174. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
A serious difference has arisen with the English over the
portion which they hold of the credits of the Count of Cesi. The
Ambassador dell' Haye took to Constantinople the capital to
pay, but mostly in cloth. The English say they want to be paid
in cash here and not at Constantinople and they have forwarded
to the king a request of the parliament to this effect. They are
told that Cesi's debts were contracted at Constantinople and
they propose to pay them there and no where else, and they believe
they are giving the English a great advantage, since they offer
to treat them in the same way as the subjects of the Grand Turk,
who they say are satisfied with cloth. The ambassador Leicester
is not satisfied with this and makes loud complaint, and Savigni,
who possibly may have some interest in this cloth, opposes him with
vigour. He takes especial exception to the king of Great Britain
having let parliament interest itself in the matter, and protests that
in the future they will deal with parliament over the other matters
also, to the greater prejudice of the king's authority. (fn. 1)
Sciatu, the 2nd April, 1641.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
175. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The Prince Palatine is working hard to induce parliament to
declare in favour of his interests and to afford him some hope of
obtaining prompt and powerful succour from this quarter. But
so far his efforts have made no breach in the toughness of the
parliamentarians. They seem less and less inclined to apply their
thoughts to any external affairs whatever before they have
settled the domestic ones of this kingdom by establishing a secure
repose, upon which all hopes depend although now more doubtful
than ever, so that no one can form a certain judgment.
To show his nephew his entire good will to his house the king
has agreed to send two ambassadors, one to the Diet of Ratisbon
and the other to the King of Denmark, with instructions to obtain
for him that relief for which he has so long sighed in vain, from
the opportunity afforded by the present peace negotiations in
Germany. For the Diet of Ratisbon Sir [Thomas] Roe is nominated,
who will be accompanied by a commissioner, sent by the
Palatine : and for Denmark Mr. Anstruder ; both of them have
previously served the crown as ambassadors on this business,
with the King of Denmark and at the Congress of Hamburg.
Both are sick at the moment, so that it is unlikely that they will
start soon, as the prince would desire. This encourages the belief
of many that we shall not see the ministers go out, that the king
has acted solely to give his nephew this apparent satisfaction,
and to try and send him back to Holland as soon as possible
somewhat less dissatisfied. Time will show.
Anyhow they are writing to Brussels today to ask the Cardinal
Infant for a passport for the passage of this minister. Meanwhile
the Dutch ambassadors speak very bitterly of the Palatine,
complaining that having lost the hope of having the princess for
himself he tried hard to prevent the king from signing the articles
of the marriage unless the States first bound themselves to embrace
his cause with an open declaration and to declare war on the
emperor, advantages which he could not obtain. These complaints
cause serious concern at the palace as they fear that if
these go further they may induce the princess Palatine to abandon
her residence in Holland and come to this Court, which they say
she is very anxious to do, although His Majesty has expressed
his entire objection to consent.
The Portuguese ambassadors made their public entry into this
city on Thursday, accompanied by the royal barges and met by
the Earl of Canarvert. They have established themselves at
the usual residence of ambassadors extraordinary, where they are
defrayed by His Majesty with all the ceremony due to the ministers
of crowned heads. They are to have their first formal
audience on Sunday. (fn. 2)
A report which has reached the merchants here that the pirates
of Algiers are preparing a number of ships to make a strong
appearance at sea this year, has induced the Lower Chamber to
decide to arm speedily eight ships of war, to be sent to the coasts
of Ireland, to prevent any harm the pirates might do there.
These will be maintained out of the customs revenue, which
before parliament assembled, went into the royal purse.
In addition to this provision they are debating a means of
constituting a fund with the money of individual merchants,
which shall suffice for the support of twenty well armed ships,
which it is proposed to send to the coasts of Barbary, to blockade
the pirates in their ports there, and so secure the navigation
of the ships of this nation.
No decision has yet been reached about the last proposals of
the Scots, as this week parliament has devoted itself to hearing
again the Lieutenant of Ireland, whose case will not be finished
for many days yet. Meanwhile the Lower Chamber acts as
prosecuting counsel in the matter and heaps every evil upon him
with great ardour. The king on his side leaves nothing untried
to save this minister, standing fast to his original idea to risk
everything to save him. Thus every one here is very puzzled as
to what will happen. To prevent the threatened risings among
the people and to secure the accused against violence while he is
defending himself in parliament, they are having the city defended
by numerous guards, and the Houses of parliament in particular.
A courier arrived yesterday from York with news that the
Scots quartered at Newcastle are extending their barracks,
apparently in order to march in this direction. If this proves
true, they will find no obstacle to oppose their resistance, as the
Puritans here are most eager to strike a final blow at the Catholics
of this country by this means, and His Majesty's troops are not
equal either in numbers or in quality to offer sufficient resistance.
I have your letters of the 8th. I will assure the Marquis
Wieville of your appreciation of the offer of his son's services.
He is about 21 years of age. From what I hear he has engaged
in two campaigns as an adventurer in the forces of the Prince of
Orange, and he is at present at this Court. I will try and find
out what he wants as well as all other particulars.
London, the 5th April, 1641.
176. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Cardinal told me about the agreement with the queen
mother. He said that while she enjoyed all that she needed in
Flanders and England the king did not feel himself called upon
to supply her with anything ; but now that she was in need, it was
right to be liberal. It must, however, be on condition that she
would consent to end her days at Florence as a private individual.
If the queen complies she will not travel through this kingdom,
but by way of Holland and Germany. His Eminence spoke
very strongly against the king and queen of Great Britain, the
latter in particular, for permitting Her Majesty to suffer want
without helping her, and this supplied the text for a long digression
about their weakness, to which he attributed all the present
disorders of England, to the perpetual destruction of the royal
Paris, the 9th April, 1641.
177. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The king received the Portuguese ambassadors on Sunday with
the most conspicuous honours, in the Great Hall, reserved for
those of crowned heads, and with every befitting circumstance.
They informed His Majesty briefly of what had taken place in
that kingdom, of the accession of the new king and of the rights
of the house of Braganza to that crown. They assured the king
of the esteem of their master and all his people for the greatness
of this crown. Their more particular offices they reserved for the
private audiences. The king responded with the like courtesy.
They have not yet been introduced to the queen, and her Majesty
does not seem so well disposed towards them as the rest of the
Court, indeed she intimates that to avoid giving unnecessary
offence to the Queen of Spain, her sister, she will only treat with
them in general terms and formal matters. They have made
advantageous offers to many English and Scottish commanders
who are idle here, to induce them to enter the service of their
prince. Most of them are disposed to go, in the hope of gain,
with His Majesty's permission, which they have no doubt about
getting. The Spanish ambassador on his side makes known his
great resentment at the courtesy shown to these ministers and
absents himself from the Court, but this will not interfere with the
negotiations of the Portugese when they propose matters acceptable
and useful to them here.
The Prince Palatine is making every effort to get the Ambassador
Roe off to Ratisbon, and urges that the necessary instructions
be given him as soon as possible ; but as he still keeps his bed it
is not likely that any time can be fixed for his departure. From
his presence at the Diet the Palatine cherishes the hope of deriving
considerable advantage, the King of Denmark having written
that the emperor had assured him that he was most anxious to
settle this thorny business by an amicable composition. But
those who know most do not credit this, and everyone thinks
that these new advances of Caesar are only intended to divert
parliament from generous decisions in favour of the Palatine and
at the same time to obtain from this crown, by the sending of an
ambassador, some recognition of his person, which so far has
Meanwhile Doctor Spiringh, a servant of the Palatine House,
has set out for Holland. He is to present himself at the diet as
deputy of the prince and to take part in the business, though
there is little or no hope of any success. (fn. 3)
Parliament is still engaged every day on the trial of the Lieutenant
of Ireland. He defends himself boldly in the presence of a
numerous gathering of people, endeavouring by his subtle representations
to change the universal hatred against him into
compassion. The king and queen are present privately at all the
sittings, and show their especial satisfaction at the hope, which
seems to be growing, that this minister so valued and beloved
by their Majesties will be saved. Parliament will be engaged
all next week in hearing the prisoner and then they will proceed
to the sentence.
Before then the parliamentarians are not disposed to decide
anything about the last demands of the Scots. These on the
other hand, fearing the increase of the suspicion about their
willingness to withdraw to their own country, have offered
parliament through their delegates, that if 300,000l. is paid to
them promptly they will leave Newcastle without delay, and
relieve England of their forces, leaving the settlement of the other
articles to negotiation. No reply has been given to this specious
suggestion, and although the subtlety of it is clearly recognised
from the impossibility of providing so great a sum in so short a
time, yet the supporters of that party laud the proposal to the
skies, and try to gain credit for the sincerity of the Scots and that
they have no other aim than the preservation of the public
Orders have reached the merchants here from France for the
payment of 100,000 francs to the queen mother. Although her
journey to Italy was announced as definitely arranged, Fabroni
the only minister who at present has any credit with her, speaks
about it as uncertain. Meanwhile the queen has sent word to the
Duke of Vendome that as she hopes soon to be reconciled with the
king, her son, she desires that he will abstain from visiting her,
in order not to give offence to the Most Christian.
I have informed the Marquis of la Wieuille of your favourable
reception of his son's offer. He told me that the States have
offered him a regiment and the Duke of Candal also, but he was
most anxious to serve the republic and so he had not listened to
these proposals. He was not induced to do this by avarice and
would accept such conditions as you pleased, having due regard
to his birth. If necessary he would raise levies of foreign troops
upon the same conditions as others have had for a like service.
I made him nothing but a formal reply and merely report in
accordance with instructions.
London, the 12th April, 1641.
178. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary at the Hague, to
the Doge and Senate.
Eighteen well armed ships are ready to take the young prince
to England. He has received a valuable jewel from the Portuguese
Ambassador, and in a few days he will set out to meet
The Hague, 15th April, 1641.
179. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
Sir [Thomas] Roe is getting better and has promised His
Majesty that within a fortnight he will be ready to travel and to
start when his instructions are consigned to him, and he has the
necessary credits to meet the expenses of the embassy. The last
point will not be an easy one to meet in the incredible shortage of
money in the king's treasury, and for the want of it the king has
been obliged to suspend the wages of his own servants and to cut
down all the other expenses of the court. The Prince Palatine
is actively engaged in smoothing away these difficulties, so far as
possible, as it is certain that without such aid the minister
cannot move. The Earl of Arundel, a minister at present more
employed than any other, had a long conversation with me in
confidence on this subject. He disapproved and spoke with little
or no hope of success, although he said that the King of Denmark
was trying to persuade differently, expressing the assurance that
this time England will receive from the emperor the satisfaction
On Sunday the Portuguese ambassadors saw the queen privately,
with a few words of ceremony to which Her Majesty
replied with like brevity and coldness. They have asked the
king for a fresh audience, but so far he has put them off, on the
plea of the present business of parliament. This excites remark,
especially as his first eager desire to treat with them has cooled
considerably. No minister of the Court has yet visited them ;
those of the pope and Grand Duke abstain any way, and as there
is no French ambassador, or of any other crown, I have thought
it best to wait for the arrival of the French minister, to set an
example, as I am instructed. I have been able to do so without
causing offence, as I have been kept in bed for twenty days by a
severe catarrh. In public occasions the Portuguese will claim
that their coach shall precede that of your Serenity's minister,
and I beg for instructions on the subject.
To meet the monthly payments due to the Scottish army the
city here has taken up a prompt loan of 120,000l. upon condition
of receiving compensation from the first subsidies collected.
Meanwhile the Scots with increased forces, are penetrating
further into the country on the specious plea that the Newcastle
district, being stripped of food, does not suffice any longer for
their maintenance. On the other hand the leaders of the royal
army, who are in the country of York, being joined by the trained
bands of that district, who are for the most part Catholics,
have sent a courier to warn parliament of this move of the enemy,
and protesting freely that to escape shame and to save England
from further hurt they are determined to attack and force them
to retire. But the parliamentarians, who wish at all costs to
keep the Scottish forces in England for some time longer, so as
to protect their own licence and serve as a bridle to any generous
decisions that the king might take, have not approved the energy
of these commanders, and have sent them orders not to leave
their winter quarters without fresh orders. This shows clearly
how far the Scottish party prevails in the parliament, and the
suspicion grows that those forces supported by the most seditious,
may approach this city and add to the trouble.
Parliament continues to devote its attention to the trial of the
Lieutenant of Ireland. This takes up all the time and prevents
other and more important business being attended to, and it also
makes news scarce this week.
At the arrival of the Prince of Orange the Dutch ambassadors
gave up their negotiations for the proposed alliance, and are now
concentrating their efforts on inducing the king to consent to
the princess going to Holland when the prince returns there ;
but their Majesties persist that this shall not be until she has
completed her 12th year. So all their efforts have been vain,
so far, and many still believe that time may bring about considerable
changes in this marriage, especially as the princess, although
of such tender age, shows little pleasure in it. This is a very
weighty consideration and may suggest the opportunities that
they are so anxiously seeking.
There is no longer any doubt about the queen mother's journey
to Italy, and Her Majesty speaks of it as certain, announcing
that on the arrival of the French ambassador, who is expected
soon, she will decide the manner and the day of her start.
London, the 19th April, 1641.
180. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary at the Hague, to the
Doge and Senate.
The young prince of Orange, having successfully weathered a
furious gale which broke the mast of his ship, as they left port,
set out for England yesterday under favourable auspices. The
Dunkirkers make as if to attack him and scour that section with
more than thirty well armed ships. But he is guarded by all
the forces of Holland and does not fear any encounter. He speaks
of nothing but of seeing his bride. The Admiral who is convoying
him (fn. 4) has received orders, sent express, that so soon as he has
landed the prince he is to proceed with all speed to the coast of
Flanders to prevent the sailing of the 12,000 Walloons, destined for
The Hague, the 29th April, 1641.