationship to the king. It is whispered that his Majesty sent
her money for the journey. I find no confirmation of this, but
I know that it is only on the score of reputation that they have not
declined to have her here, as neither the king nor the ministers want
her, with the exception of the Earl of Holland who became her devoted
servant when he went to France to bring the present queen here.
Some days ago a certain English Colonel arrived here, who is in
the service of the Catholic in Flanders. He wants to obtain
permission to enlist 500 to 600 soldiers to fill up his regiment, and
he has gone to Court for this. (fn. 5) The French ambassador, who
still remains with the king at Newmarket, has been warned of
this, and is expected to oppose it, so that the Colonel may be sent
about his business.
Pennington, Vice Admiral of the Fleet, who has been at sea
all this winter with six ships, writes that he saw the Spanish
fleet come out of Dunkirk, consisting of twenty five good ships
of war and fifteen smaller vessels, but when they arrived near
Calais, with a very faint wind, which only enabled them to
progress slowly, they turned back towards Dunkirk, to wait
for more favourable weather. Anyhow that circumstance
prevents letters from Italy crossing to this island.
Your Serenity's despatch of the 6th ult. reaches me by way of
Zurich, with instructions not to commit myself to the merchants
in the matter of Obson's offer. I have nothing to add to what I
wrote on this subject.
London, the 12th March, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
414. To the Proveditore of Zante.
The Inquisitor Capello informs us in his letters of the 22nd
January and 18th February of the loss occasioned to the Chamber
through collusion between the customers of the new impost
and the English merchants. You are to put a stop to this, but
the interests of the state require that the ships and merchants
who trade at that island should have the best of treatment, for
trade, the recovery of debts and the payment of duties, in order
to increase the revenues of the Chamber.
Ayes, 87. Noes, 1. Neutral, 24.
|415. The Savii for the orders pronounce :
Trade has greatly declined in every part of the dominions of
the republic and it seems that common opinion attributes decline
to the payment of the duties, while the merchants, and the
English in particular, ask for certain facilities for setting up trade
again in our island of Zante and to abandon the traffic which they
have carried on hitherto in the country of the Grand Turk.
The ill effects which have been experienced from the augmentation
of the duties, which has caused a diminution of the revenues
persuade us of the prudence of this suggested course as a means
of providing a remedy and preventing so harmful an abuse.
Let it be decided that goods of every description brought by
foreign ships to Zante shall pay 6 per cent., except goods from
Venice, which pay 4 per cent. only, careful note being taken of
the nature of the goods and whence they come.
That information of this decision be sent to the ambassadors
in France, England and Holland, so that they may make use of
it upon occasion, as if on their own responsibility, in such way
that the merchants shall come to have a proper knowledge of it.
416. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
Soon after the interview of the Treasurer of Scotland with his
Majesty about the disturbances in that country, which are worse
than ever, he left post with other royal edicts, designed to cause
disunion among the people there, inducing one section to render
due obedience, and thus make it easier to use force against the rest.
The edicts contain a general pardon to all for past things, excepting
for those of Edinburgh and two other towns, which used violence
against their bishops when carrying out the royal commands, but
on condition that they abstain in the future from all private conventicles.
They declare that all those who take part in any sort of
assembly are ipso facto guilty of high treason in the first degree. A
person of quality of that nation told me that the Scottish nobility
had assembled at Edinburgh and neighbouring places to the number
of 10,000. They had chosen 4 deputies to preside over their common
affairs, and distributed arms to those capable of bearing them,
and that the danger of a general rebellion become ever more menacing,
which will not be appeased without the ruin of that kingdom by
force of arms. He said this was a very difficult question for the
king in the present state of affairs, when he is not loved by his
subjects or by the few whom he employs. His Majesty was badly
advised. He does not conciliate the magnates, and renders both them
and the people desperate by subverting the laws of the realm, altering
the ancient rites of the Church, and burdening every one with very
heavy impositions, in ways never before practised. These, he
remarked, were deep seated reasons for estranging the people from
their prince, whose love was a treasure only recognised in extreme
necessity. If they propose to raise a force to take to Scotland, not
strong in numbers, contrary to the legal ways of obtaining one, and
with the people discontented they will meet with excessive obstacles.
It is reckoned that three fifths of England belong to the Calvinist
sect, which is the same as the Scots', against whom they will not want
to draw the sword, their own salvation depending on the preservation
of the others. The English also speak to the same effect, their views
clearly showing the general dissatisfaction with the present government,
and their rejoicing at such disturbances, through which they
argue that the king will have to yield in the end to the obstinacy of
the Scots. They hope by this example to improve the condition
of England likewise. At Court, however, they try as much as possible
to suppress such bad news. They only let it be understood that the
affair admits of easy accommodation, since those people are not
being molested ; but when the Scots are asked, they shrug their
shoulders, expressing their apprehension for their country. Meanwhile
the king is devoting every effort to collecting money and
increasing the revenues of the crown, which he has doubled from what
they used to be fifteen years ago. The contributions for the fleet
are being made annual.
To every foreigner willing to pay 25 crowns they grant
permission to practise any trade in London. To the old duty of
20 crowns the butt (about 4 bigonzi) of wine, they have recently
added 10 crowns more, and it is reckoned that 100,000 butts are
brought to England every year from France, Spain and elsewhere.
Silk cloth pays 20 per cent., currants 15 crowns the thousand,
and all the rest in proportion. This causes an incredible scarcity
of everything and a universal outcry among the inhabitants,
who are not accustomed to pay anything but the ordinary
subsidies voted by parliament. Whenever that body comes
into force again it will revoke all these impositions as contrary to
its ancient institutions.
Behind the Spanish fleet there sailed out the other barques
detained there, and so the couriers of Antwerp made their
passage across, bringing here four despatches from the province
This fleet still remains in that port, whence some of its ships
go out cruising in the Channel and prey upon such Dutch vessels
as they fall in with. It is not easy to see what their object may
be. It seems unlikely that they mean to go straight to Spain.
I have received the state's letters of the 13th and 26th ult.
with Fildin's exposition on taking leave, the increased present
to him, and the release of Turner from the galley, which I will
make use of. Whatever he may say, his operations at Turin
will not go beyond compliments as yet, since this crown has no
business with her Highness, the king's remarks about contributing
towards the quiet of Italy being nothing but expressions of good
will. His Majesty's object at present is confined to pacifying
disturbances at home and making himself sovereign, dependent
on no authority but his own. If he succeeds it will be the boldest
enterprise that any of his predecessors ever achieved and in the
common opinion he has gone a great way towards it, if this Scottish
affair, which may arouse England also, does not upset it, as people
here freely remark.
I hear nothing of any other ambassador in Fildin's place, but
the return of the king and Court to the city, which is to be
tomorrow, will make it easier for me to learn their plans. The
persons mentioned still press their claims to succeed him, but
as they have gone outside the lords for the ambassador to
Spain, their hopes for that of your Serenity are dashed, for they
see that if another is nominated he will be of the same quality,
to the exclusion of themselves. I will keep on the watch about
this, and also about the reception of the Ambassador Giustinian,
when I hear of his approaching Paris, by which he advises me
he will travel. I will do my utmost to carry out my instructions,
and the further commissions about the duties on the cloth sent
by the merchants here to Zante.
News has arrived here of the successes of Weimar beyond the
Rhine. (fn. 6) The French party here have heard it with great
London, the 19th March, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
417. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Cardinal has remonstrated strongly with the English
ambassadors because a great sum of money has been convoyed
to Flanders these last days by the ships of their king. (fn. 7) He pointed
out to them that it was not possible to believe that the King of
Great Britain was as eager as he said to support the war against the
Austrians, when he acts as an instrument to render them strong.
A courier from England recently passed this way, and took
passports to go to Spain. There is a suspicion about this despatch
as they cannot imagine the motive.
Paris, the 23rd March, 1638.
418. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The king returned to London on Saturday in last week, being
met by divers lords and by the queen, who eagerly expected him.
His Majesty enjoys perfect bodily health, although he is much
distressed in mind about Scotland. Fresh and more authentic
news has arrived of the union between the nobility and the people
and of the acts, in the form of protests against the royal proclamations
recently issued by the Treasurer there. At present they
only speak under their breath about the contents of these
protests, but I will send particulars in my next despatch.
I paid a complimentary visit to the Marquis of Hamilton,
congratulating him on his return in good health to London, so
as to secure his help, when the time comes, to get an earl to meet
the Ambassador Giustinian. I told him of the favours shown to
Fildin, and he said his brother in law had sent a full account to
the king, who was highly pleased. He expressed his obligations,
and said he should like to have an opportunity of showing his
goodwill. I thanked him suitably, and promised that I should
apply for his protection in case of need. I asked if the king had
selected another ambassador in place of Fildin. He replied
that the person was not yet chosen, but the king would certainly
appoint somebody soon, though he thought he would not have
the high rank of Fildin, seeing that the one chosen for Spain was
only a knight. I replied with compliments and after some further
observations, took my leave. I spoke to the same effect to the
Secretary Cuch, who answered in the same sense on every point.
The resident of the Grand Duke at Venice writes to his
colleague here of Fildin's departure and the talk there about no
other ambassador being sent in his stead. He begs him to write
what are their intentions here. The Resident here replied he
was told that they will certainly choose another, but until that
is done he could not affirm it, after what has happened before.
He believes, however, that this is an indiscretion of Fildin himself,
communicated in confidence to that Resident.
Fildin's observations to your Serenity about the accommodation
with the House of Savoy were his own idea, as the king
has given him no charge about it. knowing him incapable of such
serious business. I have the assurance of the one who wrote his
instructions. (fn. 8)
Hope of the alliance with France is again rising, as the Swedish
minister affirms that commissions have reached the Ambassador
Salvio at Hamburg, to consign the treaty of Vismar to d'Avo.
He maintains that the transactions with the emperor are in
consequence at an end, and urges them here to send an ambassador
extraordinary to arrange those things which have to be stipulated
there with France and the allies. The Ambassador
Bellievre speaks to the same effect, and backs the representations
of the Swedish minister. But here they answer that the king's
agents have sufficient powers to treat and when it comes to the
signing they will send an ambassador extraordinary for the
purpose. Meanwhile the Ambassador suggests that to accelerate
matters, without increasing the expense, they might send the Earl
of Leicester who is quite competent in every respect. His Majesty
makes objection, saying that Avo has not the same rank as Leicester,
and although the French reply that the rank of the individual does
not affect that of the ambassador, they do not shake the king's opinion.
They have recently sent an extraordinary to Spain to the
Ambassador Astney, to tell him of the choice of his successor,
and that he will leave here immediately after Easter. He is
charged to prepare to leave that Court in time to profit by the
same ship that brings his successor to Corunna, to return to
The Ambassador Ognati is advised that Don Martino d'Aspi,
sometime secretary of the Cardinal Infant, is destined as Resident
here until the arrival of Don Gasparo Braccamonte, the
ambassador designate, who will leave Spain more at his ease,
when the other has arrived. That they have ordered this
Resident to leave with Madame de Chevreuse, taking the ship
which is to bring her here. Ognati expects him soon, and that he
himself will start immediately for Madrid. He says he has orders
to leave his baggage here, but one sees this is a device of his, to
avoid the risk of sequestration at the suit of Stuart, for the reasons
The Spanish fleet remains at Dunkirk, detained by contrary
winds, and compelled to replace the provisions for the troops on
board. They have put these on shore, to have better air, until
the first signs of improved weather.
One Silvestro Travi, a Muranese, arrived here this week on his
way to Venice, with a companion, the one a maker and the other
a polisher of mirrors. They are both fugitives from Antwerp,
where they say they were taken by fraud to introduce the art.
Sir [Robert] Mansfelt, who has the monopoly of the manufacture
of all manner of glass in this kingdom, heard of their arrival
through other Muranese who work here, and finding that they
were quite penniless he tried by specious promises to induce
them to enter his service, as they have no master mirror makers in
this kingdom. When this came to my knowledge I thought it
my duty to prevent them from consenting, and to try and get
them away from here, without their discovering my purpose.
To this end I made suitable observations, furnished them with
money for their journey, and got them to set out at once for home,
giving them letters of recommendation to the Ambassador Corraro
Yet there remains here one Gasparo Brunovo, called "Tre
Corone," a Muranese, who offers to make crystal glass equal to
the Venetian, to make all kinds of vessels and other objects
in every colour, large mirrors and all other crystal work made
there. He also undertakes to teach the art to the English.
I have tried to perusade him also to return to his native land,
pointing out the wrong he is doing, in wanting to introduce these
things ; but a year ago he made a contract for seven years with
the knight in question, and cannot leave here, where he is enticed
by earnings of 20 ducats a week. I try to deprive his offers of
credit, representing covertly to his master that he will get him
to throw away a large sum of money in instruments and other
things to no purpose, and that he will not achieve what he has
promised. I have succeeded so far that he only employs him for
ordinary drinking glasses, to his great dissatisfaction, and does
not believe him about the rest.
I have thought it my duty to report all this. The state
despatches of the 5th inst. have reached me.
London, the 26th March, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
419. To the Secretary Zonca in England.
Permission to return home immediately the Ambassador
Giustinian has arrived, and after he has handed the public
papers to the ambassador and given him all necessary information.
Ayes, 90. Noes, 1. Neutral, 0.
420. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassadors have assured the ministers here
that the agents of their king at Hamburg have ample powers
and orders to ratify the agreement with the allies, and that a
large naval force will soon be ready in England. To remove
the suspicions about the courier who took passports for Spain
last week they say he takes nothing beyond commissions to the
Ambassador Hasteyn to leave that Court and to be at Coruñia
by the 1st of May, where the ships which will have brought
his successor will be ready to take him back to England.
Paris, the 30th March.