September 1653

Commons Journal

Thomas Burton's Diary

Acts and Ordinances

Thurloe, State Papers

CSPD Interregnum

Calendar of the Committee for Advance of Money

Calendar of the Committee for Compounding

CSP, Colonial

CSP, Venice

Cecil Calendar

Venice
September 1653

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1929

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120-131

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'Venice: September 1653', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 29: 1653-1654 (1929), pp. 120-131. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89760 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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September 1653

Sept. 2.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
151. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
I sent to the Dutch ambassador to make an appointment to congratulate him on the victory he claims was won against the English. He apologised for not receiving me as he was in bed with the gout. He sent his son to thank me who, being more open and less crafty than his father, told me that the States were seriously embarrassed. The few months of war with England had cost them more that the hostilities waged with the Spaniards during a century. They had lost more than 300 ships. To these losses and injuries abroad must be added some internal dissension and a popular movement in favour of the House of Orange which kept the magistrates in constant anxiety. One of the proposals made to the Dutch commissioners in England about the peace was the consolidation of the two republics into one body, but so as to render Holland dependent. The English wanted the Dutch to admit 7 of their countrymen into the Assembly of the States General, giving seats to 7 Dutchmen in the English parliament. But the 7 Englishmen would have been equal in number to the 7 Dutchmen who comprise the Assembly, whereas the Dutchmen would have been lost in a parliament of over 100 members. The object of England was not to form an alliance with Holland but to subdue her.
Encloses Paulucci's letters.
Paris, the 2nd September, 1653.
[Italian.]
Sept. 6.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
152. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 1)
The best attentions of the government, consisting of a limited number of persons besides Gen. Cromwell and a few leading officers, as well as the attention of the public, are concentrated on naval affairs, as most calculated to affect everything else. Thus 40 of the best ships in the fleet, the main body of which is still in port refitting, have been sent to sea to join the squadron left off the Dutch coast, so that it may be strong enough to give battle to the enemy. Since the last engagement the Dutch are also said to be out, but chiefly for the purpose of convoying some of their Indiamen, which had put into Danish ports to avoid the English fleet. If this is the intention of the Dutch a fresh sea fight, which many anticipate here, will scarcely take place, unless the English seek it, in the hope of rich booty and with their usual confidence in victory, so far justified by the event, in spite of the serious damage suffered by their ships, and the very heavy losses among the crews, caused by the excessive number of hands on board. To remedy this loss of life the government spares neither fair means nor foul, blandishment nor money. But the terror caused by the late action is such that in order to man the ships now, redoubled threats and promises are required. To prove the murderous nature of this last battle I may say that I have heard on good authority that it left but three legs among sixty wounded men, a clear indication of the deadly preparations made by the enemy. To avenge this they are eager here for another action, so if, as the newspapers assert, the Dutch are at sea, fresh events may be expected ere long.
Meanwhile, by order of parliament, this day is being observed as one of thanksgiving for the late victory. It is kept as a holyday, though it may be freely stated that the greater part of the population does so out of fear rather than from any love for the present government. Its enemies increase while the royalists gain ground daily, though the energy employed against them induces the concealment of all loyalty and makes men watch and wait rather than speak and act. Further the late imprisonments in the Tower for insubordination add to the caution and submission shown by the people here. This subserviency will not be diminished by the approaching establishment of the new High Court of Justice, instituted for the purpose of curbing the license of the disaffected and freedom of speech, more than for anything else. As its decisions will be absolute and it is expected to effect many arrests and inflict severe punishment, the people have good reason to assume a respectful demeanour.
The acquittal of Col. Lilburne (fn. 2) has caused extraordinary annoyance to Gen. Cromwell, who anticipated a contrary verdict. The city was much excited about this trial and the vast crowds it drew made the government double its guards round the Court for fear of some tumult if he were pronounced guilty. But as he was acquitted instead, the shouts of joy and applause were universal, the people shouting "Long live Lilburne." The result is most unsatisfactory for the General and the Council. Cromwell well knows the hatred borne him by this individual who is evidently a popular favourite and is now absolved by a jury. All this causes apprehension, but what matters more is the discovery thus made of the unpopularity of the present government. Covert steps are being taken to prevent the inconvenience anticipated from his release, as Lilburne is known to have many followers. As the declared enemy of Cromwell he is still in prison and expected to remain there in spite of the verdict, for the avoidance of all possible disturbance. It is further understood that his judges have been called before the Council of State to give an exact account of the verdict. Apparently fresh endeavours are now being made to bring fresh charges against him, that he had a secret understanding with the late king and assisted him and is consequently an enemy of the State, which would involve a much nearer approach to an unjust death than to merited liberty. In the general opinion if he is not executed neither will he escape from prison as Cromwell is well aware that Lilburne's popularity, aided by the malcontents and his own personal enemies, might form a party capable of seriously weakening his control. Had it not been for the large number of troops here, which were reinforced for the trial, that event might easily have led to one of those radical changes which is generally supposed to be deferred rather than eliminated.
The news that the insurgents in Scotland have mustered a considerable army increases the fear that the disturbances there may be assisted by the Dutch, their allies, and other enemies of the present government. So it is intended to reinforce the army there with 3000 men. Their march has only been delayed because of Lilburne, who excites such apprehension that it is considered good policy to increases rather than diminish the number of troops here. Both the soldiers and sailors cause inconvenience to everyone as their numbers produce an almost daily rise in the cost of all the necessaries of life. It is reported to-day that the Scottish insurgents have come down in considerable numbers from the Highlands and captured Glasgow, an important prize because of its position and connections. Some reports state that they have beaten the parliament forces, but this cannot be verified as yet.
The person selected as ambassador to Sweden some time ago has been excused the mission on the ground of ill health. The government is now nominating some one in his stead, in order to cherish the friendly disposition of that queen. (fn. 3) It is certain that the more difficulty Cromwell experiences in effecting an adjustment with Holland, the more he will seek for a good understanding with that crown, as an alliance with Sweden would cause additional anxiety to Denmark, whose resources would thus find employment near home, and with England keeping the Dutch busy the Sound would be closed to them, ruining their valuable trade in the Baltic. Sweden, who is equally dependent on the freedom of trade will find it to her interest to be on good terms with the predominant nation of the two, and it is safe to say that will always be England. They are certainly more determined than ever here to press the Dutch hard, and there is no doubt of their success if they make an alliance with Sweden.
A discussion took place in parliament lately about changing, the ambassador at Constantinople, whom they wish to recall, with good reason, as he has been there a long while and was originally accredited to the Porte by the late king, but I have not heard of any decision. (fn. 4) I will keep on the watch as they might decide very quickly. Of the troops levied in Venice who come here on English ships, a great number, especially all the Dalmatians and Albanians have decided to quit England. I encouraged them in this as they tell me they want to serve their own sovereign, so I have given them a passport to your Excellency. Some others have gone to Flanders, while a third party is still here with Paganuzzi.
In consequence of reports that the republic might want a levy, an Irish Catholic gentleman brought me the enclosed paper. He promised the finest possible men and said transports might easily be had and the force landed at any given spot by March next. He might possibly lower his terms, from his wish for honourable employment and curiosity to see foreign countries, though he told me that the terms were the best possible and that Spain is now paying 8l. sterling a head, paid when the men reach Spanish soil.
Has received no letters this week or last, as contrary winds have stopped the ordinary from crossing.
London, the 6th September, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 153. Proposal of Capt. Ralph Jessupp for a levy for the service of Venice. (fn. 5)
1. He will give security for raising and transporting 1200 Irish.
2. The Agent shall give him 11l. per man, besides officers, (for as many as he shall transport).
3. He will provide a licence for transporting the men.
4. The Agent shall pay him 6000l. English money at the sealing of the agreement, and the other moiety 21 days after the landing of the men in Venice.
5. The Agent will undergo all the danger and hazard at sea.
6. At the mustering, if the numbers are short, by combat, shipwreck or natural death, he shall not be bound to make them good, provided he prove that he shipped so many men.
7. If he exceeds the number of 1200 he shall receive in proportion 21 days after the landing.
8. The regiment shall not be reformed or disbanded while it is 300 strong.
9. When it is so weak, he may have 11l. per man for transporting drafts.
10. The regiment shall be paid as much and as punctually as any other in the service of the republic.
11. Before disbanding, every officer and soldier shall have 3 month's pay and all arrears to take them home.
12. He shall have full power to choose his officers, provided he choose none but men of knowledge and valour.
13. They shall be men, not boys, and well clothed.
14. Within 12 days of landing every officer and man shall shall receive two months in advance and their arrears.
15. He binds himself to perform every article and the Agent shall do the same.
[English.]
Sept. 9.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
154. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The death of Admiral Tromp has somewhat upset matters in Holland and produced division among the Provinces, which cannot agree about his successor. Friesland, Holland and Zeeland have each nominated one of their own captains, and are so obstinate that arrangements are being made to have three admirals with equal authority. At the same time the dispute about electing the infant Prince of Orange as stathouder rages more fiercely than ever, the Province of Holland offering vigorous opposition.
The Dutch fleet is still in port, leaving the English more at liberty to make prizes, so that trade is suspended and hampered, to the discontent of the merchants and displeasure of the entire population.
Encloses the usual letters of Paulucci.
Compiègne, the 9th September, 1653.
[Italian.]
Sept. 12.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
155. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 6)
During the last few days Cromwell and the whole Council have been particularly busy over the affairs of Scotland, where a force of from ten to 12,000 men is levying contributions, destroying all the places it can get possession of and showing no mercy to the troops of the present government or others acknowledging its sway. After taking Glasgow they are understood to have captured St. John's Town, where they made an indiscriminate slaughter of all the defenders. (fn. 7) The news has hastened the adoption of the measures I reported, a number of troops having been already marched in that direction, where the entire reinforcement will amount to 10,000 men. Some difficulty is anticipated in reducing the insurgents, as they are understood to be strong, united and determined, while they receive help from other malcontents and the enemies of this government. They talk of sending Gen. Lambert with this reinforcement, to take command of the whole army, and this will certainly be done should the need increase, although his talents are badly needed in London, considering the scarcity of other persons fitted to govern. But if the flame spreads, stronger and speedier remedies will be needed, as it seems the king has been proclaimed and the preachers advocate his cause from their pulpits. So parliament has warned them to desist under pain of severe punishment. To secure obedience and by way of encouragement the army in Scotland has lately been supplied with 50,000l. sterling.
Recent letters from Holland do not realise the general expectation here for since the last battle the Dutch seem less pacific, so here they neither stay their preparations nor lose time. They again have a squadron of 70 sail off the coast of Holland, meaning to give battle to the enemy, Cromwell being much incensed at their obstinacy. I gather that the whole affair is now reduced to these alternatives, either the incorporation of Dutch interests with those of England, or open hostilities ; and by means of alliances with other powers England will bring the United Provinces to the verge of ruin.
Gen. Cromwell has to a great extent allayed the fears entertained on account of Col. Lilburne by removing him by night from his old place of imprisonment to the Tower. (fn. 8) This only increases the prisoner's popularity and the sympathy of his own party, which never ceases its covert efforts for his release, though it is supposed that despite the verdict his acquittal will be reversed by parliament and commuted to rigorous imprisonment for the rest of his life.
Parliament has decided to send an ambassador to Constantinople with the first squadron bound to the Mediterranean, with letters to the Grand Turk, and to supersede the present minister, in accordance with demands of the Levant Company. (fn. 9) I shall not forget to ask the Council of State to give him instructions in favour of the most serene republic, in harmony with the zeal professed by the rulers here for the Christian faith. I will also try to obtain a categorical reply in writing, as instructed, about their intention to establish mutual correspondence with the Signory. But I must observe that affairs here must be considered in agitation rather than permanent ; attention being directed exclusively to domestic matters and the important affair with the Dutch, the last amply sufficient to disconcert both home and foreign politics. The fact is that to arouse the apprehensions of the Dutch England will gladly listen to projects of alliance and even ratify them ; but once the peace, for which she is most anxious, is made with the Dutch, she will care little about the friendship of other powers, and through that alliance she anticipates that she will be able to lay down the law to them, and intends to act as may suit her best, against all monarchies, as is clear from the present fashion of the government, which gives all the foreign ministers here more cause for remonstrance than for satisfaction.
London, the 12th September, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 16.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
156. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch are still discussing the appointment of a successor to Tromp. The majority of the Provinces favour Count Maurice of Nassau, general of Brazil (fn. 10) or his natural son M. de Reviend, but Holland opposes this vigorously and supports some other candidate.
The arrival at the Sound of the Indiamen with valuable cargoes, as well as 70 other merchantmen from Italy, Spain and France compels the Dutch to put to sea speedily to prevent these ships falling a prey to the English fleet. They hope that the king of Denmark may give them convoy with his men of war, but the ardour of that monarch for the Dutch has cooled after seeing their reverses in so many engagements, and he is contemplating a separate agreement. Meanwhile the United Provinces are short of funds, it being dangerous to lay taxes on a population in a state of disturbance and insurrection.
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Compiègne, the 16th September, 1653.
[Italian.]
Sept. 20.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
157. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 11)
I have tried to comply with your Excellency's commands and spoke to Sir [Oliver] Fleming about a mutual understanding and of the friendly feeling towards himself. He promised to try and get me a speedy audience feeling sure the Council would give a satisfactory reply. I should have spoken to him sooner only he has recently avoided all intercourse with the foreign ministers on the plea of indisposition. Though he is visible on business and is the only member of the government to whom access can be obtained easily, yet the constant familiarity remarked between him and the diplomatic agents has awakened some jealousy in the minds of certain leading members of the Council of State and he has received an express order to act with more reserve. Thus facilities for conferring with the one who knows all that passes both at home and abroad are impeded, and he does not show himself so readily as of yore. His Scottish birth exposes him to the present unpopularity of his whole nation, while the Scots complain that the English are not keeping their promises. They object to one great man having control of the army, and in Scotland the party of those who object to the present government is increasing. The chief members of that body are evidently not agreed, especially the soldiers, some disapproving the short duration of parliament while others resent its complete dependence on Cromwell. Not a few leaders of the army take it amiss that parliament should be changed at such brief intervals, at the mere caprice of the general, while he remains permanently in office, to the exclusion of more than one leading officer, who for merit and capacity might lay claim to the supreme command. If this jealousy and misunderstanding between the general and the magnates of the army increases the royalists may possibly be gainers thereby. At the same time the government has great powers, and by means of these Cromwell will at least try to check the noxious humours of this body politic, if he cannot utterly root out those which are forming. This is shown by several recent arrests the culprits being sent to the Tower on a charge of plotting against the existing government in favour of the royalist party. The worst feature of this affair is that among the prisoners are some entirely dependent on the army, who are kept in very close custody, and unlikely to get out easily.
The Dutch mail of this week is expected to bring some definite reply to the proposals conveyed by the commissioners, which the Council at the Hague is understood to have transmitted to each of the Provinces for their views upon the adjustment proposed with England. Here the general opinion is that many will reject it, especially the adherents of the House of Orange, in whose favour the English are aware that civil strife increases, and therefore, if the war continues they count with confidence on bringing repentance and possibly ruin on the States.
As a proof of victory in the last sea fight the main body of the English fleet, consisting of 80 men of war, has gone over towards the coast of Holland, and undoubtedly if they find the enemy at sea or meaning to come out their orders and determination are to give battle. But as there has been a violent storm this last week, the chances are that the English will have been compelled to draw off and take to the open sea for the moment, but always with the intention of returning to the Dutch coast, wind and weather permitting, and continuing to harass the enemy. Some rich merchantmen and sundry small craft are reported this week to have been captured. The Dutch also make prizes, but although reprisals have been incessant the balance remains considerably in favour of England, and the whole mart here has been much delighted lately by the safe arrival of a large Indiamen, which parted company from its consorts and had been given up as lost. (fn. 12)
The Portuguese negotiations remain in statu quo ; that is the essentials of peace are established but according to the articles arranged with the ambassador the English merchants require indemnity in ready money, for which purpose heavy bills were drawn on Lisbon, but not accepted by the king there. Thus matters remain in suspense until some fresh security be given to the parties here for the losses caused by Prince Rupert.
Encloses account for August. Has been running into debt since the 24th July when the last supply was received.
London, the 20th September, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 23.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
158. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations between the commissioners and the Dutch ambassador about an alliance proceed slowly. The Cardinal sticks to his maxim of keeping the United Provinces in play without concluding anything, avoiding drawing down the indignation of the English, while checking them by the suspicion of this alliance. He told the ambassador that this fierce war though begun by England had its root in Spain, who seized the opportunity to forward her projects, and to weaken Holland with the forces of England. This was Divine retribution for the sin committed by the Dutch at Munster when they made peace with the Spaniards without reference to France with whom they were allied. Nevertheless the king was ready to do what was for his own service and to relieve the Dutch ; but the present mischief requires a strong remedy, which a merely defensive alliance will not supply, being no safeguard against present enemies, intent on injuring France and striking indirectly at Holland.
The ambassador perceiving that the Cardinal aimed at inducing the Dutch to break with the Spaniards declined to do anything of the sort at present, as there was no reasonable cause for breaking the peace. He showed that the successes of the English would be fatal to France, against whom their attacks would eventually be directed, and again proposed a defensive alliance. He hinted that if the king made peace with Spain this month and war broke out again in 4 months' time the Dutch would then be bound to help France even against Spain, and offered that the States should engage for one third of the mutual assistance agreed upon.
The commissioners raised many objections and said Holland ought to contribute half, and as the ambassador resisted this the conference was adjourned.
Denmark does not give Holland any help, but is cautious and keeps on the defensive with 30 very powerful ships, some of which carry 110 brass guns.
The Scottish insurgents have sent delegates to the Hague to ask for help. To leave nothing untried at such a crisis the Dutch have sounded the king of England, offering him assistance if he will embark on their fleet. But his Majesty shows no inclination for this, suspecting that if the English continue to beat the Dutch the latter might sell him as his father was sold by the Scots, and he says he will not give them the opportunity to do this. Meanwhile Admiral Vittens has put to sea with the fleet to convoy the merchantmen waiting at the Sound, about which the Dutch are very anxious, as the English have announced their intention to attack them, stimulated by glory and the rich booty.
The States have asked the Spanish ambassador Brun to confine the Catholic rite to his own household and not to admit others, for fear of some outrage, as the populace are excited by the preachers and by the suspicion that the war with England and what they suffer from it have been devised by Spain.
The packet of England with Paulucci's letter has not yet arrived. Owing to the shorter days they will not come in future before Wednesday.
Compiègne, the 23rd September, 1653.
[Italian.]
Sept. 27.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
159. To the Ambassador in France.
General Preston's offer of a levy of Irish involves too many difficulties, and the place d'armes must be Candia and not Corfu. Moreover it is similar to the offer made by Fleming to Pauluzzi in London, which the latter was not allowed to accept. Further, Preston might not be able to carry out his bargain, being a royalist and always the enemy of the parliament. We therefore wish to let the matter drop, while thanking him for his offer.
Ayes, 72. Noes, 1. Neutral, 82.
Second vote :
Ayes, 64. Noes, 0. Neutral, 88. Pending.
That the following be sent instead :
We will send directions next week about Preston's levy.
Ayes, 128. Noes, 0. Neutral, 21.
[Italian.]
Sept. 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
160. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 13)
My audience is delayed as usual, as the Council of State intends to hand me a letter about the English merchants recommended to the Senate. Their secretary is also unwell so the delay is longer than usual, I hope to execute my instructions when he comes out, probably in a day or two.
The forms of the present government being what they are I am obliged, of necessity, to accommodate myself to what is practised with all the other ministers, namely to put up with the slowness and irresolution due to their incapacity. Complaint is general, it may be said, but there is little hope of improvement owing to the burden of internal and external affairs. The new government is unable to cope with it all and must perforce neglect such outside interests which are not so pressing as their own, important though they may be and though they keep other princes waiting. This is the real truth of the matter and I hope that your Excellencies will excuse my delay in fulfilling your instructions.
I have little other news, the recent violent storm shuts off that from the sea. For fear of perishing in the gale the main body of the English fleet got with all haste into Yarmouth, leaving a few small craft at the mercy of the waves, and with the loss of a few spars, the wind having raged with extraordinary violence for six days on end. The Dutch are reported to have put to sea with a good number of ships, on hearing of the retreat of the English, in order to give convoy to a considerable number of their merchantmen. But as the weather is equally bad for either side this can scarely be credited. The public remains in suspense about this news and what may happen in calm weather, as well as about the letters from Holland which are impatiently awaited by those who desire peace. Opinions differ about this for while some think peace near at hand, others consider it more remote than ever, owing possibly to the hopes of assistance which France is known to extend to the Dutch. But so long as England sees France embroiled in civil strife and the Spanish alliance promises this commonwealth great advantage, she trusts that peace may not be made between the two crowns and that in consequence the performance of France will fall short of her promises. Meanwhile here they try to make the most of their opportunities. They are intent on the vital affair of Holland and rejoice to hear that the Protestants have now taken up arms in France. They cultivate relations with the Prince of Condé and flatter the Spanish ambassador, as circumstances compel them for the moment to delay those anti-monarchical projects, to realise which they most earnestly desire peace with the United Provinces. Their hopes of an adjustment rise or utterly disappear with the return of the two commissioners who went to the Hague, or their being followed by their colleagues who remained behind. As the advanced season allows little to be done at sea it would seem as if both the weather and the desire of each combatant combined in favour of harmony.
The insurgents in Scotland do not seem to have gained ground since my last. On the contrary, since the troops and treasure sent to the parliament army it seems that a battle has been fought in which the Highlanders and their allies were worsted. On the other hand the government is still disturbed by the obstinacy of the preachers there in encouraging the people to pray for the welfare and prosperity of their legitimate king. Although the government here continues to forbid this with severity and some of the ministers have been punished for disobeying, their brethren do not desist from similar prayers and have boldly represented to parliament that conscience and duty constrain them so to do ; so possibly greater force still be required to render Scotland more submissive.
At a recent audience the Spanish ambassador assured the Council of State that his king continued to entertain the best possible feelings towards this state, for which Spain will always profess a cordial friendship. It is very evident that the Dutch war stimulates the Spaniards thus to flatter the English by such declarations, and the English to make similar professions. Meanwhile the Catholic ambassador has not been able to effect anything about the plate indeed it seems that by most secret connivance he has allowed a portion, amounting to 200,000l. sterling, to be converted into the currency of the commonwealth. The remaining ing 500,000l. is possibly reserved for the Spanish merchants, its legitimate owners, in whose favour he has renewed his suit, but with all moderation.
The Tuscan Resident has received letters from the Grand Duke to parliament with assurances of goodwill and esteem, with the idea of averting the resentment threatened for the Duke's toleration of injuries inflicted by the Dutch on English ships within his jurisdiction. The letter contains compliments with no allusions to the past. As there was a difficulty about obtaining audience the Resident delivered it to the Speaker to be consigned to the Council of State. If an answer is given it may be inferred that the irritation is allayed, whereas silence would imply that they are still offended with his Highness.
News has come that 12 English ships bound to the Orkneys have perished in a storm with their crews and cargoes. From the Downs also the loss of some other merchantmen is reported.
London, the 27th September, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 30.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
161. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Several conferences have been held with the Dutch ambassador about the defensive alliance and it has been decided to send M. Scianu who has returned from Lubeck, to the Hague, to induce the United Provinces to form an offensive alliance as well. At Court here he is considered a shrewd and skilful diplomatist For the avoidance of display he merely assumes the title of, ambassador in Holland, in acknowledgment of the Dutch embassy here since the king has no minister resident with the States at the moment. The real object of his mission is to gain certain points which the Dutch ambassador here has never chosen to concede, and to induce the United Provinces to abandon their reserve and cordially link their interests with those of France.
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Compiègne, the 30th September, 1653.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 9th.
2 On the 20-30 August.
3 Bulstrode Whitelock was not definitely appointed to take Lord Lisle's place until 14-24 September. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1653-4, page 146.
4 The letter of parliament in the Levant Company's records announcing the recall of Bendish and introducing Richard Lawrence is dated 31st August, o.s. S.P. For. Archives, Vol. 144, page 104.
5 See Cal. S.P. Dom. 1653-4, page 171, from which it would appear that he had not yet obtained sanction for this levy.
6 Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 16th.
7 Writing on the 26th, after referring to royalist reports of great doings in Scotland, Salvetti goes on to say : "Ma come questi come interessati ne parlono passionatamente non li viene per cio dato credenza se non da quelli che sono di quel partito. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 O.
8 Removed from Newgate to the Tower on 27th August, o.s. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1653—4, page 107.
9 Owing to the decline of trade the Levant Co. could no longer support an ambassador. Richard Lawrence was appointed on 1st Sept., o.s., to take letters of revocation to Sir Thomas Bendish and to remain as agent until the appointment of an ambassador or further order. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1653-4, pp. 123, 148.
10 i.e. John Maurice, Americanus, prince of Nassau Siegen.
11 Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 30th.
12 Probably the Love which arrived on the 31st August, o.s. See note at page 115 above.
13 Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 7th October.