61. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary at the Hague, to the
Doge and Senate.
The Prince of Orange left for Wesel two days ago, making
his first halt Viana, and then proceeding the next day to
Buren, where he will wait for the Queen of England, to take her
with him to the army. She left this morning with all the Court,
with the sole object of satisfying her curiosity and of seeing the
Province of Utrecht and other leading towns of Holland on her
The ambassadors elect for England, in order to please the queen
and the Prince too, before he left the Hague, hurried on their
preparations, and they had already arranged to start on the
3rd inst. But one of them has been seized with a serious illness,
bringing him to death's door, (fn. 1) and this has stopped their going,
not without a suspicion on her Majesty's part that this is a device
of the States to procrastinate and avoid committing themselves,
enabling them to look on without interfering beyond their first
demonstrations of zeal, in order to make her Majesty believe
that the government had a friendly and sincere feeling for the
Cressi, after performing his mission from the Most Christian
in paying his respects to the Queen of England, and his offices
in the General Assembly, has set off towards the Court.
I expressed to the Princess Palatine, in accordance with the
instructions of the 9th ult., the state's appreciation of Prince
Rupert's offer, assuring her of the Signory's deep regard for her
House. She assured me how much she was indebted to the most
serene republic and said that she would write to her brother
about it. She asked your Excellencies to bear her son's offer
in mind, as she was most eager to see him employed under the
protection of your Serenity. I performed a similar office with
The Hague, the 2nd June, 1642.
62. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England
to the Doge and Senate.
Since the recent despatch reported of the commissioners to
Uls, with instructions to prevent the movements of the king's
supporters, which are constantly generating in that place, and
to encourage the others not to fall away from their attachment
to the parliament, they have had the new remonstrance against
the proceedings of the past government printed and published,
in order to keep steadfast the detestation of the people for the king
and his ministers alike. But as this paper only repeats what
they have tried to give currency to upon other occasions, it has
not produced the impression that was expected and they are looking
for other inventions whereby they may attain the same end.
Yet by a resolution of both Houses a decree has been issued
to the effect that as the present efforts of the king make it clearly
evident that he contemplates waging war against the parliament,
in such case the confidence in good governance which the people
have entrusted to his Majesty's charge must be considered as
broken off, and in that event it will be unlawful for any one
to render him assistance or to follow him under pain of incurring
the penalties of treason and enmity to the state.
The king on his side has published other documents, in which
by solid arguments he exposes the interested passion by which
the parliamentarians are inspired, his firm determination not to
depart from the laws of the country, with other praiseworthy
ideas, which have given general satisfaction and deprived the
publications of the other side of much of their credit.
In accordance with the arrangement there assembled at York
on Friday the gentlemen of that county, of Lincoln and of other
neighbouring counties. These arranged in divers troops presented
themselves to the king and with voices of sincere devotion
offered him their faithful service protesting that they would spend
their property as well as their persons in his cause and in defence
of his royal prerogatives.
His Majesty responded to these offers by expressing his perfect
gratification. He assured them that his desire was for peace
and a good understanding with parliament ; his efforts were
sincerely directed to secure the felicity of his subjects and for
the maintenance of the laws of the realm and the re-establishment
of the Protestant religion. With this and other abundant
assurances of regard he endeavoured to render them steadfast
in their opinion, telling them that he would avail himself of it
at the proper moment. Subsequently he enjoined them for the
most part to return to their homes, burning with enthusiasm
for his service, only keeping near him 500 men on foot and fifty
mounted, to whom he commended the defence of his person and
promised regular pay, even though they had declared that they
would serve him at their own cost.
Admonished by this example of their own duty many lords of
the Upper House, being also invited by letters from the king,
have set out without delay for York to offer him fresh proofs
of loyalty and obedience. Among these are numbered some who
hitherto have supported the principles of the most seditious.
But what makes this the more remarkable, the Great Seal also,
who in the past has shown himself utterly opposed to the interests
of his Majesty and to whom is entrusted the task of seeing
that the laws are carried out, being convinced by this most
righteous incentive, has gone off unexpectedly to York, taking
with him the royal seal. (fn. 2) This has left the ill disposed parliamentarians
here on the horns of a serious dilemma, both in respect of
the credit which this move on the part of such a high official of the
crown will bring to the actions of his Majesty, and apprehension
that with the information he possesses he may make known to the
people by a public declaration their seditious designs, and not
without misgivings that others of the same party may embrace the
same policy. Accordingly although they make the utmost pains to
prove that they are not disheartened, yet all are impatiently watching
to see what results an incident so unexpected will produce. It
raises the hopes of many that this will suffice to make the people
realise that considerations of private cupidity and not only the public
welfare have supplied the motive for the use of so much violence
and in this way the Hydra of so much rebellion may drop dead.
But those who are attached to Puritanism with obstinate fanaticism
declare that the departure of this minister and of the other lords is all
a trick and covers other plans destructive to the service of his Majesty.
But these have not yet come to light, nor indeed are they credited by
the wisest men.
All the military officers who have taken service under parliament
these last days, to proceed to the defence of Ireland, upon
hearing this news, have likewise proceeded to York, announcing
that they mean to follow the king's side at all hazards. At the
same time it still remains uncertain what plans his Majesty
hides in his breast, to wit whether he means to vindicate his
rights through the medium of the laws or by an appeal to arms,
but his real intentions should disclose themselves within a brief
With this succession of fortunate incidents which presage a
better fortune in the future for this most noble house, a report
has just come that troops have reached his Majesty from Holland,
sent by the queen, with considerable sums of ready money
raised upon jewels which she has pledged to merchants of Amsterdam.
If this news should prove true the arrival is the more
opportune since it is chiefly on account of shortage in this particular
that the spirited plans of this good prince have languished
up to the present.
The king expresses feelings of bitter resentment against the French
ambassador because of the offices performed by that minister with
the parliamentarians about the negotiations for an alliance between
the Austrians and this crown. By means of the Secretary of State
he has sent word to the ambassador in writing informing him that
he has no certain information about these negotiations and they are
not of a sort that he would easily credit. At the same time he expresses
his displeasure that the ambassador has ventured to address
himself to parliament and wishes to know if this innovation of
treating with his subjects without his consent in a matter of such
consequence, has been done by order of the king, his master, or is an
independent action of his own, and if there are some special reasons
which have induced him to take so considerable a step, in contempt
of his own sovereignty, with other expressions indicating great
resentment. The ambassador is a cavalier and possibly more
skilled in the manipulation of arms than in the conduct of great
affairs. Without considering how he commits the king, his master,
he announces that he acted as he did by commission of the Most
Christian. He professes to care nothing for the indignation of his
Majesty, and what excites more remark, he frequently has long
conferences with the parliamentarians who have promoted the present
troubles and with the Scottish commissioners as well. This gives
greater weight to the report that France is doing everything in her
power to keep the disturbances in this kingdom going for a long
while, taking advantage of these civil disorders to facilitate the
success of their own designs. Accordingly vigorous criticisms of
that crown and its minister here may be heard among the most
patriotic men here (onde fra gli uomini piu zelanti risuonano vive
doglianze contra quella corona et questo ministro suo). The
Spaniards also do not forget to intrigue with this object, but with
greater reserve and less publicity. They also conspire with France
to the hurt of this king, although for the rest their interests and
inclinations are so much at variance with those of the French crown.
The Ambassador Ro reports from Vienna that all hope having
fallen through of being able to conduct the affairs of the Palatine
House to a successful issue by a longer stay at that Court, he
has decided to depart when the Whitsun festivities are over.
If this has actually happened, your Excellencies will have heard
it from the secretary Vico.
London, the 6th June, 1642.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
63. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The Great Seal reached York all right on Tuesday in last week.
Some leagues outside the city he was met by the royal coaches
and he was afterwards received by his Majesty with every token
of regard and comfort. But he, when he approached the king,
with acts of public penitence, asked pardon for what he had done
in the past contrary to the obedience and service that he owed.
He promised to serve with sincere zeal and perfect loyalty in
the future. As his Majesty appeased him with fulsome expressions
of gratitude, it has encouraged others among the most
flourishing nobility to follow the example of this leading minister.
Since his departure and that of the others who set out
these last days, the majority of the lords of the Upper House
and many members of the Lower, incited by letters from the
king, have also set out for York, and they have left parliament
so thinned that in the Upper House not more than sixteen
members can be counted. All of these, as leaders of the Puritan
party and of the seditious designs, are possibly without hope of
finding any safe place of redemption, and so they stand closely
together among themselves, despising the danger of punishment
always intent on inflicting further hurt on the royal interests (dopo
la partenza di cui et di quelli che s' incaminorono li giorni precedenti,
li maggiori parti della Camera Alta con molti Parlamentarii
della Bassa, solecitati del Re, sono passati eglino ancora
a Jorch et hanno lasciati si spopolato il Parlamento che nella
Camera Alta non si contano di presente che soli sedici Parlamentarii,
li quali tutti come capi della partita Puritana et dei
seditiosi consigli, disperando per avventura di trovare sicuro
luoco di indulgentia, si tengono fra loro strettamente congionti,
et sprezzando i pericoli del castigo machinano sempre piu di
nuoia agli interessi reali).
The most secret motives which have induced his Majesty to
summon these lords to his side with so much urgency have not
yet transpired with any certainty, and in discussing it every
one speaks according to his personal bias, and amid all the
uncertainty the course that he will follow involves the most
remarkable consequences (et fra queste incertezze prendono sotto
i piu curiosi effetti li consigli che abbraciera).
Meanwhile the king has increased the number of the foot guards
for his person to 1200 men, and has also set up one company of
200 horse which is in constant attendance on him. This last is
composed of gentlemen of very rich and honourable estate. He
has given the command of it to the Prince of Wales, in order to
do greater honour to these loyal men and inflame their zeal for
his service. On Friday he held a review of these troops and
subsequently they made promise to him on oath to follow his
fortunes at no matter what hazard. After this the gentlemen
offered to raise 200 men each whenever his Majesty should issue
the command, and when circumstances demanded it. It must
be left to time to show whether these liberal offers will be carried into
effect. Prudent men consider that the operation of this rather than
of arms will prove more helpful to the king for bringing to a successful
issue the conduct of his most righteous designs.
To all his subjects of ordinary condition in the county of
York his Majesty has sent orders to assemble this day at a place
a short way from that city, (fn. 3) where he will meet them to acquaint
those people also with his intentions in the hope of persuading
them to join with him of their own free accord for the advantages
held out (sperando persuaderli a seco conspirare con pronta volonta
nei pretesi vantaggi). More certain particulars of the results
produced by these representations are eagerly awaited with
By fresh printed orders the king has further repeated his
commands to all ministers of justice, commanders and officers
of the militia and to the troops themselves not to obey any
precept whatsoever of the parliament without his Majesty's
express commission. This has proved so effective that many
of the county of Middlesex, when commanded by the new lieutenant (fn. 4)
to appear before him to make their muster, roundly
refused to obey and many who went to the place of assembly,
before performing the usual exercises boldly demanded whether
this was being done by order of the king, and when they were told
it was by order of the parliament, a portion of them returned to
their homes with flags flying and drums beating, without submitting
to the execution of this order. All this tends to prove
that the majority of the people in their hearts preserve that
natural respect which is due to their legitimate sovereign, and
it does not seem likely that they will support the proceedings of
those who, amid these public troubles aspire to aggrandise and
assure their own private conditions.
Parliament, on the other hand, although reduced to such feeble
numbers, does not give way to fear and it keeps keenly on the
watch for everything likely to render suspicious the actions of
his Majesty, while recovering for itself the applause of the
generality. They have had printed a fresh manifesto, full of the
most seditious expressions, whereby they are trying to interest
the people in their cause and to impress upon the minds of the
most simple that the king has no ownership over the fortresses
and towns of the crown, which are entrusted to him for the sole
benefit and advantage of the people ; that it remains for parliament
to decide as to their disposition, without the royal consent,
that his Majesty is bound to consent to all the laws that parliament
sees fit to submit to him. In conclusion they affirm that if the
king succeeds in humbling the present assembly, composed as
it is of men of such enthusiasm for the public service, with it
will perish beyond repair the privileges of the country, the liberty
of the people and the laws of the kingdom. Such statements
sound very plausible in the ears of the people here, and they do
not fail to arouse feelings prejudicial to the interests of his Majesty
more especially in this city, where more than anywhere else the
infection of Calvinism has spread its roots. Since the chief doctrine
of this faith is to recognise no superiority or magistracy it has done
as much mischief to the temporal monarchy of the present king as
it did anciently to the spiritual dominion of the Roman church.
To the counties where the people show a greater disposition
to favour the king's side commissioners have been sent for the
purpose of turning their minds away from such good sentiments
and to defend the decree of the past week whereby all and sundry
were forbidden, under pain of incurring the penalties of treason,
to assist his Majesty in the present emergency. They have had
printed and published two old acts of parliament passed in the
time of Kings Edward II and Henry IV in this connection, (fn. 5)
although they have no correspondence with the conditions now
prevailing. But this is all done with the object of proving that not
private interest but wise statesmanship and the carrying out of the
laws govern the decisions of the present times.
While the parliamentarians are engaged in these astute efforts
in their endeavours to counter such measures as they have
reason to fear in the future, they have at the same time chosen
commissioners with instructions to make enquiry as to the best
means of arriving at a composition between his Majesty and the
parliament. After various discussions these have drawn up
eighteen articles, upon which they pretend to base a settlement
and with the consent of parliament they have since sent these
to the king by a gentleman. From what I gather they comprise
such hard conditions and so dishonourable that there is no possibility
of the king accepting them. Although this is perfectly
well known to the authors, it in nowise disturbs them, seeing that
their principal aim is to make it appear by the device of this project
that they cherish thoughts of peace and feelings of respect for the
king, in order to throw upon him the responsibility for the continuation
of the troubles and differences, and so damp down the acclamations
which are at present heard in the country in favour of his
By means of secret intelligence his Majesty tried to obtain
entry into Uls, but the stroke failed through lack of faith in the
person who promised his assistance, and also by the absence of
reserve among those who had the management of the design. (fn. 6)
The unlucky result of the plan renders it more difficult than before
to realise this most important advantage.
Some portion of the arms and munitions from that fortress,
which were laded upon two ships before the movements of the
garrison reported, have arrived at the Tower here, affording
peculiar satisfaction to the members of this parliament.
The news that the queen had sent money to his Majesty from
Holland is completely confirmed, but the actual amount remains
uncertain. Everyone exaggerates or reduces the sum according
to his own personal bias, which in these times obstinately possesses
the minds of the parties (la quale in questo tempo usurpa
ostinatamente gl' animi dei parti).
In Ireland the insurgents continue to make ever greater progress
in consolidating their hold over the island. They have utterly
broken up the English troops and at present are scouring every
part of the kingdom without resistance. Amid the agitations
that prevail here there is no means or sincere disposition to repair
these serious disasters, so it is to be feared that the island may be
finally separated from the dominions of this crown, not without
indications that with the progress of time it may inflict further
injuries on the English in the navigation of these waters and fresh
blows against the whole of England as well (non senza apparenza
che con progresso del tempo facci assentire agl' Inglesi nella
navigatione di queste acque maggiori danni, et all' Inghilterra
tutta nuove percosse ancora).
They have written to the Ambassador Ro approving of his
idea to come away and have sent him orders to do so without
delay, so he is expected at Court within a few weeks. He has
sent to the king the very unpalatable paper of declaration which
the emperor had given to him, upon the interests of the Palatine
House. Although I am persuaded that your Excellencies will
have received it by this time from the Secretary Vico, I must
not pass it over either.
London, the 13th June, 1642.
Postscript : At this very last moment I have succeeded in
getting a glimpse of the articles offered by parliament to the
king for a composition. I enclose a copy translated into Italian
for those of your Excellencies who care to read the particulars.
You will observe how far removed they are from what is proper and
how they aim at reducing the authority of the king and of the
monarchy as well, and to lay the foundations of a government
resembling that of the States of Holland.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
64. Terms of Agreement demanded for the restitution of
the Prince Palatine in the Lower Palatinate.
(1) Sacra Caesarea Maj. liberosque Friderici Palatini statim
a reatu ex facto sive proprio sive patris contracto ; praevia tamen
ex illorum parte debita submissione (scripto vel per legatos
facienda) et renuntiatione foederum quoruncumque praesentium
et futurorum contra sac. Caes. Maj., S.R. Imperium ejusque
Electores atque Principes et status Imperii, necnon Augustam
Domum Austriacam absolvet.
(2) Restituet illos in ditiones paternas Inferioris Palatinatus
quas Rex Catholicus et Elector Bavariae possident in qualitate
feudi Imperialis eoque statu quo nunc sunt.
(3) Restituatur loco praefecturae Germersheim Comiti Palatino
pretium quo dictae praefecturae hypotheca domui Palatinae
(4) Fiat superioris Palatinatus restitutio sed non prius, quam
Imperatori a rege Magnae Britanniae vel Palatino simul ac semel
xiii milliones florenorum Rhenensium exsolvantur quibus S.
Caes. Maj. Electori Bavariae hoc praetium emptionis pro superiori
Palatinatu solutum restituere et sic superiorem Austriam ab
onere hypothecae et evictionis liberare queat. Interim vero
dum praedictarum xiii. millionum solutione integra Electori
Bavariae satisfactum fuerit, manebit idem Elector tanquam
dominus in quieta possessione superioris Palatinatus eoque in
omnibus et per omnia fruetur prout nunc possidet et fruitur.
(5) Sub hac vero restitutione Palatinatus superioris non intelligitur
comitatus Chamb. utpote qui jam antiquitus non ad
superiorem Palatinatum ad sed ducatum Bavariae jure pertinet.
(6) Religio Romana Catholica ejusque exercitium publicum ac
nominatim monasteria religiosorum ac Collegia Patrum Societatis
Jesu cum fundationibus in eo statu quo nunc in Inferiori et
superiori Palatinatu sunt etiam post factam restitutionem
maneant et conserventur.
(7) Donationes et subinfeudationes a S. Caes. Maj. et Electore
Bavariae factae in Palatinatu inf. sicut res judicatae vel legitime
transactae in suo robore etiam deinceps permaneant quemadmodum
etiam subinfeudationes res judicatae vel legitime transactae
usque ad restitutionem futuram.
(8) Idem quod de Palatinatu Inf. dictum in religione Rom.
Cath. ejusque exercitio publico monasteriis et ecclesiis PP. Soc.
Jesu ; item donationibus, subinfeudationibus, rebus judicatis
vel legitime transactis observetur quando ad restitutionem
Palatinatus Sup. devenietur.
(9) Fructuum praeceptorum vel percipiendorum distractorum
mobilium damnorumve per hos motus bellicos datorum vel aeris
alienis nondum persoluti nomine ; nihil omnino contra quemquam
eorum qui dictas ditiones restituendas nunc possident vel imposterum
donec restitutio fiat possidebunt praetendatur.
(10) Ad dignitatem electoralem quod attinet ea cum omnibus
suis juribus annexis apud ser. electorem Bavariae Maximilianum
ejusque masculos descendentes permaneat ; nullo vero masculo
ex hac linea Maximiliana amplius superstite, tres alii masculi
a Gulielmo V quondam duce Bavariae descendentes, secundum
ordinem primogeniturae in eadem dignitate electorali annexisque
juribus succedant, et demum post hos tres successores defunctos
alternatio inter reliquam lineam Wilhelmianam et lineam Palatinam
incipiat et exercitium actuum electoralium ad proximum
successorem qui Friderici Palatini transferatur et durante ejus
vita apud eundem etiam permaneat ; post illius vero obitum ad
proximum successorem lineae Wilhelmianae iterum redeat, et
simili modo per totam ipsius vitam permaneat et sic deinceps
vice versa inter has duas lineas Wilhelmianam scilicet Bavariam
et Palatinam, in perpetuum donec utraque superstes fuerit
alternetur, sed utra ex his duabus lineis primo in totum defecerit
tunc dignitas electoralis cum omnibus juribus annexis ad superstitem
(11) Prestentur ex adverso et reciproce ea super quibus de
ineundo foedere conveniendum erit ; conventumque fuerit nec
non nisi respectu dicti foederis simul cum hac restitutione transigendi
habeatur pro oblato ex parte S. Caes Maj. illud ad quod
S. C. Maj. suo et reliquorum interessatorum nomine se se declaravit.
(12) In omnibus iis de quibus utrinque praestandis et exequendis
conventum fuerit stabiliatur sufficiens assicuratio. (fn. 7)
65. Proposals made by Parliament to the king for the reconciliation
of differences between His Majesty and Parliament.
Dated the 12th June, 1642. (fn. 8)
[19 Articles, Italian, from the English.]
66. Thadio Vico, Venetian Resident in Germany, to the
Doge and Senate.
The English ambassador, when I saw him one day recently,
confided to me that he had recently offered 600,000 thalers to
the duke of Bavaria, that is to say to the mediators, in the name
of the Palatine House, as an acknowledgment, but not as a
lawful debt (per una riconoscenza pero non gia per debito giuridico),
for his claim of four millions. All the same the ambassador did
not hesitate to tell me with perfect frankness that he expected
nothing good from this side, unless force or the negotiations at
the Diet of Frankfort, appointed for the beginning of August,
should succeed in overcoming the distractions, the delays and the
lack of good will of the other side.
Vienna, the 14th June, 1642.
67. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands,
to the Doge and Senate.
The government have once again directed the ambassadors
for England to set out at the first opportunity. But the queen,
seeing that affairs there have become somewhat favourable for
her husband, is persuaded that their offices may prove of scant
advantage to her house and does not urge their departure. She
intimates that it is better to wait and see whether affairs there
will straighten themselves of their own accord without the
application of more vigorous remedies.
I hear that the queen is ill pleased because the States, in
conferring the quality of extraordinary on Joachimi, have
directed him to stay with the parliament in London, and under
the pretext of his ordinary residence there to cover the declaration
already made that he will be ambassador to the Parliament,
and the other two to the king, so that the treatment of those most
complicated differences may be conducted with more satisfaction
to the parties, and interposition made with more vigour. The
queen cannot swallow this, considering it too prejudicial to the
royal dignity, and as she wants this deleted from the instructions
to the ambassadors she does not display much eagerness for their
departure. Her Majesty has heard with much sorrow of the
failure of the enterprise of Ult. She has sent 30,000l. sterling
to the king, raised on a portion of her jewels, which she has
pledged to merchants. She proposes to go to Breda, to spend
all the rest of the summer there.
The Hague, the 16th June, 1642.
68. A young man came into the Collegio in the name of the
Secretary of England and said a few words in conformity with
a memorial which he gave to me, the secretary, and which was
In the absence of the doge the senior councillor Sig. Giovanni
Moresini said : We have heard your request. These Signors
will consider the matter. With that the young man made his
bow and went out.
On the 25th ult. Giovanni Pisini, a servant of the house of the
ambassador of Great Britain was arrested by order of the Proveditori
alle Beccarie. It was hoped that he would be released
at once when it was known that he was a servant of that house
and especially as he was not guilty of anything. Yet on Monday,
the 2nd, when I sent to ask for his release, I was told that as
he had been so many days in prison they wished to see the process
to despatch it as soon as possible in the course of law. I now
ask that he may be released at once out of respect of that house
and because he is not guilty.
69. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
In accordance with his Majesty's command reported, the
assembly of the common people of York met on Friday in the
present week. Some 60,000 and more persons came together,
spread over a large field and divided into a number of companies.
The king made his appearance there accompanied by many lords
of the highest nobility, by 600 cavaliers and by other armed
forces on foot. He set forth to the assembly the motives for his
stay in that corner of the kingdom. He assured them that it
was due to considerations of preserving the royal person and
dignity from the licentiousness of many who by seditious tumults
had obliged him to abandon his residence among them. He was
persuaded that the people of those parts, following the example
of the nobles would show forth an equal readiness to serve and
obey him. He claimed this solely for the defence of the religion
established by Queen Elizabeth, for the maintenance of the laws
of the crown and of his lawful prerogatives, as well as of the rights
and liberties of the people, and in conclusion for the continuance
of the public quiet. He protested the unchangeable devotion
he felt for the preservation of the Protestant religion and the
grief with which he saw it corrupted by new sects, not without
peril to the stability of the church and that of these states as
well. He went on to express his feelings of loving kindness to
all and of regard for the people there in particular promising that
they should enjoy his constant protection as well as every favour
and advantage. He concluded his speech by urging them to
defend his royal honour and prerogatives.
The observations of his Majesty were listened to with the
utmost attention and the majority responded to them with loud
shouts of applause and showed an equal readiness to follow his
suggestions. But some obstinate professors of Puritanism, being
worked upon by the commissioners whom parliament is at
present keeping in that district, instead of joining in with the
company in their praiseworthy acclamations, separated themselves
from the rest and pulled out a petition to present it to the
king in which they beseech him to come to a good understanding
with parliament, to send back the lords here who are obliged to
attend, to take part in the continuance of the debates, to dismiss
the armed guards and to avoid occasions for fresh troubles.
But the earl of Lince, Great Chamberlain of the realm, and
lord Savel, who were present with his Majesty, both persons of
high rank and notable following in that country, having got
wind of this unexpected move, prevented the attempt being
made for the time being by vigorous menaces. The seditious
ones, finding themselves disappointed of their expectation,
withdrew apart to the number of 5000 and went away brimming
over with dissatisfaction.
The king, for his part, having performed what he intended to
do, returned the same evening to York, accompanied by his
usual following and by quite 20,000 of the people there, all of
whom he enjoined to return to their homes, as they did. The
deputies sent a detailed account of all these events to parliament.
That body, stirred by the tremors of apprehension and moved
similarly by hostile feelings, after mature deliberation, has
declared Lince and Savel inflammatory disturbers of the public
peace. (fn. 9) They have sent an individual to York with orders to
take them prisoner and a strict precept to the sheriffs, commanders
and officers of the militia to support the execution of this command.
They are showing the utmost vigour to see that this is
effected as well as an inclination to have recourse to the most
violent measures, since parliament is persuaded that once the
king is deprived of the assistance of these two faithful ministers,
all the rest, stimulated by their fears, will withdraw, without
any further persuasion.
With this intent they have decided to assemble, within the
period of 10 days 10,000 foot and 2000 horse, to be sent to York
and wherever it may be most desirable. The parliamentarians
concerned cherish the belief that the people there who at present
favour the proceedings of parliament, will gladly join these
troops and become thereby so much more powerful that they will
be strong enough to hold the other side in awe, and to remove
those difficulties which have so far retarded the realisation of
their ambitious projects (dandosi a credere questi parlamentarii
che quella gente la quale di presente favorisce gl' andamenti del
parlamento si gionti prontamente a queste truppe et gli accresca
tanto di vigore che vaglia a contenere il contrario partito et a togliere
quelle difficolta che hanno fin hora riuscito dei loro ambitiosi proponimenti).
The public pretext by which they endeavour to justify the
assembling of this army to the community, is the need of making
sure of the two noblemen named as guilty of tyrannical conduct
in depriving the people of the means of setting forth their lawful
objections to their own sovereign. But those who observe these
preparations with unprejudiced eyes clearly discern that they
cloak more far reaching designs and are designed to compel the
king by forcible means to grant them the advantages they claim
and to establish themselves in control of the government and of the
richest and most honourable appointments of the crown at the same
To meet the cost of this new militia the parliamentarians who
are here have with one accord to pay down 200l. sterling each
at once. They reckon that this will be enough to maintain it
for six weeks. Meanwhile of the Council of London, which is
now composed of men who are mostly Puritans and outspokenly
hostile to the king's interests, they are asking for 100,000l.
sterling by way of a loan, with which to meet these emergencies
and others which may require urgent attention. What will be
the effect upon his Majesty in particular and upon the people at
large of this sudden step towards arming, if their decision is actually
carried into execution, remains doubtful as yet, and great curiosity
is felt as to what will happen next, as from, the experiment each of
the parties will gain experience of the extent of its own power (quali
mottivi tuttavia sia per eccitare nei particolari di Sua Maesta
et nei populi universalmente questa improvisa mossa d' armi,
quando effectivamente si prattichino gl' effetti di questa deliberatione
dubbioso rimane ancora et degli eventi si attende curiosamente
il successo sotto i cimenti di cui fara esperienza ciascheduna
delle parti della grandezza del proprio potere).
Severe commands have been sent to all the members of parliament
who are with his Majesty to come back to the regular
meetings here within the term of the 26th of this month, otherwise
they are threatened with severe punishment. It is believed that
the more timid and those who are not inspired with extraordinary
enthusiasm for the royal cause, will not be inclined to expose
their fortunes to the hazard of future events by a repetition of
their disobedience, but that many will decide to return and
subsequently conduct themselves in the way that the trend of
events may suggest to them.
Being warned that the queen had recently sent to his Majesty
from Holland drafts on the merchants here to the amount of
20,000l. sterling, raised on the security of the crown jewels,
parliament has seized the capital in the hands of debtors and
prevented the king for the present from making use of this
money, the lack of which, more than any other circumstance,
keeps him reduced to his present straitened condition.
After long discussions held by the Council in Scotland upon
the troublous events in this kingdom, they have issued a decree
that they will not intermeddle in these civil disorders, unless
with the consent of both parties Scotland acts as mediatrix for
a perfect adjustment. (fn. 10) By this his Majesty's hopes of enjoying
assistance from that quarter and parliament's fears of finding
an obstacle there to the fulfilment of their designs, have alike
vanished. However, with the object of justifying the sincerity
of his intentions, his Majesty has sent letters to that Council
in which he informs them of the reports spread here, namely
that he favours the Catholic religion, has intelligence with the
rebels in Ireland and cherishes the idea of introducing armed
foreigners into the kingdom. He protests from his heart that
these reports are false, and he has no other objects at heart than
to maintain the Protestant profession, to help his people and to
preserve, with the ancient rights of his own sovereignty, the
public quiet and concord between the two nations.
By a paper which has been published parliament is now labouring
to persuade the people that they are not obliged to render
obedience to the last proclamations of his Majesty, which forbid
them to place themselves under the command of the new lieutenants
in the militia. They argue that the authority of the
parliament has no dependence on that of the king, but that they
have the power to ordain differently from what his Majesty
commands, and no subject may evade the fulfilment of parliamentary
orders without incurring the penalty of disobedience.
Although such opinions offend the ears of more moderate men yet
they meet with the fullest approval among the generality while
they strike a fatal blow at the continuance of monarchy. (fn. 11) Thus
the crown, attacked from so many quarters, is languishing under
the need of a powerful arm to uphold its prerogatives in this
country valiantly by prudence.
The gentleman sent with the proposals for an agreement has
returned from York. He reports that he faithfully presented
them to the king and was told that after his Majesty had considered
them he would inform parliament at a suitable moment
of what precisely his intentions are.
London, the 20th June, 1642.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
70. Thadio Vico, Venetian Resident in Germany, to the
Doge and Senate.
The Mediators have been trying to induce England to provide
a larger sum than the 600,000 thalers for the restitution of the
dominions of the Palatine. The Ambassador Ro will not hear
of it, because he sees that it is a part of their roundabout procedure
here and also because he knows about the understanding
between Bavaria and France. He found it out chiefly from the
orders and remonstrances sent him by the parliamentarians
about the complaints of the French minister, that Ro had offered
to bind England in a defensive and offensive alliance with the
Austrians. Ro has written to both houses of parliament protesting
that he has never gone so far, and that he merely said
generally that when the Palatine was re-established the king of
England would employ all his offices to procure the peace of
Germany. The ambassador says that if the parliamentarians
had made enquiries to find out what he has done the Frenchman
would not have had occasion to make all this disturbance, because
he would have knocked up against the truth of the matter
(perche haveria toccata la verita della cosa). Thus when demands
were made of him here for such an alliance, he recognised that
it was only duplicity to prevent the business ever reaching an
end ; he had always declared that he would never consent to
any treaty nor to anything likely to involve engagements of
alliance prejudicial to the French and Dutch, on any account.
Vienna, the 21st June, 1642.
71. To the Proveditore General in Terra Ferma.
With regard to the petition of Colonel Douglas about his
command, you are to get him to take up the command upon the
terms that you consider proper, but not to exceed 1500 ducats
a month, that being 300 ducats above what he is receiving at
present. If he does not consent to this you will know what to
say to him. You will report what happens because if the Colonel
persists in his refusal we contemplate allowing him an absolute
leave. We confide the matter to your hands.
Ayes, 120. Noes, 0. Neutral, 4.
72. Zuanne Zon, Venetian Secretary at the Hague, to the
Doge and Senate.
The Palatine Princes, Maurice and Roberto, are leaving shortly
for England where they are to receive some military employment
in the service of the king, their uncle, if he means to make war
on the Parliament, as is stated.
The Hague, the 23rd June, 1642.
73. The Secretary of England came into the Collegio and
spoke as follows :
A long time since I asked your Serenity for the release of a
servant, imprisoned by order of the Magistracy of the Beccarie.
As the secretary to whom the memorials were given was sick
and some of the magistrates away from the city I have seen no
decision. The servant has been treated with great severity,
being kept more than a month in a dark cell without knowing
why. If the houses of foreign ministers and their servants are
not to be exempt from the ordinary law, except in case of serious
excesses, as is the custom everywhere, and as is observed in England
towards the ministers of the republic, let justice at least be
administered and allow him to redeem his character against
those who have falsely accused him, and do not allow this partiality
to one Legrenzi, who has contrived this business and who
boasts of keeping the man in prison.
The doge replied, an enquiry has been instituted about your
memorials, and that made a decision will be taken. He then
asked the nationality of the prisoner. The secretary replied that
he was a subject of the republic. You see, said the doge, that
the obligations involved in being a subject are never lost. The
secretary then bowed and went out.
74. To the Ambassador in England.
Acknowledge his letters of the 6th inst. which show his usual
application. The continued disturbances which steadily grow
worse call for exceptional observation of the movements and
negotiations which are taking place to find out whither things
may be tending. Enclose the usual sheet of advices. Writing
to the secretary at the Hague instructing him to keep the ambassador
informed of what is taking place in those parts.
Ayes, 123. Noes, 1. Neutral, 2.
75. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
Parliament is proceeding to carry into effect its decision to
collect a corps d' armee sufficient to counterpoise and perhaps
also to forestall the efforts of his Majesty and they leave no means
untried which may facilitate the successful accomplishment of
this design and at the same time the motives for so hazardous a
decision acceptable to the generality. To this end they have
published a fresh manifesto in which they set forth the growing
apprehension that the king, under the influence of pernicious
advice, has concentrated all his energies on destroying the present
parliament by means of force, and with it the public liberty.
They vehemently exhort the people to provide against such a
terrible misfortune by proving their real devotion and ask everyone,
in the support of so just a cause to contribute money or
plate and supply arms and munitions in proportion to their
respective means, promising that their capital shall be restored
to them again with the addition of 8 per cent. by way of interest. (fn. 12)
To rouse their enthusiasm to meet these demands by the force
of example that have passed a resolution that all the members
of parliament shall be under an obligation to pay down a stated
amount and to provide a certain number of horses, apportioned
according to the condition of the individual.
The members of the Upper House, which at present is composed
only of those few individuals who have rebelled against the service
of his Majesty and are without hope of pardon or security, upon
which they are now actively engaged, have given a reply, not only
agreeing but offering even more extensive assistance with prodigal
A similar disposition has not appeared in the Lower House.
Many have not only refused to submit to these contributions but
also decline to agree to the resolution to resist his Majesty with
armed forces, which they characterise roundly as irreconcileable
with the duty which they owe as loyal subjects and with the laws
of the crown as well.
The merchants who profess Calvinism and the lower classes
among the inhabitants of this city pursue the promptings of their
violent passions without reflection rather than their real interests.
They are inspired by the seditious notions of this manifesto, which
has filled their hearts with terror, urging that if they abandon this
cause their case will be desperate and insisting on the other hand
that they should shake off the yoke of the monarchy and join together,
some with money and others with their old silver plate which they
possess to meet the needs of these emergencies. The parliamentarians
announce that by such devices they have up to the present
collected 100,000l. sterling, with which and with other sums
which they promise themselves from this city, considered to be
entirely devoted to them, they feel confident of maintaining in
strength the troops they are collecting for a period of three months
and render their cause so strong that their party may subsequently
constrain his Majesty by means of an adjustment to
grant them the advantages they claim, with security.
The king on his side steadfastly pursues the most righteous
course he has mapped out for himself. He finds the disposition
of the nobility and of the provinces increasingly favourable to
his interests. With the approval of the lords about him he has
printed and published another declaration, which could not be
better received or more greedily read by men of right sentiments.
In this he replies argumentatively to the lies disseminated by
parliament, showing by clear demonstration to his people the
arts whereby they try to render his name hateful, the disorder
and injury which the ambition of some parliamentarians has
inflicted on the country. He shows the just causes of his resentment
against many ; proposes forty articles for the accommodation
and concludes with praiseworthy protests that he
aspires to nothing beyond the maintenance of religion and the
laws, the preservation of the peace and of his royal rights, and
offers to devote himself and his children to so laudable an object.
With such dulcet strains he has charmed the feelings of unprejudiced
persons and in addition to the lords reported some
other members of the Upper House, including some leaders of
consideration among the malcontents. These, in token of their
repentance, set out unexpectedly for York two days ago, to
repeat to his Majesty their protests of devotion, arousing the
resentment of those who are determined to persist in their obstinacy
to the very last extreme.
The thirteen counties which constitute the country of Wales,
inspired by their duty as loyal subjects, have sent their deputy
to the king with the offer of 10,000 men paid for the defence of
his royal person and prerogatives. (fn. 13) They offer moreover that
in case of urgent need they will add 20,000 valiant men in addition,
as the people there are disposed to devote their lives as well as
their fortunes in the cause of the king their sovereign.
Besides the county of York those of Lancashire, Leicester,
Buckingham and d' Arbi have declared their complete submission
to his Majesty's commands while that of Kent remains
constant to the same excellent disposition in its readiness to
prove by deeds, when the time comes, the sincerity of its zealous
A number of soldiers have escaped from the fortress of Uls and
have enlisted under the king's flag. As sentiments of devotion
to the king are still heard in the place, the rebellious governor,
in alarm at this and apprehensive that some disaster may occur
at any moment, has sent urgent letters to parliament asking that
500 Scottish soldiers may be sent to him to enable him to keep
the people there in subjection and the English garrison as well.
There being no means for sending these, they adopted the expedient
of despatching a Scottish commander experienced and
trusty to keep the place in good order. (fn. 14) When this officer
entered the town, the governor, who had grown more and more
doubtful of himself, handed over the command without delay
and being unwilling to expose himself any longer to the licence
of the people there, he took ship to return to London, leaving that
fortress at the disposition of a foreign commander. The parliamentarians
are apprehensive that he may prove less obedient
than the other and that what has been done may supply the
king with an opening to make himself master, to their detriment,
of so considerable a place.
In Scotland many communities have presented petitions to
the Table of the Council there, that is to those who govern,
representing that since from their birth they have been under the
obligation to defend the king and his prerogatives, and seeing
that these are now lost through the tyranny of the English
parliament, they may be set up again by the armed power of
that crown or at least that they may find means to achieve
the same end by means of an agreement ; otherwise they protest
that they will not sit still and see so just a king suffer such
crying wrong from his own subjects.
These favourable incidents have encouraged the supporters
of his Majesty and confirmed their hopes that the efforts of the
rebels will prove vain, to their disgrace and the ornaments of his
greatness will ultimately be restored to the king, to wear as his
predecessors have done by so just a title. But those who are more
cautious do not yet feel so entirely confident that this will follow,
experience having shown them to what great changes affairs here are
subject, and so they waver between misgiving and hope. Meanwhile
his Majesty has deprived the earl of Northumberland, an irreconcileable
leader against the royal interests, of the office of Lord
High Admiral, and granted it to the earl of Lince, Great Chamberlain
of the realm, his faithful servant. Whether Northumberland
will give up his charge promptly, in the midst of the present
disorders, is not yet certain, or whether this command of his
Majesty will meet with due obedience from Vice Admiral Warwick,
who belongs to the party, or from the captains of the ships
is a matter for speculation and the result is awaited with anxious
The Palatine Princes Rupert and Maurice are expected at
York from Holland. The king sent for them intending to make
use of them for the command of the army, if the obstinate
temerity of his rebellious subjects should compel him to engage in
a civil war to the general hurt. It is believed that they will bring
with them a quantity of arms, munitions and saddles for horses, provided
by the queen in Amsterdam. When parliament heard about this
they sent three ships to the coast off Newcastle with instructions
to stop the ships bringing these provisions. (fn. 15)
They are circulating reports here of successes won against the
rebels in Ireland, though the particulars are not known as yet.
It is believed that the announcement is a device of parliament
designed to keep up their credit with the people, and consequently
the confirmation of such great news is awaited with curiosity.
In the despatches of the past week from Vienna the Ambassador
Ro reports that the mediators in the Palatine cause hold out
hopes to him that the interested parties will moderate the severity
of the last paper and he asks that he may be instructed how he
must conduct himself in such case. They have sent him word
that his prudence must decide from the nature of the proposals
whether he shall continue the negotiations or return without
more ado to England, in conformity with the first commands.
But it appears that here they are disposed to settle the business
on any terms whatever, no matter how disadvantageous, provided
that some portion of the Palatine's dominions, however
little, be restored to him, but it is feared that those in possession
are not disposed to divest themselves of what they hold.
Amid much remark but scant commendation the Ambassador of
France betook himself two days ago to the Upper House of parliament,
although privately. He informed the members of that House
of the restoration of the Cardinal de Richelieu to the favour of the
Most Christian king. He advised them not to lose heart and to
pursue boldly the thread of their designs, thus affording them an
intimation that France and the Cardinal will be ready to support
them. This has restored the parliamentarians to great spirits,
but on the other hand those who are sincere Englishmen at heart are
not a little incensed against that minister. He came to visit me
yesterday and told me in terms of confidence that if their Majesties
here, in accordance with the proposals made to them, had followed by
open declarations the good fortune and greatness of the king, his
master, they would not have found themselves involved in all these
troubles, giving me frankly to understand that the disturbances of
this kingdom are and will be fomented by France. I consider this
worthy of the attention of your Excellencies.
I am unable to forward to-day the proposals of his Majesty
for an agreement, because there has not been time to have them
translated into Italian.
London, the 27th June, 1642.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
76. Thadio Vico, Venetian Resident in Germany, to the
Doge and Senate.
The English ambassador came to call the day before yesterday.
He told me he had letters instructing him to take leave,
in the gentlest manner possible (con tutta la maggior dolcezza).
Yesterday the Count remarked to me that before the ambassador
left they desired to present to him on behalf of the mediators a
paper containing the more moderate points of the treaty, in
order to prove to him the good intentions of the emperor. But
I understand that the ambassador has no idea of staying long,
and he knows that these fresh proposals are based on vain hopes.
He wishes to leave next week.
Vienna, the 28th June, 1642.