113. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
Reports about the siege of Bordeaux. Marsin is receiving
reinforcements from Spain, especially of Irish troops, recently
landed at Cape Breton. Some of the Irish colonels are already
negotiating a change of sides, and 400 of their countrymen are
already enrolled under the French flag. There has been some
talk at Court of sending the duke of York thither ; that as their
native prince he might draw off all the Irish troops from Spain
and draft them into the Irish regiments in the French service,
but fear of offending England by so pronounced a step has so far
witheld them. Meanwhile the duke will try to effect by letter
that which political expediency forbids him to attempt in person.
Encloses the usual letter of England.
Paris, the 3rd June, 1653.
114. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 1)
The aldermen or chiefs of the guilds this week presented a
petition to Cromwell on behalf of the corporation of London (fn. 2)
in which after eulogising his resolve to end the long and unreasonable
rule of the late parliament they ask him for the gratification
of all the people to constitute a new one, as being necessary to
the city and the whole kingdom, and in accordance with the hopes
frequently held out. The general listened patiently to the address,
although he knew its tenor beforehand, but his answer was unexpected
and he told the petitioners in a few words to mind their
own business and to leave the care of directing and establishing
the government to those whose office it was. But he assured
them that they would aim at the relief and greater happiness of
the people. So, without further reply, the aldermen took their
departure, rather mortified than comforted, the result being
0utterly different from their intentions. Subsequently by order
of Cromwell and the Council several of those who signed the
address have been degraded from their offices, so there is not
much encouragement either for them or for others to prefer
similar suits. It is supposed that the aldermen were induced to
take this step at the special instigation of members of the late
parliament, who do not neglect to work underhand to avenge
the wrong done them. But any attempt will always prove vain
and might well supply the place of right, even were this last
greater than it is.
At the same time, at this first hint and realising that without a
new parliament the present government lacks the necessary
foundation, the general and Council now seem very intent on the
choice of members for what they choose to call the new "Representative."
No one will sit in it who does not enjoy Cromwell's
entire confidence and approval, and if necessary the electors will
be compelled to return these by force. This course is rendered
necessary by the extreme distrust he feels now and by the mischief
which he anticipates from setting up a fresh assembly,
Consequently it is impossible to know whether the meeting will
come as easily and quickly as they wish people to believe. He is
certainly averse from it, but the necessity of giving the government
a basis may eventually induce him to consent though always
with special care for the maintenance of his own security through
the selection of members. Men say that if he should lose ground
and find himself unequal to his work he might even favour the
royal cause, for his personal advantage, for although mute it
exists in this city and in many parts of the country besides, and
has very numerous adherents. So he has two strings to his bow
and if one breaks he may try the other, retaining influence and
authority whatever the event. The general belief is that for the
future he will not content himself with a private station, especially
as by posters put up in the streets and by the voice of some of the
preachers he has been proclaimed worthy of the crown, under the
pretence that a monarchical form of government is indispensable
for the welfare and quiet of England. Although such ideas
tend to his exaltation they may be said to aim at discrediting
him and be used to charge him with aiming at the throne.
Believing them to issue from his rivals he now tries to silence
them, answering all compliments with the greatest humility and
in the guise of a private individual. Since the change he has not
altered his style of living, indeed his humility, affability and
courtesy towards everyone have increased, possibly with a view
to making a greater impression on the multitude. So the present
crisis is watched with a curiosity befitting its importance, and the
outcome cannot fail to be remarkable. If peace does not come
with Holland, contrary to his wishes, to win universal approval
in London and throughout the country, his popularity may decline.
He will study to keep and if possible to increase this, while
relying on force and keeping the military as attached to him as
The envoy sent recently to Holland with letters about peace
has returned ; but the reply is less satisfactory than had been
expected, because the Provinces are not unanimous, three of
them, the partisans of the Prince of Orange, being for war.
Several private conferences were held on the subject at the Hague,
but any decision was postponed owing to differences of opinion.
Meanwhile a battle would certainly hasten an agreement, for it
has been observed that every naval action, great or small, always
induces an immense desire for peace.
A courier recently come from Scotland reports that the fleet is
still seeking the enemy, who by advices received was making
great efforts to effect a junction with the Danish ships. Much
surprise is felt here at nothing more being known and that no
engagement has taken place. It is supposed that the two fleets
must have missed each other or else that it happened intentionally
because each means to take the utmost advantage of circumstances.
M. de Bordeaux has recently had audience of the Council of
State in which he stated that as arrangements for a good understanding
with his king had already reached a satisfactory conclusion,
assuming this to be ratified by the present government
they ought not to listen to proposals of the Bordeaux rebels who
came here, and they ought to dismiss them at once. They
answered in general terms, giving scant satisfaction. In fact they
have no confidence here in the negotiations of this minister which
they think all artful and chimerical, devised by Cardinal Mazzarini,
on whom he is known to depend entirely. If it be true that the
French court is in close treaty with the Dutch for an alliance, as is
already whispered, they will be even more distrustful of France here
and become more friendly than at present towards the people of
Bordeaux and the Prince of Conde. Yet when these delegates
had audience of the Council of State, they only got fair words,
and although they press for an immediate decision, since their
affairs at Bordeaux do not permit them to stay long, this does
not make them hurry here, and the general belief is that little
or nothing will be done for them, since conditions here do not
admit of sending troops or other assistance so soon as is desired.
The Swiss Agent is pressing for a reply ; but as regards the
mediation for which he came, through Holland, nothing further
will be done, for if the government here desired anything of the
sort it would not have rejected that of Sweden in favour of the
Swiss Protestants. But even if this were not the case the
Presbyterian religion professed by them is in itself an obstacle,
as they try here to discredit that creed as much as possible. So
the intercourse between Switzerland and England will probably
be confined to the mere general terms of a good understanding.
I have again called on the Spanish ambassador when we
exchanged compliments. He said his king desired peace solely
from his own eagerness to relieve Venice in its long war.
I have given a memorial to Sir [Oliver] Fleming to present to
the general and Council, asking for audience, to obtain something
corresponding to what your Excellency is trying to get from
Holland, namely that Dutch ships in the service of the republic
may not be molested by the English. The justice of the demand
is admitted and I hope it will be granted speedily, if the press of
business gives them time. In order to get it as expeditiously as
possible I drew up an order in the exact form required and handed
it in confidence to Fleming, for when these people have anything
out of the usual routine to do they do not know how to begin or
to end it. Moreover things have usually been so long drawn out
as to cause universal dissatisfaction, but with the change of
government it is hoped that this nuisance may be abated.
Acknowledges letters of the 31st ult.
London, the 6th June, 1653.
Postscript :—As I close this despatch a report is circulating that
the two fleets have missed each other and the Dutch one has
suddenly appeared in the Downs, a short distance from Dover,
possibly intending to bombard the castle or some other in the
neighbourhood and to land and blockade all the men of war and
merchantmen now in the Thames. I shall be able to verify
this by my next mail.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
115. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
With regard to the suggested alliance between France and
Holland, although much has passed on the subject between the
Cardinal and the Dutch ambassador, nothing positive has been
settled as the Cardinal considers that the open enmity of England
would do more harm to France than any benefit she might receive
from such an alliance. Yet he flatters the Dutch and keeps the
negotiations open in case England shows more hostility than she
has done so far. This is not likely, as Cromwell, intent on
establishing his authority at home and in defending himself
against the Dutch, is not equal to any additional embarrassments,
and will employ dissimulation rather than open enmity, thus
using the very weapons which France is actually wielding against
I have informed Paulucci about the mission from the Swiss
for mediation between Holland and England, and about that
suggested by your Serenity, in your letter of the 29th March.
But policy may have undergone some modification with the
change of government. Paulucci, who knows the facts, will
follow his instructions. It is quite probable that Cromwell,
whilst proclaiming a wish for peace, for the sake of popularity,
may really desire the continuation of the war, as giving him more
consequence and authority, through the support of a military
force, the mainspring of a despotic government.
I also informed Paulucci of the news received about the conclusion
of peace between England and Portugal. His letters of
last week show that it is not yet settled. If it were, he would be
much to blame if the first news of so conspicuous a public act
performed in London should reach your Serenity from Spain
instead of from England.
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Paris, the 10th June, 1653.
|116. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
A courier has arrived with news of the surrender of Bellegarde.
Several advantages will accrue to the king from this. Among
them is the dismay it will cause to Bordeaux. Owing to the
discouragement there the Prince of Conti had sent to Conde and
Batteville to report the consternation of the people and the need
of assistance. It was proposed to send to England and Spain
again, but seeing how faint their hopes were of any help from
England, they had decided to turn their attention exclusively to
that from Spain, though great difficulties were placed in the way
owing to the measures taken by the French. He also reported
that since the capitulation of Lormont and the surrender of 5 or
600 Irish who had gone over to the French side (fn. 3) (as I reported)
the Prince of Conti had made sure of the fidelity of the remainder
by obliging them to send hostages into the town.
Paris, the 10th June, 1653.
117. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 4)
I went lately to Sir [Oliver] Fleming to find out about the
treatment of Dutch ships employed by the republic. I made
bold to say that the United Provinces had given an assurance on
the subject to your Excellency. Fleming said the demand was
perfectly just and he believed it would be speedily attended to.
Any delay was due to the present crisis. Owing to this no foreign
minister had been admitted to the Council of State during the
last few days as they are very busy over the establishment of a
solid and well ordered form of government. I understand from
another quarter, however, that great differences of opinion exist
upon this between Cromwell and the other officers of the Council,
in consequence of which all business is at a stand. In this state
of transition there is no security for the public acts and it is not
known under whose authority to issue them. Although in the
main everything depends on Cromwell he is very cautious about
proposing or vetoing for fear of being accused at the very outset of
too great presumption and of aspiring to absolute ride. Even
now, since the rebuke to the aldermen and corporation the city
has begun to murmur against a military despotism. But this
will always be strong enough to quell all turbulence, nor is it
likely that any will be attempted. But all this goes to show how
difficult it is for foreign ministers to transact business and similarly
with me in obeying your Excellency's commands.
When I was talking with Sir [Oliver] Fleming in the presence
of a secretary of M. de Bordeaux and another person of standing,
he asked me about affairs in the Levant. I replied hopefully,
and he remarked that the war reflected great glory on the state
but he regretted that advantage had not been taken of the wish
here to help. A levy of 4000 or even up to 10,000 Irish would be
granted. He added, I make the offer in the presence of good
witnesses. At the place of embarcation the men would not cost
more than 25 or 26 shillings per head, there was plenty of transport
to take them to Candia or Zante and he would charter them
himself. It was only necessary to obtain credits here and by
deciding at once the troops might yet arrive in time to save the
island. If a good part of these men was not granted to the
republic the Commonwealth would be compelled to send them to
the West Indies or the Orkneys, but being Catholics they themselves
would prefer a foreign land. The raising of troops here
would also make the Turks apprehensive of a good understanding
between England and Venice, and they take no notice of any
but a naval power. I merely thanked him and promised to
report the offer at once.
It was confirmed that General Tromp with the main body of
his fleet appeared off Dover and began to bombard the town,
damaging many of the houses, much to the consternation of the
inhabitants (fn. 5) ; but owing to the defence made by the castle and
hearing that the English fleet was coming up before the wind and
that a number of well equipped ships were on the point of leaving
the Thames, he decided to weigh and sail for the coast of Flanders,
where he is supposed to be with his whole force, after having
safely convoyed various Dutch merchantmen both outward and
homeward bound. General Blach furious at the enemy's
audacity in approaching so near and encouraged by their leaving
Dover, is understood to have left the river with a considerable
number of ships, to take command of the fleet, meaning to join
the main body and then proceed for action towards Flanders and
Holland. The English fleet now numbers 140 sail and will unite
or divide according to circumstances, so it is thought they will
have fallen in with the enemy by this time and probably have
given battle, unless the Dutch have avoided an engagement.
News is anxiously awaited here.
Meanwhile it is reported that the United Provinces are on the
point of despatching a deputy or commissioner here to negotiate.
Possibly that is what they would like here, but martial renown
requires such aspirations and good intentions to be dissembled
and that both Holland and England should refer the issue to a
battle, otherwise the intractability and mutual punctilio will
increase, although every day makes it clearer that Cromwell
desires peace if possible as the best means of promoting his own
interests and plans, which cannot yet be thoroughly understood,
although his proceedings afford ample scope for comment and
very great events.
The foreign ministers, having little or no business during the
crisis are intent on learning what is being done to form the new
government. The zealous partisans of the military declare that
the army which established, protected and maintained parliament
was subsequently compelled to demolish it, and in the future the
form of government must depend upon the army, so even if an
assembly is convoked with the title of Grand Council or New
Representative, it will be absolutely dependent on the good
pleasure of the soldiers.
The Bordeaux delegates make no progress in their negotiations
and have small hope of success, but as a matter of good policy
the English flatter them with assurance of a friendly disposition.
I have just received your Excellency's reply of the 6th about
the treaty with Portugal. No further particulars have transpired,
as everything remains in suspense owing to the changes now
taking place. In all probability it will not be resumed or the
peace established until the government here is thoroughly
consolidated. I learn that at the solitary audience the Portuguese
ambassador has had since the dissolution he merely commended
the action taken by Cromwell and abused the late parliament.
They did not altogether like this and though his reception was
gracious he has not appeared before the Council since, and if he
had done anything definite I do not think it would have escaped
London, the 14th June, 1653.
118. Giovanni Ambrosio Sarotti, Venetian Resident at
Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The seven English ships which recently left Malamocco, put in
at Tunis for water and biscuit and to continue their voyage to
England if they are not stopped at the Strait. The Vice Admiral
Jan Villano is cruising off there with 17 ships of war, it is believed
for the purpose of intercepting them.
Florence, the 14th June, 1653.
119. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 6)
Although all business, domestic and foreign, is at a standstill
because of the crisis, I have applied for audience to execute my
commissions and have had to-morrow fixed for appearing before
the Council of State. Reports circulated here about the recent
sea fight are incredibly confused, victory being claimed in spite of
losses. Cromwell and the whole Council have been much agitated
the last few days, between hope and fear, owing to contradictory
intelligence. At the end of last week intelligence was received of
a considerable advantage gained over the enemy by the fleet.
This week reports vary greatly. It is stated on good authority
that when the battle began, on the 15th at a short distance from
the mouth of the Thames, lasting throughout the 16th and 17th,
the English were victorious to the point of capturing 9 of the
enemy's ships. Not satisfied with this they followed the Dutch
to their own harbours, who are supposed to have retreated that
way designedly, for meeting with a reinforcement of 50 sail and
with the wind in their favour they turned upon the English. In a
hot action they took 24 of their ships, compelling the rest to make
for the coast of Flanders, where the English fleet is now supposed
to be in a shattered condition and practically blockaded. The
battle is said to have been obstinate and bloody and the number
of prisoners taken by either side considerable. The death is
confirmed of General Pen, cut in two by a cannon shot. (fn. 7) The
number of killed and wounded is reported so vaguely that it is
impossible to learn the truth. A number of wounded have
reached Dover with some shattered men of war, together with
the prisoners. If the above is confirmed, the English will have
had the worst of it although many maintain that 9 Dutch men
of war were taken, 6 sunk and two burned, and that the prisoners
number over 1,200. The Dutch will doubtless have their share
also, and so they are very impatient here for more definite news
of the fleet and its actual position.
Meanwhile as very little is said about the action and as the
general attitude here is thoughtful rather than elated, their losses
are suspected to have been considerable. I will will try to get
more authentic information. We hear from Holland that the
States incline to send some one here about an adjustment. I
may state that last week, to secure the coast and as a reinforcement
for the fleet, after the first news of the battle begun in the
Downs, 1500 veteran infantry quartered in London were marched
off in haste and replaced by other troops from the neighbourhood,
to guard against all accidents.
The new Grand Council or Representative does not seem to
make great progress, although petitions for it have been presented
from several counties and reports are current of its speedy
formation. The general belief is that Cromwell will keep the
matter to himself for some time, while the army constitutes the
parliament. Of his own authority and that of the Council
circulars have been sent to several of the counties desiring them to
return certain adherents of his as a junto to the new Representative
or to the Council of State, which will probably continue in
its present form augmented by men entirely devoted to him.
With regard to the peace negotiations with Portugal I am able
to assert that it would not be so near but for the change of
government, despite the efforts of the Portuguese ambassador.
Sir [Oliver] Fleming told me in confidence that some of the members
of the administration were opposed to the welfare of the Commonwealth,
but with the change he thinks it certain that in a few
audiences the Portuguese ambassador will overcome any slight
difficulties and that the peace will be concluded, as the Portuguese
seem bent on it.
When in Fleming's company I received your Excellency's letter
of the 13th and thanked him officially for the offer of the Irish
levy. He confirmed the offer and said he had spoken on the
subject to Cromwell, who readily concurred, using expressions of
regard for the republic. Fleming remarked, the republic should no
longer hesitate but decide, and if she wants the Irishmen they
shall be furnished immediately and of the very best. As Catholics
they will fight boldly for the faith and at a lower rate than the
Senate has ever paid before, for the men could be consigned at
the place of embarcation for little more than 2 crowns a head ;
and for small pay officers might be selected from among them.
They could be shipped at once for Candia or Zante or any other
place the state wished ; but it is necessary to decide quickly. I
said the Senate would consider the offer and meanwhile this
powerful government and he himself would be the more esteemed
for all these favours and facilities.
Asks for consideration from the state, having served for over a
year in this employment. For this and for four years' service in
France hasnever had one penny of salary or provision. If considered
unworthy to act as Resident or Secretary in any Court, but
merely as a stop gap, asks to be relieved of this service and that
the ambassador will back his request to the doge. Encloses
account of expenses for May.
London, the 21st June, 1653.
120. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo the Ambassador in France. (fn. 8)
As arranged I went on Friday to the Council. After waiting
some time in a richly furnished chamber, I was joined by two of
the members and Fleming, the master of the ceremonies, who
told me that they have been appointed to hear me. I spoke of
the gratification felt at the letter from the Commonwealth and
the republic's regard for England and the commander of her vast
forces. The Dutch had ordered their captains not to molest
English ships serving Venice against the Turk and it was reasonable
that England should reciprocate in such a just cause.
Knowing they expected to hear something about the suit of the
English merchants, I told them, as instructed, how much importtance
the Senate attached to the requests of this government,
but a decision to refer the matter to the Admiralty Court here
was suspended owing to the claims of the opposite parties to
state their case, which could not in equity be denied, As usual
I left a copy of my exposition in Italian and English. Fleming
answered on behalf of the Councillors that they would acquaint
the Council with everything and I should receive an answer.
I waited an hour for it, and this morning Fleming assured me I
should have it forthwith. I can now only await their answer.
No more authentic accounts of the late sea fight have yet
appeared, but it is understood that the losses on both sides are
less than at first stated. Here they persist in claiming a great
victory. To convince the people the General and his Council
have appointed a day next month as one of thanksgiving, which
the preachers are enjoined to observe strictly. With these reports
of great success, his Excellency has taken the opportunity to
assume the following remarkable title " Oliver Cromwell, Captain
General of all the forces raised or to be raised within the Commonwealth
of England." By order of himself and his Council he has
prolonged the monthly tax of 120,000Z. for the next half year as
a fund for the naval war. The measure excites little or no
complaint, as with the hope of better government and of an
adjustment with the Dutch the people submit willingly to this
extraordinary burden, although they feel it more and more
owing to the suspension of trade, the necessary consequence of
A report is circulating, confirmed by Sir [Oliver] Fleming, that
the United Provinces are sending four commissioners here to
negotiate an agreement namely, two for Holland and one each
for Friesland arid Zeeland. As this project was formed before
the battle and seems to have evaporated rather than ripened
since then, the inference is that the Dutch had their share of
advantage in the action. It also indicates that negotiations for
an offensive and defensive alliance with France, which have been
held up owing to the appearance of peace, with missions from each
side, are now expected to go on. But with a view to the adjustment
with England, it is known here that the Dutch ambassador
in France has been charged by the States to hold up the progress
of this alliance, and in the event of its being concluded he is to
insist earnestly on the strictest secrecy about the offensive articles.
But here they are well informed and receive punctual notice of
the most secret, and important negotiations, encouraging their
informants by liberal presents.
Since the battle the fleet has been cruising off the coast of
Flanders and Holland, and has detached a considerable squadron
as far as the Texel to make an attack there, in revenge for the
bombardment of Dover. No news has come yet of the results
of this expedition ; but it is known that for the purpose of
intimidating the Dutch 200 of their wounded were landed by the
English. The fleet will remain there as long as possible for the
purpose of incommodating the enemy, at least, if unable to injure
him more seriously. To this end every possible effort is being
made, further reinforcements of troops having been marched from
this city to the coast, together with considerable supplies of
provisions, ammunition and military stores, as they fully realise
here that the greater the force at sea and the higher the
spirit shown in prosecuting the war the more easily will they
obtain peace. This is ardently desired and considered likely if
the Dutch show themselves reasonable. In that case it is implied
that they will not show themselves difficult here.
London, the 25th June, 1653.
|121. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France.
General Cromwell is studying every possible way to obtain
popularity. Aware that many of the city companies and those
of the provinces, besides a number of private individuals, are
heavy creditors for loans made to the late parliament during the
war and that in spite of repeated demands for payment they have
never been able to get anything, he has now appointed a
committee on purpose to enquire into the matter and have an
estimate drawn up of each individual credit, to liquidate the
entire debt by an allotment of land in Ireland. This arrangement
seems to satisfy all parties. Aware also of the importance under
existing circumstances of keeping the soldiers in a good temper
Cromwell has desired that all officers and men shall receive their
arrears, thus attaching them to his service. They already eulogise
his policy declaring that in four hours so to speak he has effected
what was denied them for whole years by the late parliament.
That body's reputation steadily wanes. Some say that its
members will be called to account, while others add that they are
to be expelled from this city, but the general keeps his own
counsel in the matter, which is much discussed.
The vast personal energies of Cromwell and the Council, which
may be considered his are daily active over the new form of
government. He has already nominated 120 persons who with
5 each from Scotland and Ireland will constitute the body of the
new Representative. In his choice of members few persons of
quality are included, and those are his warm adherents, the chief
being General Blach and ex-General Fairfax. The rest are all
low people who invariably agree to his orders and those of the
Council of Officers, which must always give the law. It is said
that he means to establish a solid and well organised government
with a view to consolidate his own power and authority, since it
is observed that without show he yet noiselessly continues to
advance and gain ground.
From other sources I hear that his real object is to model this
Commonwealth by that of Poland, possibly with a view to his
own supremacy, and for the attainment of the crown as bestowed
by the Polish Diet, meaning the sovereignty to be periodically
elective, with certain prerogatives for his own descendants. This
is imposed upon him as it were by the general outcry that a
monarchical rule is indispensible for the welfare of England.
Such is the tale here, and although at a crisis of this sort much is
uncertain, it may safely be asserted that all decisions will depend
on his good pleasure and that of his followers and Council.
Owing to the death of the Prince royal of Portugal (fn. 9) two
councillors went to-day with Sir [Oliver] Fleming in Cromwell's
coaches to offer condolences to the Portuguese ambassador. But
for this sad news, which obliges the ambassador and his large
suite to go into mourning, the finishing touches might have been
put to the peace between the two countries. This is expected at
the next audience, unless it be postponed by the necessary
formalities of the government.
Nine or ten ships captured in the last sea fight have been
brought into the Thames, and some 200 prisoners landed from
them are already in London.
The negotiations of the delegates from Bordeaux are not
supposed to have made the least progress. In spite of their
urgency they have so far received fair words only : The utmost
they could obtain here at present would be some of the Dutch
prizes as transports, if they have money to pay for them, but
they are not believed to have come sufficiently well provided to
pay for these or other supplies.
London, the 25th June, 1653.
122. Giovanni Ambrosio Sarotti, Venetian Resident at
Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
A barque which has come from Messina in eight days reports
the capture by the English ship Henry Buonaventura of a Flemish
ship from Venice, bound for Amsterdam, believed to be the Stella.
It is hoped that Captain Tromp, who has been sighted off Taranto
with seven ships, will be able to take revenge.
News has come that six English ships from Morocco have
reached Alicante. They tried to capture three Dutch ships in
that port, which took refuge under the defences of that place.
Florence, the 28th June, 1653.