432. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassadors have informed Buglione of their
king's decision to send Sir [Robert] Anstruther to the congress
at Hamburg as ambassador extraordinary. Buglione assured
them that this would much gratify his Majesty and they would
renew their instructions to M. d'Avo to hasten the stipulation
of the agreement.
Negotiations are on foot to get the Duchess of Chevreuse to
return to the Court. They make her the most advantageous
offers, really for the purpose of preventing her from going to
England where they are afraid she may perform unfriendly offices.
To facilitate her coming the king has recently assigned a yearly
pension of 10,000 livres to the Prince of Ghimene her brother. (fn. 1)
But many, who profess to see things at a distance, incline to say
that the duchess's departure from the kingdom has been concerted
with the king, with the object for which the friar (fn. 2) was sent to
Spain some time ago, who went to take the relics for the queen :
but this notion seems to me too subtle.
Paris, the 4th May, 1638.
433. The gentleman left by the Ambassador Fildin came into
the Collegio and said :
I have letters from Piedmont from my lord the ambassador,
charging me to inform your Serenity that in conformity with
His Majesty's orders and his Excellency's promises he has spoken
to the ruler of Savoy in favour of the quiet of Italy and found a
disposition to keep all disturbing things at a distance, though
much troubled by the nearness of the Spaniards on one side and
the threats of France on the other. Her Highness does not see
how she can use her own judgment and good intentions, especially
with the forces of the King of England so far away. If they were
nearer they would give her vigour. The old differences with the
republic survive, and she could guide her decisions better if she
had their prudent advice and assistance. The ambassador is
full of zeal for the public tranquillity and is ready to operate in
these matters if your Excellencies think fit. He thinks his
desire for the renewal of the old confidence between that house
and the republic will please your Serenity.
The doge said, he thanked the ambassador. They recognised
his prudence, and could be sure that his offices would be devoted
to the public welfare. The Savii would consider the matter and
let him know if there was anything. The gentleman said he
asked again for a reply to the memorial about the pictures
now at the Custom House, and departed.
434. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
My efforts to find out about the complaints of the Duchess of
Savoy against Fildin have unexpectedly led me to the discovery
of the attempts made by Count Parella to obtain the royal title
for that house when he was last here. A person who enjoys
the queen's favour and who is very intimate with Parella,
told me in casual conversation, that he had brought very
affectionate letters from his mistress to the queen, to interest
her with the king about this. To gratify her sister she had had
a long talk with his Majesty on the subject, but without result,
getting nothing more than his readiness to satisfy that house when
he reasonably could. He regretted their attempt to obtain
a declaration here, since the Most Christian, who was much more
nearly concerned, would not listen to it. He could not take the
first step, in a matter that prejudiced powers friendly to him,
which others possibly might not follow. He intimated that the
utmost he would do would be to imitate France, and they must
address themselves there. The Count left after this, with a
promise from the queen to unite with the duchess to pass offices
with her brother so that his ambassador here might have
instructions to give her Highness's agent the title he desires, as
if that was achieved the king also would oblige her. He told me
the attempt had not succeeded in France. I have sent word of
this to the Ambassador at Paris.
When Fildin entered the Vercellese he was received by order
of the duchess after the manner of ambassadors extraordinary,
so far as the circumstances allowed. He was not satisfied and
complained that he had been worse treated than others, talking
of a shortage of chairs, tables etc. in the quarters assigned to him.
At Turin he complained of this and that he was not received
with proper honours at his public audience, the duke not being
present, and the duchess not having moved from her baldachino
to receive him. He also declared that he would not treat with
Count Filippo d'Aiglie, her Highness's favourite. Her agent
told the queen here of this, as he only has orders to speak to her.
Her Highness accuses the ambassador of impertinence in all his
actions, and asks her Majesty to get him recalled as soon as
possible. She said she regretted Fildin's indiscretions. He had
no negotiations, but only had to offer condolencies and express
their good will here to use their good offices for the advantage of
that house. (fn. 3)
The accommodation announced with Scotland consists rather
in the hope that the king seems inclined to satisfy the people
there than in any sign that it will happen very soon. His Majesty
has declared that he is content they shall live according to the
laws of their own country, and will abolish the book with the
liturgy, provided the bishops remain in their jurisdictions either
with the ordinary title or as the superiors of the parish ministers
and that the rebels ask pardon for their past offences. It is
thought this will be hard to obtain, since the Assembly has already
declared that if a single article of their demands is refused, all
efforts at reconciliation will be vain ; and they claim not to have
done wrong, but that their actions are covered by the laws and
so they have no need of pardon. They have sent the proposals
to Scotland, whence news has lately come that those registered
in the union number over 400,000, to which are added the
inhabitants of the northern parts of Ireland, who profess the same
faith, and are Scots by origin, settled there and only separated
by a short stretch of water.
The Count of Ognati went last Sunday to inform the king of
the arrival of a person to take charge until the arrival of another
ambassador in due course. He said he was a cavalier, and more
than a Resident though less than an ambassador. He asked
his Majesty's permission that the ship which brought the Duchess
of Chevreuse, on which the Marquis of Ceralvo came, the
ambassador designate to Cæsar, might take him to Dunkirk,
and to order another to be ready for his own voyage to Spain.
He obtained this. (fn. 4)
His Majesty has these last days declared null the sequestration
made in the name of Captain Stuart of a sum of money belonging
to Ognati because of ten boxes of ryals which Ognati brought
from Spain. The king has pronounced that the baggage and
money of ambassadors enjoy the same privileges as themselves.
He has offered Stuart letters of reprisal upon Spanish ships and
goods, owing to the action which he has against the Spanish
ministers for those ten boxes.
The Duchess of Chevreuse has been received at Court with
the greatest honour. They made her sit in the presence of their
Majesties, to the resentment of the ladies of the Court, who
pretend that she has no more right than they. She brought the
queen many curious presents, sent by her sister from Spain,
and she has others for the queen mother, to whom she intends
to proceed in a few weeks, after which she will come back
here for a longer stay. The French and Spanish ambassadors
have seen her privately, the first in his private capacity, the other
in state and with compliments in his king's name upon her safe
London, the 7th May, 1638.
435. Gieronimo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador at the
Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
A brother of the Landgrave of Ermestat has been staying
incognito in England for some days. His object is to examine for
himself the disposition and intentions of the king in the matter
of affording help to his nephews, in order to take back an authentic
account of it to the opposite party. If he finds that things are
actually going forward, he is to disclose his real rank and then
try to dissuade the king from making any promise to his nephews.
This having come to the knowledge of the Palatine here rendered
him extremely anxious for some time, but letters from the king
which reached him yesterday have entirely relieved his mind.
These confirm the king's constant determination to afford him
real assistance and even some amount of ready money in remittances.
I have your Excellencies' instructions of the 16th ult. with
regard to the printing of Grasvinchel's book. I have made an
abstract of the essential parts, showing your Excellencies' claims,
making a note of all the passages which require alteration. I
have given these to Grasvinchel to carry out your Serenity's
The Hague, the 7th May, 1638.
436. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople,
to the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassador has claimed a duty of 2 per cent. as
consulage for the goods brought from Venice on the ship Tomasini.
Our merchants have represented that the captain would have to
pay this by the terms of the hiring. He sent to me on the
subject, but I declined to intervene.
Another English ship, the Ark, Captain Trenchen, came here
for cargo, having called at Zante. When he learned what had
happened to the other he sailed away to seek his fortune elsewhere ;
not a word being said about hiring for Venice.
The English, by an outlay of 2000 reals have obtained an
order to reduce all charges at Cyprus to 3 per cent. in conformity
with what they pay by their capitulations in all the markets of
this empire, notwithstanding that up to this moment they
have paid 5, 6 up to 9 per cent. according to the quality of
the goods. Upon this the Basha sent men from here on purpose,
pointing out that this innovation would be prejudicial to the
Treasury of the Grand Turk, and as a consequence the original
order has been withdrawn, in spite of the outlay mentioned
above. Now the English are striving hard to have it renewed
and offer a further 4000 reals in addition to many other little
acts of courtesy. They are in hopes of getting it from the
Cateuimaium of the king before he goes far away from this
neighbourhood, because the advantage which they will derive
from it will really be enormous.
The Vigne of Pera, the 8th May, 1638.
437. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
Although they have not been able to prevent Madame de
Chevreuse landing in England, yet they covertly keep up their
negotiations to get her to come to France.
Paris, the 11th May, 1638.
438. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
Four other judges have delivered their opinion this week
upon whether the king can lawfully levy contributions by his
own authority. Two of them, with confident freedom, prove that
only in the cases mentioned by the laws the king can command
all the ships, all the men and all their property, informing
parliament afterwards and obtaining its approval, but it cannot
be done apart from those cases without upsetting the laws.
No necessity is now disclosed so urgent as to move his Majesty
to change the ancient principles of the country or prevent the
summoning of parliament, which, moreover, he is obliged to
summon at least once every three years to provide for the needs
of the state, as his predecessors did even more frequently and
with success. For three years, without any visible cause, they
have continued to levy taxes contrary to the ordinances of the
realm, creating discontent among the people and without the
assembling of parliament, which has always been received as the
true legislator of this monarchy.
They deliver a long encomium of the royal virtues, mentioning
as chief this of permitting the present case to be disputed, a clear
argument of a desire to conform to the laws. They confute the
precedents quoted by the Attorney General and the judges who
pronounced before them, characterising them as tyrannical acts
which his Majesty is far from wishing to imitate, while others
were done with just cause, being communicated and approved in
the succeeding parliaments. They say that the judges are the
king's councillors in legal matters, as those of state are for the
political government, and if there is any disorder, the fault lies
with the councillors and not with the king, who is most just.
They urge their colleagues to declare their opinions with the same
liberty, in the certainty that they will do a thing pleasing to
God, the king and the country. (fn. 5)
This action has been received with great applause by the whole
auditory, but it has not moved the other two judges from their
opinion ; the one arguing from the king's goodness and the useful
employment of the money in the service of the country, intimates
that it ought to be permitted sometimes and declares himself
neutral in this case, while the other, though very feebly, decides
for the king, who has five votes for him so far. Four others will
give their opinion in next June term. The sentence will certainly
go for the king, although only barely, as two other judges are
expected to argue against.
Anstruther has asked to be relieved of his appointment as
ambassador extraordinary to Hamburg to conclude the alliance,
being aware of the poor opinion held of his ability for it, and he has
obtained this. The king at once nominated Sir [Thomas] Roe,
who was already selected for the post in the universal opinion.
He is hurrying in order to start in the shortest possible time.
He desired this post on his own account and for the interests of
the Palatine house, to which he is greatly devoted. He promises
to go with all speed and that he will not prove useless to his
Highness. To help the prince's affairs his Majesty has already
paid out the 20,000l. sterling, equal to 100,000 ducats, which were
remitted last week to Holland. Following this up he has ordered
8 guns and other munitions to be sent to Meppen in Westphalia,
the place d'armes designate, convenient as being near the sea.
Lord Craven, son of a very rich merchant ennobled a few years
ago, will be the Palatine's best friend in these emergencies, as he
has been a devoted servant of the house for a long time. He
went to Holland with his Highness, and from then until now he has
withdrawn from here some 400,000 crowns in cash to devote to
these affairs, and he still has a revenue of over 40,000 a year left
Madame de Chevreuse stays on here, treated most royally
by their Majesties 40l. sterling a day are assigned for her table,
200l. a month for her petty expenses, while the queen supplies
what she requires for dressing, costing the king about 10,000
crowns a month. But it is thought this liberality will not last
long. Her departure for Flanders is postponed, as she likes
her stay here too much. It is not likely to change unless the
principles of the Court do. She has renewed her old acquaintances
and is making new ones ; all the lords pay her court and
she passes the time merrily. She artfully threw out some
project of a marriage between the Princess Mary, their Majesties'
eldest daughter, a child of seven, and the prince of Spain, and
apparently they consider it. But this is believed to be the
usual incantation of the Spaniards to lull this crown to sleep,
since it is now inclined to do them hurt, not having been able to
obtain anything for the Palatine by way of negotiation.
On being assured of the pregnancy of the Queen of France
the queen here at once sent a gentleman of hers on purpose to
offer congratulations. He started three days ago. (fn. 6) The Earl
of Leicester had orders to pass suitable offices with both their
Majesties on behalf of the king and queen. The report persists
that Schidemore has been confirmed as ordinary ambassador
at that Court for three years, so Fildin has little hope of succeeding
him before he returns to England, as he wished. We do not hear
of any nomination for your Serenity.
The indisposition of the newly arrived Spanish minister has
delayed Ognati's leave taking. He regrets this as he has long
been tired of this Court where he will leave no better satisfaction
than he has received. The king recently sent the Secretaries
of State to inform him of the removal of the sequestration on
his goods and money but to add that he cannot deny justice
to the Genoese against Stuart nor to Stuart against the Catholic
ministers and he would grant Stuart letters of reprisal against
Spanish ships and goods if he was not satisfied reasonably. The
ambassador replied that he would not make any further instance
for the release of the sequestration ; if the king believed it to be
unlawful he ought to annul it himself. He spoke very haughtily
about the letters of reprisal and angrily said to the Secretaries,
Tell the king that this is a lie. Scandalised at this the secretaries
accuse the ambassador of indiscretion and arrogance.
London, the 14th May, 1638.
439. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassadors say that not Anstruther but Sir
[Thomas] Roe will be sent to Hamburg. The news does not
please them here because the change is bound to involve delay.
Paris, the 16th May, 1638.
440. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The replies have come from Scotland about the adjustment of
their affairs to what was sent there. As was clearly foreseen it was
not acceptable to the people there. After having deliberated upon
every means with the Council of Scotland, the king has decided to
send thither the Marquis of Hamilton with all that Council, in the
hope that an accommodation conducted by so many persons of
influence of the same nation who are friendly to his Majesty, may
produce the result they aim at. The introductions they bear may be
more easily imagined than ascertained. They are all sworn not
to communicate them to anyone soever until they are actually
presented. The most common opinion is that if they find the Scots
unwilling to yield to the king they have power to satisfy them with a
due regard to covering the royal dignity as much as possible and
bringing them back to their former obedience. There is general
astonishment at the king's confidence in the marquis, as the parliaments
of Scotland have already declared him the heir to that kingdom
after the line of this king, and it is not thought prudent to let him
appear there in the present disturbances with power to appease them,
on the ground that if he is as malicious as he is subtle, he might
turn his arts to his own advantage, as the material is all there ; he
would find the people disposed to second him, foreign princes to
uphold him and the moment inopportune for the king to stop him,
because he has not the love of the people or the magnates, all being
most dissatisfied with the present government ; so they think his
Majesty might find it difficult to defend even the rest of his dominions.
Such is the talk among the great, and many would be glad to see it,
to have something in hand in case of royal disaster (per haver
qualche si tratta in caso della regia disgratia), without risking the
uncertain passage of this sea, forbidden to those who have not the
king's leave. (fn. 7)
Another messenger from the Duchess of Savoy reached her
Resident here last Monday. He reports that Fildin has had two
audiences since the first complimentary one. In one he told her
Highness that if the Most Christian and the Catholic decided to
give her the royal title he did not think England would refuse
it. In the other he said that if she remained neutral that would
agree with his king's aims. He has exceeded his commissions
which charge him to abstain from any negotiations, but confine
himself to compliments and the expressions of the king's desire
to use his offices for the interests of that house. His Majesty
is incensed and has sent an express to Turin recalling him and
ordering him to return straight to Court. It is thought he
will receive some correction, or that this will at least terminate
his career. (fn. 8) They are now better able to appreciate the patience
of your Excellencies with his numerous faults. I have sent the
particulars to the Ambassador Corraro.
Sir [Thomas] Roe is to start for Hamburg today, with letters
of credence to the King of Denmark, with whom he will treat,
to get him to help the Palatine, in imitation of them here, and for
all the Princes of Germany, with whom he will treat in case of
need. He had a long and secret interview with the king, when
he went to kiss hands, and he takes powers to grant some assistance
to the Swedes, as he understands that if they are not
satisfied with what is done for the Palatine and offered for the
common benefit in the articles with France, they may prevent the
conclusion of the treaty. Finally, to satisfy the Dutch, he has
powers to promise that they shall not be molested in their fisheries
by the royal ships if they ask for it. In fact they want to
establish this alliance, for which purpose they have dismissed
Anstruther and given the office to this much more active person,
who takes it up with great zeal, in the hope of obtaining
advantages for the Palatine House. Everything conspires to
help that prince to seek every means of avenging his wrongs or
perishing nobly. His Highness and Prince Rupert have written
to this effect recently, to the king, who greatly commends their
high spirit, and says that when he sees the results he will
increase his liberality, and help them as if they were his own
His Majesty has nominated the captains of thirty three ships
which will put to sea this year, twenty five of his own, including
eight swift and well armed Pinnaces (Tartane), and eight large
merchantmen equipped for war. (fn. 9) This is a very powerful fleet
from the quality of the ships, abundantly supplied with everything
required. Two of them are destined to coast off Ireland,
the others will be employed where they are wanted.
The Ambassador Ognati on hearing of the king's intention to
grant letters of reprisals to Captain Stuart for the matter of the
ten boxes of ryals, has requested his Majesty to depute commissioners,
to review his case against Stuart to report and pronounce
sentence in his Majesty's presence. The king obliged him,
appointing two Lords of the Council and the two Secretaries of
State. The matter was brought before them yesterday, and their
decision is expected next Monday. Meanwhile they have
arranged his last public audience Cardines having recovered,
whom he will present to his Majesty by order of his king.
Sir [Arthur] Opton started for the coast yesterday, where the
royal ship awaits him to take him to Spain, and fetch back his
Finding it much more advantageous to send the money for
the Palatine to Holland by specie than by letters of exchange,
they have put it on one of the king's ships, which is to leave
today. (fn. 10) The brother of the Landgrave of Darmstadt will go
by it. He has made himself known and kissed the king's hand.
He has conducted no business at this Court, having come merely
out of curiosity to see the country, as he says he will in Holland
London, the 22nd May, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
441. Girolamo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in the
Netherlands, to the Doge and Senate.
I was speaking recently with Dr. Grasvinchel about the matter
of the book, committed to me by your Serenity. I led up to the
point with all delicacy and tried gently to dissuade him from
printing this book. He said he would gladly consent if it had not
been composed by order of the States. I then urged him to
remove the passages which concern your Serenity's dominion
over the sea. He said that was an integral part of the book
which he could not cancel without ruining his own reputation and
depriving the book of all credit. I therefore thought it necessary
to impress him thoroughly with all the notes and passages
contained in the papers sent me by your Serenity. In this I
achieved complete success, as the devotion this individual
professes to the most serene republic prevailed over his objections
and repugnance, so that he will recast his arguments in conformity
with those papers. I further induced him to promise that the
book should not issue from the press before he had shown me the
passages so corrected. When I have it I will send it to your
Serenity and await your further orders.
The Hague, the 21st May, 1638.
442. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
As in England they made Madame de Chevreuse sit before
the queen, the Ambassador Bellievre asked the same honour for
his wife, saying it was not proper that one who although a
princess was a vassal of the King of France should be seated
while the ambassadress stood ; but he could not carry his point.
He has informed his Majesty, who, in retaliation, has directed that
the English ambassadress shall no longer be allowed to sit in the
queen's presence, as she used. She happened to be near St.
Germain on her way to the Court when she received the news,
and turned back very ill pleased. This will offend them greatly
in England, although it is just, being based on the claim that
in such ceremonies both sides should act alike.
Compiegne, the 23rd May, 1638.
443. Francesco Marcello, Venetian Proveditore of Zante,
to the Doge and Senate.
Last Sunday the 6th inst. the English consul received seven
wounds in the house of one Maria, late the wife of an Englishman,
a woman of evil life. She lured him into an ambush, where he
was attacked with knives and sticks and left for dead. The
woman has been arrested with her servant. Evidence has
been taken pointing to the delinquents. The enclosed paper
has been received from the English nation.
Zante, the 13th May, 1638, old style.
444. Presented by John Brumel and William Tindel, Englishmen,
with many others of their nation, in the name of William
Bordet, their consul. (fn. 11)
Statement of the circumstances attending the wounding of the
consul, with a complaint of the ill treatment of the English,
shown by the murder of Andrew Weston, by the wounding of
Captain Hacar of the ship Tomasina by the murder of English
sailors by the customs officials and by the wounding and robbery
of Henry Hider when he was leaving his ship. Petition for the
punishment of the malefactors, as if the English merchants
cannot have security in their persons and property they will be
obliged to abandon the trade.
Dated at Zante, the 10th May, 1638, old style.
445. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador designate
to England, to the Doge and Senate.
I have come here from the rigours of Spain. The Count of
Gramont, governor of the province, has shown me great honour.
He has been to tell me not to proceed without obtaining a strong
guard from the prince of Condé, as the country is full of rascals.
I regret the increase of expense this involves. The governor
assured me he had orders to invade Biscay by Navarre. A great
quantity of grain has been sent here for the invading army. The
Prince of Condé and the Duke of la Valette have gone to review
the army, which is to assemble on the 8th prox. at Gordon in
Gascony. The Spaniards are taking measures of defence. They
are equipping ships, with the idea of attempting a diversion
in the waters of La Rochelle. The governor has left for Bearn
today, where he will hold the estates, in order to raise money for
Bayonne, the 26th May, 1638.
446. Gieronimo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador at
the Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
It is reported that a great sum of money has reached England
on account of the Spaniards, to be taken in safety to Dunkirk.
This cannot fail to supply a strong argument to the disadvantage
of the Palatine, whose hopes of vigorous assistance from his
uncle have declined greatly owing to acts of this kind in favour of
the Spaniards, which are constantly taking place.
The Hague, the 27th May, 1638.
447. Francesco Zonca, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
Last Monday the Ambassador Ognati took leave of their
Majesties, treated outwardly in the most honourable manner.
The Earl of Annibi, of the King's Council and of the Order of the
Garter, as is customary with ambassadors extraordinary with
the title of cavaliers, went with the royal coaches and gentlemen
of the Court, to fetch him to the palace, where the king and
queen awaited him surrounded by a great company of lords and
ladies. After handing in his credentials and the usual compliments
he presented Don Alonso di Cardines as Resident until
another ambassador comes. The Duchess of Chevreuse acted as
interpreter for the compliments which Cardines paid to the
queen in Spanish in the name of her sister in Spain. It was
observed with astonishment that Ognati covered before the queen,
when no other ambassador does so. Although it is admitted
that he has the right to cover in the presence of the king, and
much more in that of his wife, yet what in others would be
considered inadvertence is ascribed to pure malice in him, as he
has always tried to make himself disagreeable (piccare) in everything.
The commissioners appointed to settle the cause between
Ognati and Captain Stuart have decided that as Stuart had no
caution in writing from the ambassador but only by word of
mouth, which is not probable, Ognati's goods ought to be free
from the sequestration. But many believe that this has been
arranged by the persons in question to the prejudice of the
Genoese, the ten boxes being divided among them. Stuart now
undertakes to prove that he was compelled by violence to hand
them over to the ambassador, or they would not have allowed
him to leave the port of Corunna. When he has made this
good he hopes to rid himself of the molestation of the Genoese,
who remarks that the king's ships cannot suffer violence in the
ports of Spain, and if they refuse him justice here he will find
it at Genoa upon the goods of the English.
Tomorrow the entire Court will leave for Windsor, with all
the leading lords of the city, to take part in the solemn ceremony
of the installation of Prince Charles in the Order of the Garter.
They will return next week and withdraw to Greenwich the week
after, where they will stay until the 26th of July, the date fixed
for beginning the usual annual progress.
Tomorrow also the Marquis Hamilton will start for Scotland.
He has been detained by the illness of his wife, sister of the
Ambassador Fildin, who died three days ago. (fn. 12) The other lords
have all set out for that kingdom, and when he has arrived they
will begin their negotiations. Uncertain and interesting as
the issue is, many believe that it will not prove what the king
expects, since it is impossible to get it out of the heads of some
that the designs of the Scots go deeper than they have disclosed,
and that when they have obtained the satisfaction they now ask,
they will produce higher demands with the object of compelling
his Majesty to use force against them, and so have a better pretext
for proceeding to the utmost lengths against him. The real
objects will very soon appear, as they will be obliged to disclose
themselves when the deputies propose the maintenance of the
laws and the abolition of the book of the liturgy.
With Hamilton far away from Court I shall find it difficult to
perform the offices with which I am charged about the entry of
the Ambassador Giustinian, after I had got him to undertake to
protect the interests of your Excellencies with the king ; but I
have other intimates and by my offices I hope to obtain what
There is a secretary here of the Count of Oldenburgh, a prince
of the Empire in the circle of Westphalia, sent by his master to
the king to intercede for neutrality from the Prince Palatine,
and promising to refuse facilities to the imperial arms also. (fn. 13)
He declares that the King of Denmark, the next heir to those
dominions, because the Count has no son, has sent some troops
to those parts for their defence, and if he gets this neutrality,
the king also will respect it. They speak him fair and have sent
his expositions after the Ambassador Roe, who left for Hamburg
Nothing more is said about the Duchess of Chevreuse going to
Flanders. She is beginning to make trouble at Court, trying to
convert the Earl of Holland to the Roman faith and win him for
the Spanish party. To please the queen who is the principal
instrument of this good work, he pretends not to be averse from it,
and the Spanish ministers here, through this Chevreuse, who can
do anything with him, hope to have him on their side, and it is
believed that they are surreptitiously offering him a pension from
They have heard with great sorrow of the capture by the
Imperialists of Meppen, bought recently by the Palatine. (fn. 14)
They fear he will take it as a bad omen, lose courage and abandon
his enterprise. They urge him to prosecute his designs. They
know here that the Elector of Mayence has written to the
emperor that if no means is found of arranging the differences
between the Bavarian and Palatine houses they can never hope
for peace in Germany, and that when the Palatine's army takes
the field it will throw those parts into confusion.
The Ambassador Opton has left for Spain and the Morocco
one for his country. The latter takes a coach embroidered with
hold and six magnificent horses, a present from his Majesty
to the king there in return for the four Barbary horses presented
when he came here. The Ambassador Schidamore is confirmed in
France as he desires and no one is yet nominated for your
Serenity, although at the recall of the Ambassador Fildin they
said they would nominate another in his place.
London, the 28th May, 1638.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
448. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain,
to the Doge and Senate.
They employ their usual arts to lull England to sleep. The
ambassador of that king is on the point of departing. The Count
Duke has sent for him three times and left him a paper to hand
to his sovereign, supposed to be full of good hope that in the peace
negotiations at Cologne he will obtain complete satisfaction with
the restitution of the Palatinate, declaring that the ministers
cannot do this earlier, as it is necessary to pass through Flanders
in the absence of a way through Lorraine. The same ambassador
says that even if his king assists his nephew, it will not amount
to much, and he encourages the belief that his king is rather
disposed to unite with this crown than with the French. It
seems that the Count of Ognat writes to much the same effect
Madrid, the 29th May, 1638.