421. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
I have been on the look out all this week for authentic news,
amid the various rumours, about the manifestoes of the union in
Scotland. I have obtained the following particulars from a person
who saw the very despatches to the king. I send you these apart.
Various proclamations were published in that kingdom by his
Majesty's order. The last of these, preceding the general pardon,
was to the people of Edinburgh and two other cities, commanding
everyone to withdraw to his own house, to obey promptly the royal
ordinances both in temporal and ecclesiastical matters, and to
abstain from appearing with petitions on the subject before him
and his Council. Against these proclamations the people there
drew up a protest signed by two lords in the name of all the union. (fn. 1)
They had it published where these of the king were and posted up
underneath them, for the better understanding of all. It contains a
long preamble of the pretended reasons for their meeting, being
moved by their duty to God, love of their country and the good of their
ill advised king, since certain ordinances have been published in the
name of his Majesty contrary to their own consciences and statutes,
and they say the preservation of the kingdom does not permit them to
obey. They decline any pardon offered which excepts anyone,
as no one has erred more than another. All injuries and offences
done to any of them for this cause will be esteemed as done to the entire
union, and avenged by such means as they consider best. They call
God and the world to witness that they are not to blame for those evils
which may arise from these measures, and declare that they wish
always to be ruled in accordance with the laws by which that kingdom
has been governed so happily for so many centuries, when they
will promptly return to their duty. I omit other particulars as
unessential. In pursuance of these things the union is said to have
bought all the arms to be found in the country, and distributed them
to the people, inciting them to defend their faith and government
against those who wish to disturb them. This has incensed his
Majesty to such an extent that he has sent to Ireland for the muster
of 8000 of the troops there, it being rumoured that he will send them
to Scotland in case of need. Some think that this is only an experiment
in order to make those people give way at the apprehension of
war in their own country, since the number is not sufficient for such
an enterprise. The embarrassments of the crown do not permit
it to go there with stronger forces, and the situation and nature of
Scotland, all of a ferment, does not promise such results as his Majesty
would desire, as a small army would be defeated and a large one is
impracticable for the king at present and would perish amid the
difficulties of the country.
All sorts of persons here talk freely to this effect, and the members
of the government wash their hands of any disaster that may
ensue ; they freely express their dissatisfaction, and say that the
king has never so much as asked their advice in the Council or out of
it, and they cannot give it otherwise. The Archbishop also spreads
abroad the same ideas, but as he frequently has long and secret
interviews with the king alone, and his violent nature is well known,
it is concluded that he supports the king in his resolution. This
renders the archbishop generally odious, to such an extent that one
hears people regretting that while there was some one venturesome
enough to take the life of the Duke of Buckingham, with less cause,
there is no one now to do it against this even worse minister, who is
leading towards the total subversion of these realms. This has led
to the imprisonment of some of the less circumspect, who will assuredly
pay dearly for their excessive temerity, although that will only
exasperate the people more.
The enterprise against Algiers, having encountered various
difficulties, has been abandoned, and as the Ambassador of
Morocco had nothing further to do, he took leave of his Majesty
on Tuesday, intending to depart in a fortnight, on a ship already
selected by the king, which will also serve to carry goods to those
parts. (fn. 2)
The Agent of the Prince Palatine went to tell the king of the
decision of his Highness to enter Germany with as many men as
he can collect, so as to be more welcome. He means to try his
fortune before suffering his present trials any longer. He told
of the purchase of a place in Westphalia as a place d'armes ; (fn. 3)
of the patents for enlisting troops, the preparation of munitions
of war, and begged the king for the help so frequently promised,
to encourage France and Holland also to follow his example.
He says they hold out hopes if something is done here first.
The reply was favourable, commending the courageous decision,
and promising that he should experience the royal liberality
on his entering Germany. It is rumoured at Court that the
king means to send him remittances for 200,000 florins at once,
with the intention of supplying more, without pledging himself
to ordinary monthly assignments. He declares that while he
sees the prince engaged in generous enterprises he will assist him
as if he was his own son.
With the confirmation of the defeat and capture of Giovanni
de Wert (fn. 4) and his fellows comes news from Hamburg of the
recapture by the Swedes of the castle of Volgast and of Landspergh
in Pomerania, with the consignment to M. d'Avo of the treaty of
Vismar which has been discussed for so long. The news is
welcome at Court, where they desire to see their neighbours
busy during their present difficulties in Scotland, so that they may
not foment what has become a definite rebellion, and also because
they would like the Palatine to begin his military operations in
Germany under the happy auspices of success to the party.
The Swedish minister has gone, taking complimentary letters
from the king to the queen there, assuring her of his good will to
the public cause.
The king has conferred the office of Lord High Admiral of
England on the Earl of Northumberland, to hold until the Duke
of York, for whom it is destined, is old enough to act. (fn. 5)
The Ambassador Fildin wrote on the 5th ult. of the audience
given by your Serenity that same day to the nuncio, and the
rumours of an approaching adjustment of the differences between
the pope and the republic, the inscriptions in the Vatican and the
Bucintoro being restored as before. (fn. 6) He says he postponed
his departure in order to visit the French ambassador who has
just arrived. (fn. 7)
When I have written thus far the ordinary has arrived from
Flanders with your Serenity's despatches of the 12th ult. I note
that Fildin has presented some one to act as Agent, and the
honours intended for him on his journey as an extraordinary.
I will use all this for the state's service. I will also do my best
about the reception of the Ambassador Giustinian. I observe
that Fildin has made no mention in his expositions of any other
ambassador in his place, and although they continue to assure me
here that the appointment will be made, yet when I see that they
made it for Spain immediately the present one took leave, and not
for Venice when five months have passed since they decided to
recall Fildin, I do not know what to believe. I will observe
carefully what they do and send word.
London, the 2nd April, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
422. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
Although the Prince Palatine has intimated that he is collecting
troops to enter Germany, they have not arranged to supply him
with any assistance, being determined to leave the burden to
Paris, the 6th April, 1638.
423. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The Archbishop of Canterbury, who is universally considered
the sole adviser of the king about the disturbances of Scotland, being
alarmed because there is no relaxation in the seditious remarks about
him, not even after the arrest of some who spoke with too great liberty,
is supposed to have represented to his Majesty the danger in which he
stands, and is trying to exonerate himself in the Council from this
deeply rooted opinion, as if that spread it might give rise to the
mishaps which sometimes happen when a people feels ill will against
a minister, and which is already threatened against him.
This opinion is based upon an angry speech made recently
by the king in his Council, when he said that he heard with annoyance
that the archbishop was scandalously and without reason blamed
as the one who upholds him in his resolution in those affairs. He
declared that he had never taken the advice of any one soever, but
everything happened from his motion alone, and those who thought
differently deceived themselves. The tenor of this justification was
forthwith made public by the dependants of the archbishop. It only
confirms the original opinion, while it does not exonerate the king
from some blame, since in affairs of such importance which have
gone so far that they cannot be arranged without loss of reputation
to the crown, he has deprived himself of the advantage of allowing the
blame to fall on this minister, and by thus exonerating himself,
restore quiet for himself and his realms. Such is the substance of
the talk of the ministers who oppose the archbishop's party, and
other leading lords, who in general abhor the archbishop's principles
as tending to oppression of the people and the overthrow of the laws
of the land.
I hear from a very secret quarter that the queen has made some
affectionate overtures to the king about satisfying those people and
removing the fear of civil war, with danger to his royal person. He
replied tenderly begging her not to alarm herself, and assuring her
that when he wishes he can reduce those subjects to obedience as
usual. In fact while matters do not take a worse turn with those of
the Assembly, it is thought to be so, and if every way but force is
tried, the question will ultimately be settled under some pretext that
will serve to cover the royal reputation, by the revocation of the things
objected to. If this is done no one doubts that Scotland will return
to its natural loyalty, in accordance with the published protests.
The Agent of Savoy has recently received letters from his
mistress advising him of her desire to satisfy the Most Christian,
in any way that will content her people, and charges him to
inform this Court. He has been trying to obtain from his Majesty
permission to send her a certain quantity of munitions of war,
but they have delayed so long to grant it, that with the double
duties on them, as on everything else, it will be of no use and he
has written to the duchess that it will cost more than buying
Last Monday the Dunkirk fleet sailed, with a wind so little
favourable that it had to enter a port of these islands 100 miles
away, to await better weather. The Admiral sent an express
to a merchant of this mart with letters of credit to raise 10,000
crowns, to provide food and other necessaries for the fleet. He
reports that the admiral has sealed orders, with strict instructions
from the Cardinal Infant not to open them until he has left the
Channel, and then to carry them out as speedily as the time
Letters arrived recently from Madame de Chevreuse relating
that she had received orders from the Catholic delaying her
embarcation for a few days until the arrival of Don Martino
d'Aspi, so that she can take advantage of the ship provided for
her. The Spanish ambassador here is impatiently awaiting
her arrival, as he is tired of his stay here and eager to return home.
He urges the Admiralty judges to despatch the cause between the
Genoese and Stuart about the ten chests of ryals.
This week also I have made public the favours shown to
Fildin, of which he has written to the ministers here, with the
news of his departure from Venice. Everyone lauds the
generosity, greatness and friendliness of the republic, and this
incites many to wish to succeed him. They think nothing about
it yet, although one still hears that it will happen soon.
They have given Opton, ambassador elect to the Catholic,
his instructions, and he will start in a few days. He proposes
to land at Corunna by the 1st of May, by which time his predecessor
has orders to be there, to return by the same ship.
I conversed recently with a merchant interested in the
Spallato affair, suggested by Obson heretofore. I told him, as
instructed, that he could inform your Serenity through Obson
of what he had to suggest, and I could not tell him any more.
But as he intimated that a proposal came to him from Venice
to make his market at Segna in Istria, from which to send his
goods to Hungary, and that he thought of doing so if he could not
get Spallato, I have thought it necessary to send this hint to your
The last to reach me from your Excellencies are of the 19th of
March, with which I find the usual advices, which help greatly
to increase that correspondence which goes to facilitate the public
London, the 9th April, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
424. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople,
to the Doge and Senate.
Difficulties raised by the English ambassador about allowing
the English ship Tomasin, Captain Thomas Acher, to go to Venice
under the Venetian flag. At Venice the Captain promised to
hire the ship as Venetian, but here, through fear, he has had to
make himself thoroughly English. The English ambassador
sent his secretary to me to learn what I proposed to do.
I told him, nothing more than usual. The secretary did not
admit that such hiring was usual. He said the ambassador had
express orders from the king to take his consulage from all
English ships and not allow them to fly any but the English
flag, to avoid setting an injurious precedent, as the French,
Ragusans, Jews and all others who use English ships submit to
the English laws and chancery.
After he had gone I looked in the chancery and found that the
last English ship hired direct for Venice from here was the London,
when Sig. Veniero was Bailo, showing that for ten years foreign
ships have not traded for Venice. I sent this precedent to the
English ambassador. He admitted the point but said that the
ship London was sent by him. I suggested that he should let the
ship go and have the matter settled at our Court afterwards.
But he would not give way an inch, and so I have had to give
instructions that the ship shall not be laded. Those concerned
have protested to the Captain, who excused his action on the
grounds of the commands of the ambassador. (fn. 8)
The Vigne of Pera, the 13th April, 1638.
425. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
A disgraceful disturbance took place last week near the Court,
which greatly moved the king and ministry. The officers of
justice arrested a certain Scottish gentleman of the household of
the Marquis of Hamilton, a close relation of his Majesty, and
opposite his very house, because he had not troubled to pay a
fine for a crime committed by him. He drew his sword and killed
one of the officers, injuring others, but being overcome by the
crowd he was seized just when all the Scots of the Marquis's
household and others of the same nation were hastening to help
him with arms in their hands. When the officers saw the danger
they withdrew with their prisoner into a house, securing the door.
The Scots tried on the one side to force it, and on the other they
ran furiously to the royal palace and brought thence a long
ladder. They placed this against the house, open it and entered,
releasing the prisoner, without any regard for the crime, the place
or the royal magistrates, who arrived calling out that the king's
peace must be observed. The officers of justice have laid the
case before the Council, making the worst of the circumstances,
so that they have directed rigorous proceedings to be taken,
not only against the delinquents, but against those in the neighbourhood
also for not stopping the scandal. Many have already
been sent to prison from the household of the Marquis and others.
But the principal with some of his more guilty companions, has
escaped to Scotland. (fn. 9)
This disgraceful incident happened only a few days before
the return to Court of the Scottish Treasurer with other lords
and bishops of that kingdom, who, so far as I can gather, bring
word that the rebellion keeps growing worse, and it has only
increased his Majesty's wrath against that nation. This makes
men believe that the more guilty prisoners will receive an
exemplary punishment. I will send a more detailed account in
my next of what these lords bring, as I have not yet had an
opportunity to find out.
Divers of the younger lords here are preparing to accompany
the Prince Palatine to Germany. He writes that he will go so soon
as his troops are ready. They are making all speed in order not
to lose the good season, but it is thought he will not move before
the French and Dutch armies have come out, so that his enterprises
may prove the more successful with the enemy's attention
diverted. The king promises to help him according to the
measure of his actions. Everyone commends his generous
resolution, and they feel sure that the sum to be sent him will
exceed what was written.
The Earl of Northumberland was recently installed as Lord
High Admiral with great pomp. He thanked the king publicly
for reposing this great confidence in him, and promised to do his
best to deserve it.
The Dunkirk fleet left these ports supplied with wine and other
victuals to the value of 10,000 crowns received here. Nothing
further has been heard of it since, although the accounts given
by the one who came to take the money, and the fact that their
ships were provided with ladders, petards and other implements
of war, have left them impatient with curiosity to hear about
the direction of the Spaniards' plans.
Colonel Lesle went to take leave of his Majesty and started
post for Scotland, where he has a ship ready for taking his
household and some of the troops to Pomerania, for the service
of Sweden. The Agent of Savoy announces the renewal of the
alliance between the Most Christian and his mistress, but as
we hear no confirmation from France yet, it is thought that his
assertions contain no more truth that there was in what he said
about Breme, which he declared was fully supplied for four
months. (fn. 10)
Talbot, left by Fildin as Agent at Venice, is beginning to show
himself a pupil of his master. In his first letter he writes of a raid
by the Uscocks into the Turkish dominions at the suggestion
of the emperor, with the object of being employed at the Porte
for the adjustment of the differences which may arise against
your Excellencies because of damage received by the Turks,
and by conferring this benefit, to oblige the most serene republic
to unite with the House of Austria to drive the French from
Italy. Some of the Court asked me about this, referring to the
character of the Uscocks, and in satisfying them I found out
the origin. (fn. 11)
I gather that Schidemore, the ordinary ambassador in France,
has asked leave to return home, and as Fildin aspires to succeed,
his mother is working hard for it. (fn. 12) But nothing has been
decided as yet, nor about one to your Serenity.
The ship Prospero has arrived from Candia with 500 butts of
muscat. The fact of its arriving after winter makes them
send the greater part of it to Hamburg, where there is always
a good market. Meanwhile two ships of this city are preparing
to go to that kingdom, in time for the new muscats in order to
profit by the advantages offered by the decree of the 14th
The ordinary from Italy has arrived without letters from your
Excellencies this week.
London, the 16th April, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
426. Alvise Contarini and Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian
Ambassadors in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The English Ambassador in ordinary has taken leave of his
Majesty and will leave for home in a few days, before the arrival
of his successor.
Madrid, the 17th April, 1638.
427. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The Treasurer of Scotland with other lords, all high officials,
has come post to London, in order not to fall into high treason, with
the ever growing rebellion in that country, and to make the last
efforts to extinguish the fire which is consuming their native land.
They say that the people demand the revocation of the last innovations
as well as all those since the reform of their religion, including
certain acts which the late King James, five years before he died,
tried to get the parliament there to approve, under a promise that
they should not be observed, as being contrary to that reform. The
Assembly has already drawn up what it states agrees with the
laws of the realm as sworn to by his Majesty at his coronation.
They have given a copy to every parish minister with orders to go
from house to house to get everyone to sign it and swear on the
gospels to maintain it against any one who wishes to prevent its
observance, with instructions for those who cannot write to meet in
the churches and promise in the presence of God to live in union
with the others for the preservation of their liberty and consciences.
They pronounce anyone who refuses the oath or contravenes it
an infamous enemy of his country. More than 60,000 people had
signed at the time of their departure, and they were proceeding
busily. As his Majesty's servants, in order to avoid being compelled
to sign with the others, they had decided to come here. They say
the kingdom is now being governed with its own laws, and the
Assembly carries them out. They propose to expel the bishops as
enemies of their country, distribute their revenues to the curates of
the parishes and relieve these of the cost of maintaining the ministers.
In civil and criminal causes they delegate judges for the single cause,
who decide it, according to the laws, without any charge to the parties.
They have abolished the gabelles, taxes, imposts, councils, magistrates
and every other mark of the royal authority. Everyone contributes
willingly to what is required for the public weal, without any approach
to disorder or any sign of growing tired at the novelty. They
represent to the king the necessity of finding some means of satisfying
a people most obstinate in the preservation of its laws and the security
of their country, begging him not to let things go to extremes, and to
believe that the more stable their conferences remain the more difficult
it will be to provide remedies afterwards.
All these considerations avail nothing to move the king from his
original intentions. Everyone observes with astonishment how slowly
they move to deal with a case of such importance, with manifest
danger of losing that kingdom : the common opinion being that if
the Scots decide to choose another king, as they claim to have just
and legitimate cause for doing, the whole power of England would
never suffice to subdue them.
The Ambassador of Morocco recently had a special audience
to take leave of his Majesty, who received him graciously and
wished him a good journey. He asked for an additional ship of
war as an escort, being afraid of falling into the hands of the
pirates of Algiers, who, he hears, are doing much damage in those
parts, and he obtained it. (fn. 13) The king gave him various cloths,
worth some 4000 crowns and a chain worth 500 to his English
companion. The merchant's who trade in Africa are preparing
another very rich one, to keep his master in a good humour,
as he has renewed the articles for trade in cloth between this
kingdom and his own, which existed in the time of Queen Elizabeth
and was interrupted by the rebellion of the pirates of Sale,
who have recently been subdued with the help of English ships.
They hope to obtain many favours from this ambassador and
great profit from the trade.
The king wrote to the Palatine and his mother to confirm his
promise about assistance, not only with money, but with artillery,
munitions of war and other things required for his enterprise.
He has already selected the guns which he proposes to send, has
ordained the quality and quantity of the munitions and directed
the remittances to be prepared for 20,000l. sterling. He has
given leave to any of his subjects to go and serve among the
soldiers, and expresses his particular satisfaction that the prince
seems determined to avenge his injuries.
He has selected as ambassador extraordinary to Hamburg
the Scot Anstruther sometime ambassador to the late emperor.
The Dutch have chosen their agent with the King of Denmark. (fn. 14)
He wishes the establishment of the alliance with France to
encourage his nephew's party. Anstruther is strongly opposed.
They say freely that he is not the man for that affair and they
would like to see Sir [Thomas] Roe employed, who is much more
able and better affected to the Palatine House.
They are collecting the taxes for the fleet with a slowness
most irritating to his Majesty, and the amounts collected by
the sheriffs seem very feeble. They do not wish to proceed to
extreme severity in order not to increase the material for dissatisfaction
among the English as well. The amount received so far is not
sufficient for the maintenance of the fleet which they purpose to send
Your Serenity's despatch of the 20th ult. reaches me by way of
Zurich, about the exposition of the nuncio, of which Fildin has
already written. Some of the lords here friendly to the republic
complimented me on this reconciliation at a time when I was in
the dark about it, and I could only answer in general terms,
saying that everyone knew you had always shown your your
filial obedience towards His Holiness. If I am provoked again
I shall be able to speak more definitely.
I am deeply grateful at the leave given me to return home
when the Ambassador Giustinian has arrived and I have done
what is necessary for his entry. The public satisfaction with
my labours lightens my regret for my loss of health and substance
in the course of ten years' service, and when I have recovered
my health I will again devote myself to the service of your Serenity
and your Excellencies.
London, the 23rd April, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
428. Alvise Contarini and Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian
Ambassadors in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
When we returned the visit of Don Francesco di Melo he spoke
very earnestly about the peace. Among other things he remarked
to me, Giustinian, that they were negotiating with England about
the Palatinate, and as this was in the direction of peace I might
assist the business at that Court. I evaded this with a few words,
without giving him any handle.
Madrid, the 24th April, 1638.
429. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassadors represent the levies of the Palatine
as great and their king's assistance as very vigorous while many
individual English gentlemen are going to Holland as volunteers
to offer their services. They would like to do something for him
here, but will find it difficult to get them to move unless they really
see what the King of Great Britain means to do. Amid these
circumstances they contemplate with regret the disturbances
in Scotland, fearing that the encouragement they receive from the
Spaniards may make them worse and lead to some tragic end.
Paris the 27th April, 1638.
430. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
The merchants of the Levant Company, seeing the need for
their own interests of maintaining a consul at Zante and Cephalonia,
have deputed one of their number, who will start in a
fortnight by ship for Leghorn, going thence to Venice, whence he
will sail for those islands. (fn. 15) He will present to your Serenity
a letter from the king, and a paper from the Company about
the grievances from which they say they suffer in those islands,
and asking for relief, with orders to the English Agent to support
his instances. The Governor of the Company, whom I know
intimately, came to see me the day before yesterday accompanied
by the consul and other merchants, to communicate this resolution
and ask me to inform your Serenity. I thanked him and promised
to do so assuring him that the consul would be welcome, and
would receive every just assistance, as the state directed that
these merchants and their ships should receive good treatment.
They stayed a long time talking to me of their trade with
Venice, and complained that they did not enjoy the same
advantages as at Leghorn. They said that if it was allowed all
their trade would be transferred to Venice because of the greater
convenience for sending their goods to Germany, which was a
long way off the Grand Duke's dominions. They said it was
incredible what advantage his Highness derived from such a
little port, through the freedom granted there, in spite of its
disadvantages. All the goods which they export from here to
Italy do not suffice to pay for the silk and gold cloth which they
bring here from thence, and they have to add more than 200,000
crowns in letters of exchange a year. All this might go to Venice,
with advantage to the state, the people and the merchants.
I said I could not believe that your Excellencies had not taken
these things into consideration, as you know all the particulars,
and perhaps there are some objections which we do not see. The
governor said they asked for nothing but what would benefit
the republic. He persuaded me to inform your Serenity of what
they had said and express their desire to frequent your markets
rather than those of any other power in Italy, if they could do so
with equal advantage, because merchants, as well as princes,
seek their own advantage. They said they were fitting out some
ships for Candia, but actually they do not dispose of much of that
wine here, and every year they have to send to Hamburg to
get rid of what is left on their hands.
The person who told me he had a quantity of cloth for the
Morea, as I wrote on the 29th of January, was among these
merchants, and asked if I had received an answer. Until then
he said he would delay sending, as he would unlade at Zante
if he could obtain the terms in his letter, otherwise he would send
it to Patras. I said I was expecting to hear and would let
him know at once. The others also seemed anxious to obtain
this advantage saying they were unwilling to risk valuable goods
in the Turkish dominions even with light duties, but they are as
high as those of the islands, which leave them no profit. I said
they might expect every reasonable concession from your
Excellencies with a due regard for the advantage of the state.
They then spoke of the charges upon currants, which they say
cost them last year 85 per cent. beyond the prime cost. They say
the consul will speak of this to your Serenity. I remarked that
they recoup themselves abundantly here, as they raise the price
in proportion. I knew they sold them wholesale to the shopkeepers
at over 6½ ducats of good money for every 100 pounds
of Venetian weight, and at about 14 shillings of the money current
here per pound of 16 ounces.
London, the 30th April, 1638.
431. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
The king, having weighed the considerations put before him by
the lords who recently arrived from Scotland about the revolt
there, has at length decided, in spite of the lamentations of some
bishops who have fled from there, but to the universal satisfaction
of the ministry here, to satisfy those people and put a stop to
those decisions which threatened the royal interests. The means
of adjustment are not yet announced, except hazily. This makes
many believe that the royal dignity is somewhat compromised,
and obliges me to defer a fuller account to my next.
The Queen of Sweden, after arranging the agreement with the
French, for the war in Germany, has sent an Agent, here to see
what actual help they give the Palatine, and to urge them to
assist her troops. (fn. 16) He has seen the king and presented letters
from his mistress, containing her generous resolutions for the
common cause, and inviting his Majesty to help, not only for his
nephew, but to support that party, from whom the allies promise
themselves remarkable advantages. For this purpose she has
sent the Chancellor Oxistern to Germany with powerful reinforcements.
The king received him very graciously, applauding the
great hearted decision of her Majesty. He said he would not
fail to assist his nephew and the public cause most amply. He
enlarged adroitly on the succour destined for the Palatine and the
good will to increase it, in proportion to the need and his courage.
The Duchess of Chevreuse has at last arrived. At the first
news the queen sent her coaches to the coast, with some one to
pay her respects and bring the duchess to London. The king
also sent to welcome her and say that she would be treated French
fashion, easily and without ceremony. She is lodged at the Court
in very noble quarters prepared for her long ago. (fn. 17) On the road
she was entertained at the king's expense. The Marquis of
Ceralvo, chief steward of the Cardinal Infant, came on the same
ship, with 120 boxes of ryals. He will proceed with them to
Dunkirk. Don Alfonso de Cardines will stay here as Resident
for the Catholic and allow the Count of Ognati to depart.
An extraordinary sent by the Duchess of Savoy to her Resident
here, reports Fildin's arrival at that Court, and makes some
complaint of his negotiations ordering him to remonstrate to the
king. He has said something about it to the queen, who, at the
instance of the Marquis of Hamilton, has induced the Resident
to postpone telling the king or any one else before Fildin's
despatches arrive. I have not been able to find out the particulars,
but I will keep on the alert.
His Majesty has nominated four gentlemen of the household
of Prince Charles, his eldest son, who, at the end of next month
when he will enter his ninth year, will be installed in the Order of
the Garter, and they wish him to hold his Court apart. They
have made him the assignments necessary for his maintenance
until he comes into possession of the province of Wales, which
belongs to the Prince of England as Dauphiné does to France's
firstborn. (fn. 18)
A brother of the Landgrave of Darmstadt is found to be living
here incognito. (fn. 19) Some at the Court say he has come to observe
the nature of the assistance for the Palatine, and the progress of
the alliance with the Most Christian, and if these are of
consequence, to make proposals for adjusting the interests
of that prince and thwarting the conclusion. Meanwhile he
enjoys here the generosity of the widow of the Landgrave of
Hesse. The Palatine writes that she has certainly renounced the
proposals made to her for peace with the emperor and is following
the principles of her late husband.
They are now working at Anstruther's commissions, appointed
ambassador extraordinary at Hamburg. They propose he shall
leave soon to see this alliance through, as the king seems more
and more eager to see it established. If a minister of this crown
is required at the congress of Cologne they propose to send Sir
Thomas Roe, who is well versed in all the affairs of Germany.
They are postponing Opton's departure for Spain so that they
may first hear what the Duchess of Chevreuse brings in the name
of that king, and the Resident who came with her, to add to his
commissions what they consider best for the interests of this
crown. The Ambassador of Morocco has also delayed his
departure longer than he intended, much to his regret, owing to
the fault of the merchants here, who have not got the things ready
yet which they want the ships to take, by which he returns to
those parts, in order to renew their trade there.
London, the 30th April, 1638.