151. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
I sent to the Dutch ambassador to make an appointment to
congratulate him on the victory he claims was won against the
English. He apologised for not receiving me as he was in bed
with the gout. He sent his son to thank me who, being more
open and less crafty than his father, told me that the States
were seriously embarrassed. The few months of war with
England had cost them more that the hostilities waged with the
Spaniards during a century. They had lost more than 300 ships.
To these losses and injuries abroad must be added some internal
dissension and a popular movement in favour of the House of
Orange which kept the magistrates in constant anxiety. One
of the proposals made to the Dutch commissioners in England
about the peace was the consolidation of the two republics into
one body, but so as to render Holland dependent. The English
wanted the Dutch to admit 7 of their countrymen into the
Assembly of the States General, giving seats to 7 Dutchmen in the
English parliament. But the 7 Englishmen would have been
equal in number to the 7 Dutchmen who comprise the Assembly,
whereas the Dutchmen would have been lost in a parliament of
over 100 members. The object of England was not to form an
alliance with Holland but to subdue her.
Encloses Paulucci's letters.
Paris, the 2nd September, 1653.
152. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 1)
The best attentions of the government, consisting of a limited
number of persons besides Gen. Cromwell and a few leading
officers, as well as the attention of the public, are concentrated
on naval affairs, as most calculated to affect everything else.
Thus 40 of the best ships in the fleet, the main body of which is
still in port refitting, have been sent to sea to join the squadron
left off the Dutch coast, so that it may be strong enough to give
battle to the enemy. Since the last engagement the Dutch are
also said to be out, but chiefly for the purpose of convoying some
of their Indiamen, which had put into Danish ports to avoid the
English fleet. If this is the intention of the Dutch a fresh sea
fight, which many anticipate here, will scarcely take place,
unless the English seek it, in the hope of rich booty and with their
usual confidence in victory, so far justified by the event, in spite
of the serious damage suffered by their ships, and the very
heavy losses among the crews, caused by the excessive number of
hands on board. To remedy this loss of life the government
spares neither fair means nor foul, blandishment nor money.
But the terror caused by the late action is such that in order to
man the ships now, redoubled threats and promises are required.
To prove the murderous nature of this last battle I may say that
I have heard on good authority that it left but three legs among
sixty wounded men, a clear indication of the deadly preparations
made by the enemy. To avenge this they are eager here for
another action, so if, as the newspapers assert, the Dutch are at
sea, fresh events may be expected ere long.
Meanwhile, by order of parliament, this day is being observed
as one of thanksgiving for the late victory. It is kept as a holyday,
though it may be freely stated that the greater part of the
population does so out of fear rather than from any love for the
present government. Its enemies increase while the royalists gain
ground daily, though the energy employed against them induces the
concealment of all loyalty and makes men watch and wait rather
than speak and act. Further the late imprisonments in the
Tower for insubordination add to the caution and submission
shown by the people here. This subserviency will not be
diminished by the approaching establishment of the new High
Court of Justice, instituted for the purpose of curbing the license
of the disaffected and freedom of speech, more than for anything
else. As its decisions will be absolute and it is expected to effect
many arrests and inflict severe punishment, the people have good
reason to assume a respectful demeanour.
The acquittal of Col. Lilburne (fn. 2) has caused extraordinary
annoyance to Gen. Cromwell, who anticipated a contrary verdict.
The city was much excited about this trial and the vast crowds
it drew made the government double its guards round the Court
for fear of some tumult if he were pronounced guilty. But as he
was acquitted instead, the shouts of joy and applause were
universal, the people shouting "Long live Lilburne." The
result is most unsatisfactory for the General and the Council.
Cromwell well knows the hatred borne him by this individual
who is evidently a popular favourite and is now absolved by a
jury. All this causes apprehension, but what matters more is the
discovery thus made of the unpopularity of the present government.
Covert steps are being taken to prevent the inconvenience
anticipated from his release, as Lilburne is known to have many
followers. As the declared enemy of Cromwell he is still in prison
and expected to remain there in spite of the verdict, for the avoidance
of all possible disturbance. It is further understood that
his judges have been called before the Council of State to give an
exact account of the verdict. Apparently fresh endeavours are
now being made to bring fresh charges against him, that he had
a secret understanding with the late king and assisted him and is
consequently an enemy of the State, which would involve a much
nearer approach to an unjust death than to merited liberty.
In the general opinion if he is not executed neither will he escape
from prison as Cromwell is well aware that Lilburne's popularity,
aided by the malcontents and his own personal enemies, might form a
party capable of seriously weakening his control. Had it not been
for the large number of troops here, which were reinforced for the
trial, that event might easily have led to one of those radical changes
which is generally supposed to be deferred rather than eliminated.
The news that the insurgents in Scotland have mustered a
considerable army increases the fear that the disturbances there
may be assisted by the Dutch, their allies, and other enemies of
the present government. So it is intended to reinforce the army
there with 3000 men. Their march has only been delayed because
of Lilburne, who excites such apprehension that it is considered
good policy to increases rather than diminish the number of troops
here. Both the soldiers and sailors cause inconvenience to
everyone as their numbers produce an almost daily rise in the
cost of all the necessaries of life. It is reported to-day that the
Scottish insurgents have come down in considerable numbers
from the Highlands and captured Glasgow, an important prize
because of its position and connections. Some reports state that
they have beaten the parliament forces, but this cannot be
verified as yet.
The person selected as ambassador to Sweden some time ago
has been excused the mission on the ground of ill health. The
government is now nominating some one in his stead, in order to
cherish the friendly disposition of that queen. (fn. 3) It is certain that
the more difficulty Cromwell experiences in effecting an adjustment
with Holland, the more he will seek for a good understanding
with that crown, as an alliance with Sweden would
cause additional anxiety to Denmark, whose resources would thus
find employment near home, and with England keeping the
Dutch busy the Sound would be closed to them, ruining their
valuable trade in the Baltic. Sweden, who is equally dependent
on the freedom of trade will find it to her interest to be on good
terms with the predominant nation of the two, and it is safe to
say that will always be England. They are certainly more determined
than ever here to press the Dutch hard, and there is no
doubt of their success if they make an alliance with Sweden.
A discussion took place in parliament lately about changing,
the ambassador at Constantinople, whom they wish to recall,
with good reason, as he has been there a long while and was
originally accredited to the Porte by the late king, but I have not
heard of any decision. (fn. 4) I will keep on the watch as they might
decide very quickly. Of the troops levied in Venice who come
here on English ships, a great number, especially all the Dalmatians
and Albanians have decided to quit England. I encouraged
them in this as they tell me they want to serve their own sovereign,
so I have given them a passport to your Excellency. Some
others have gone to Flanders, while a third party is still here
In consequence of reports that the republic might want a levy,
an Irish Catholic gentleman brought me the enclosed paper.
He promised the finest possible men and said transports might
easily be had and the force landed at any given spot by March
next. He might possibly lower his terms, from his wish for
honourable employment and curiosity to see foreign countries,
though he told me that the terms were the best possible and that
Spain is now paying 8l. sterling a head, paid when the men reach
Has received no letters this week or last, as contrary winds
have stopped the ordinary from crossing.
London, the 6th September, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
153. Proposal of Capt. Ralph Jessupp for a levy for the
service of Venice. (fn. 5)
1. He will give security for raising and transporting 1200 Irish.
2. The Agent shall give him 11l. per man, besides officers,
(for as many as he shall transport).
3. He will provide a licence for transporting the men.
4. The Agent shall pay him 6000l. English money at the sealing
of the agreement, and the other moiety 21 days after the landing
of the men in Venice.
5. The Agent will undergo all the danger and hazard at sea.
6. At the mustering, if the numbers are short, by combat,
shipwreck or natural death, he shall not be bound to make them
good, provided he prove that he shipped so many men.
7. If he exceeds the number of 1200 he shall receive in proportion
21 days after the landing.
8. The regiment shall not be reformed or disbanded while it
is 300 strong.
9. When it is so weak, he may have 11l. per man for transporting
10. The regiment shall be paid as much and as punctually as
any other in the service of the republic.
11. Before disbanding, every officer and soldier shall have
3 month's pay and all arrears to take them home.
12. He shall have full power to choose his officers, provided
he choose none but men of knowledge and valour.
13. They shall be men, not boys, and well clothed.
14. Within 12 days of landing every officer and man shall
shall receive two months in advance and their arrears.
15. He binds himself to perform every article and the Agent
shall do the same.
154. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
The death of Admiral Tromp has somewhat upset matters in
Holland and produced division among the Provinces, which cannot
agree about his successor. Friesland, Holland and Zeeland have
each nominated one of their own captains, and are so obstinate
that arrangements are being made to have three admirals with
equal authority. At the same time the dispute about electing
the infant Prince of Orange as stathouder rages more fiercely
than ever, the Province of Holland offering vigorous opposition.
The Dutch fleet is still in port, leaving the English more at
liberty to make prizes, so that trade is suspended and hampered,
to the discontent of the merchants and displeasure of the entire
Encloses the usual letters of Paulucci.
Compiègne, the 9th September, 1653.
155. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England,
to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 6)
During the last few days Cromwell and the whole Council have
been particularly busy over the affairs of Scotland, where a force
of from ten to 12,000 men is levying contributions, destroying all
the places it can get possession of and showing no mercy to the
troops of the present government or others acknowledging its
sway. After taking Glasgow they are understood to have
captured St. John's Town, where they made an indiscriminate
slaughter of all the defenders. (fn. 7) The news has hastened the
adoption of the measures I reported, a number of troops having
been already marched in that direction, where the entire reinforcement
will amount to 10,000 men. Some difficulty is
anticipated in reducing the insurgents, as they are understood to
be strong, united and determined, while they receive help from
other malcontents and the enemies of this government. They
talk of sending Gen. Lambert with this reinforcement, to take
command of the whole army, and this will certainly be done
should the need increase, although his talents are badly needed
in London, considering the scarcity of other persons fitted to
govern. But if the flame spreads, stronger and speedier remedies
will be needed, as it seems the king has been proclaimed and the
preachers advocate his cause from their pulpits. So parliament
has warned them to desist under pain of severe punishment.
To secure obedience and by way of encouragement the army in
Scotland has lately been supplied with 50,000l. sterling.
Recent letters from Holland do not realise the general expectation
here for since the last battle the Dutch seem less pacific,
so here they neither stay their preparations nor lose time. They
again have a squadron of 70 sail off the coast of Holland, meaning
to give battle to the enemy, Cromwell being much incensed at
their obstinacy. I gather that the whole affair is now reduced
to these alternatives, either the incorporation of Dutch interests
with those of England, or open hostilities ; and by means of
alliances with other powers England will bring the United
Provinces to the verge of ruin.
Gen. Cromwell has to a great extent allayed the fears entertained
on account of Col. Lilburne by removing him by night
from his old place of imprisonment to the Tower. (fn. 8) This only
increases the prisoner's popularity and the sympathy of his own
party, which never ceases its covert efforts for his release, though
it is supposed that despite the verdict his acquittal will be reversed
by parliament and commuted to rigorous imprisonment for the
rest of his life.
Parliament has decided to send an ambassador to Constantinople
with the first squadron bound to the Mediterranean,
with letters to the Grand Turk, and to supersede the present
minister, in accordance with demands of the Levant Company. (fn. 9)
I shall not forget to ask the Council of State to give him instructions
in favour of the most serene republic, in harmony with the
zeal professed by the rulers here for the Christian faith. I will
also try to obtain a categorical reply in writing, as instructed,
about their intention to establish mutual correspondence with
the Signory. But I must observe that affairs here must be
considered in agitation rather than permanent ; attention being
directed exclusively to domestic matters and the important affair with
the Dutch, the last amply sufficient to disconcert both home and
foreign politics. The fact is that to arouse the apprehensions of the
Dutch England will gladly listen to projects of alliance and even
ratify them ; but once the peace, for which she is most anxious, is
made with the Dutch, she will care little about the friendship of
other powers, and through that alliance she anticipates that she will
be able to lay down the law to them, and intends to act as may suit
her best, against all monarchies, as is clear from the present fashion
of the government, which gives all the foreign ministers here more
cause for remonstrance than for satisfaction.
London, the 12th September, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
156. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch are still discussing the appointment of a successor
to Tromp. The majority of the Provinces favour Count Maurice
of Nassau, general of Brazil (fn. 10) or his natural son M. de Reviend,
but Holland opposes this vigorously and supports some other
The arrival at the Sound of the Indiamen with valuable
cargoes, as well as 70 other merchantmen from Italy, Spain and
France compels the Dutch to put to sea speedily to prevent these
ships falling a prey to the English fleet. They hope that the king
of Denmark may give them convoy with his men of war, but the
ardour of that monarch for the Dutch has cooled after seeing
their reverses in so many engagements, and he is contemplating
a separate agreement. Meanwhile the United Provinces are
short of funds, it being dangerous to lay taxes on a population in
a state of disturbance and insurrection.
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Compiègne, the 16th September, 1653.
157. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 11)
I have tried to comply with your Excellency's commands and
spoke to Sir [Oliver] Fleming about a mutual understanding and
of the friendly feeling towards himself. He promised to try and
get me a speedy audience feeling sure the Council would give a
satisfactory reply. I should have spoken to him sooner only
he has recently avoided all intercourse with the foreign ministers on
the plea of indisposition. Though he is visible on business and is
the only member of the government to whom access can be obtained
easily, yet the constant familiarity remarked between him and the
diplomatic agents has awakened some jealousy in the minds of
certain leading members of the Council of State and he has received
an express order to act with more reserve. Thus facilities for
conferring with the one who knows all that passes both at home and
abroad are impeded, and he does not show himself so readily as of
yore. His Scottish birth exposes him to the present unpopularity
of his whole nation, while the Scots complain that the English are
not keeping their promises. They object to one great man having
control of the army, and in Scotland the party of those who object to
the present government is increasing. The chief members of that
body are evidently not agreed, especially the soldiers, some disapproving
the short duration of parliament while others resent its
complete dependence on Cromwell. Not a few leaders of the army
take it amiss that parliament should be changed at such brief
intervals, at the mere caprice of the general, while he remains permanently
in office, to the exclusion of more than one leading officer,
who for merit and capacity might lay claim to the supreme command.
If this jealousy and misunderstanding between the general and the
magnates of the army increases the royalists may possibly be gainers
thereby. At the same time the government has great powers, and by
means of these Cromwell will at least try to check the noxious humours
of this body politic, if he cannot utterly root out those which are
forming. This is shown by several recent arrests the culprits
being sent to the Tower on a charge of plotting against the
existing government in favour of the royalist party. The worst
feature of this affair is that among the prisoners are some entirely
dependent on the army, who are kept in very close custody, and
unlikely to get out easily.
The Dutch mail of this week is expected to bring some definite
reply to the proposals conveyed by the commissioners, which the
Council at the Hague is understood to have transmitted to each
of the Provinces for their views upon the adjustment proposed
with England. Here the general opinion is that many will
reject it, especially the adherents of the House of Orange, in
whose favour the English are aware that civil strife increases, and
therefore, if the war continues they count with confidence on
bringing repentance and possibly ruin on the States.
As a proof of victory in the last sea fight the main body of the
English fleet, consisting of 80 men of war, has gone over towards
the coast of Holland, and undoubtedly if they find the enemy at
sea or meaning to come out their orders and determination are to
give battle. But as there has been a violent storm this last week,
the chances are that the English will have been compelled to
draw off and take to the open sea for the moment, but always
with the intention of returning to the Dutch coast, wind and
weather permitting, and continuing to harass the enemy. Some
rich merchantmen and sundry small craft are reported this week
to have been captured. The Dutch also make prizes, but although
reprisals have been incessant the balance remains considerably
in favour of England, and the whole mart here has been much
delighted lately by the safe arrival of a large Indiamen, which
parted company from its consorts and had been given up as lost. (fn. 12)
The Portuguese negotiations remain in statu quo ; that is the
essentials of peace are established but according to the articles
arranged with the ambassador the English merchants require
indemnity in ready money, for which purpose heavy bills were
drawn on Lisbon, but not accepted by the king there. Thus
matters remain in suspense until some fresh security be given
to the parties here for the losses caused by Prince Rupert.
Encloses account for August. Has been running into debt
since the 24th July when the last supply was received.
London, the 20th September, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
158. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations between the commissioners and the Dutch
ambassador about an alliance proceed slowly. The Cardinal
sticks to his maxim of keeping the United Provinces in play
without concluding anything, avoiding drawing down the
indignation of the English, while checking them by the suspicion
of this alliance. He told the ambassador that this fierce war
though begun by England had its root in Spain, who seized the
opportunity to forward her projects, and to weaken Holland with
the forces of England. This was Divine retribution for the sin
committed by the Dutch at Munster when they made peace with
the Spaniards without reference to France with whom they were
allied. Nevertheless the king was ready to do what was for his
own service and to relieve the Dutch ; but the present mischief
requires a strong remedy, which a merely defensive alliance will
not supply, being no safeguard against present enemies, intent
on injuring France and striking indirectly at Holland.
The ambassador perceiving that the Cardinal aimed at inducing
the Dutch to break with the Spaniards declined to do anything
of the sort at present, as there was no reasonable cause for
breaking the peace. He showed that the successes of the English
would be fatal to France, against whom their attacks would
eventually be directed, and again proposed a defensive alliance.
He hinted that if the king made peace with Spain this month and
war broke out again in 4 months' time the Dutch would then be
bound to help France even against Spain, and offered that the
States should engage for one third of the mutual assistance agreed
The commissioners raised many objections and said Holland
ought to contribute half, and as the ambassador resisted this the
conference was adjourned.
Denmark does not give Holland any help, but is cautious and
keeps on the defensive with 30 very powerful ships, some of which
carry 110 brass guns.
The Scottish insurgents have sent delegates to the Hague to
ask for help. To leave nothing untried at such a crisis the Dutch
have sounded the king of England, offering him assistance if he
will embark on their fleet. But his Majesty shows no inclination
for this, suspecting that if the English continue to beat the
Dutch the latter might sell him as his father was sold by the
Scots, and he says he will not give them the opportunity to do this.
Meanwhile Admiral Vittens has put to sea with the fleet to convoy
the merchantmen waiting at the Sound, about which the Dutch
are very anxious, as the English have announced their intention
to attack them, stimulated by glory and the rich booty.
The States have asked the Spanish ambassador Brun to confine
the Catholic rite to his own household and not to admit others,
for fear of some outrage, as the populace are excited by the
preachers and by the suspicion that the war with England and
what they suffer from it have been devised by Spain.
The packet of England with Paulucci's letter has not yet
arrived. Owing to the shorter days they will not come in future
Compiègne, the 23rd September, 1653.
159. To the Ambassador in France.
General Preston's offer of a levy of Irish involves too many
difficulties, and the place d'armes must be Candia and not Corfu.
Moreover it is similar to the offer made by Fleming to Pauluzzi
in London, which the latter was not allowed to accept. Further,
Preston might not be able to carry out his bargain, being a
royalist and always the enemy of the parliament. We therefore
wish to let the matter drop, while thanking him for his offer.
Ayes, 72. Noes, 1. Neutral, 82.
Second vote :
Ayes, 64. Noes, 0. Neutral, 88. Pending.
That the following be sent instead :
We will send directions next week about Preston's levy.
Ayes, 128. Noes, 0. Neutral, 21.
160. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 13)
My audience is delayed as usual, as the Council of State intends
to hand me a letter about the English merchants recommended
to the Senate. Their secretary is also unwell so the delay is
longer than usual, I hope to execute my instructions when he
comes out, probably in a day or two.
The forms of the present government being what they are I am
obliged, of necessity, to accommodate myself to what is practised
with all the other ministers, namely to put up with the slowness
and irresolution due to their incapacity. Complaint is general,
it may be said, but there is little hope of improvement owing to the
burden of internal and external affairs. The new government is
unable to cope with it all and must perforce neglect such outside
interests which are not so pressing as their own, important though
they may be and though they keep other princes waiting. This is
the real truth of the matter and I hope that your Excellencies will
excuse my delay in fulfilling your instructions.
I have little other news, the recent violent storm shuts off that
from the sea. For fear of perishing in the gale the main body of
the English fleet got with all haste into Yarmouth, leaving a few
small craft at the mercy of the waves, and with the loss of a few
spars, the wind having raged with extraordinary violence for
six days on end. The Dutch are reported to have put to sea with
a good number of ships, on hearing of the retreat of the English,
in order to give convoy to a considerable number of their
merchantmen. But as the weather is equally bad for either side
this can scarely be credited. The public remains in suspense
about this news and what may happen in calm weather, as well
as about the letters from Holland which are impatiently awaited
by those who desire peace. Opinions differ about this for while
some think peace near at hand, others consider it more remote than
ever, owing possibly to the hopes of assistance which France is
known to extend to the Dutch. But so long as England sees France
embroiled in civil strife and the Spanish alliance promises this
commonwealth great advantage, she trusts that peace may not be made
between the two crowns and that in consequence the performance of
France will fall short of her promises. Meanwhile here they try to
make the most of their opportunities. They are intent on the vital
affair of Holland and rejoice to hear that the Protestants have now
taken up arms in France. They cultivate relations with the Prince
of Condé and flatter the Spanish ambassador, as circumstances
compel them for the moment to delay those anti-monarchical projects,
to realise which they most earnestly desire peace with the United
Provinces. Their hopes of an adjustment rise or utterly disappear
with the return of the two commissioners who went to the
Hague, or their being followed by their colleagues who remained
behind. As the advanced season allows little to be done at sea
it would seem as if both the weather and the desire of each
combatant combined in favour of harmony.
The insurgents in Scotland do not seem to have gained ground
since my last. On the contrary, since the troops and treasure
sent to the parliament army it seems that a battle has been fought
in which the Highlanders and their allies were worsted. On the
other hand the government is still disturbed by the obstinacy of
the preachers there in encouraging the people to pray for the
welfare and prosperity of their legitimate king. Although the
government here continues to forbid this with severity and some
of the ministers have been punished for disobeying, their brethren
do not desist from similar prayers and have boldly represented to
parliament that conscience and duty constrain them so to do ;
so possibly greater force still be required to render Scotland more
At a recent audience the Spanish ambassador assured the
Council of State that his king continued to entertain the best
possible feelings towards this state, for which Spain will always
profess a cordial friendship. It is very evident that the Dutch
war stimulates the Spaniards thus to flatter the English by such
declarations, and the English to make similar professions. Meanwhile
the Catholic ambassador has not been able to effect anything
about the plate indeed it seems that by most secret connivance
he has allowed a portion, amounting to 200,000l. sterling, to be
converted into the currency of the commonwealth. The remaining
ing 500,000l. is possibly reserved for the Spanish merchants, its
legitimate owners, in whose favour he has renewed his suit, but
with all moderation.
The Tuscan Resident has received letters from the Grand
Duke to parliament with assurances of goodwill and esteem, with
the idea of averting the resentment threatened for the Duke's
toleration of injuries inflicted by the Dutch on English ships
within his jurisdiction. The letter contains compliments with
no allusions to the past. As there was a difficulty about obtaining
audience the Resident delivered it to the Speaker to be consigned
to the Council of State. If an answer is given it may be inferred
that the irritation is allayed, whereas silence would imply that
they are still offended with his Highness.
News has come that 12 English ships bound to the Orkneys
have perished in a storm with their crews and cargoes. From the
Downs also the loss of some other merchantmen is reported.
London, the 27th September, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
161. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
Several conferences have been held with the Dutch ambassador
about the defensive alliance and it has been decided to send
M. Scianu who has returned from Lubeck, to the Hague, to induce
the United Provinces to form an offensive alliance as well. At
Court here he is considered a shrewd and skilful diplomatist
For the avoidance of display he merely assumes the title of,
ambassador in Holland, in acknowledgment of the Dutch embassy
here since the king has no minister resident with the States at
the moment. The real object of his mission is to gain certain
points which the Dutch ambassador here has never chosen to
concede, and to induce the United Provinces to abandon their
reserve and cordially link their interests with those of France.
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Compiègne, the 30th September, 1653.