Venice
October 1653

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1929

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131-142

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'Venice: October 1653', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 29: 1653-1654 (1929), pp. 131-142. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89761 Date accessed: 01 October 2014.


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October 1653

Oct. 1.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.
162. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The English soldiers who were guilty of the assassination of their own ambassador have at length been handed back to the church, after suffering a most hard imprisonment.
4000 Irish have landed at La Corunna. Their commanders, Colonels Dillon and Oluenas, (fn. 1) set out for Madrid while quarters are being prepared in the kingdom of Galicia, causing no small disturbance on the Portuguese frontier.
Madrid, the 1st October, 1653.
[Italian.]
Oct. 3.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
163. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 2)
I have been told in confidence that the Council of State delays to give me audience because nothing definite has been done about mutual intercourse, so I make no further suit and let things take their course. If they decide to give me audience and hand me the letter already written they will send for me, discarding their beggarly pretexts. This seems the best course as confusion keeps striking deeper roots here. The members of the government become increasingly jealous of each other and from a lack of sense and experience in those at the helm all affairs remain at a standstill, and all the foreign ministers dissatisfied, as none of their demands are attended to, representations and complaints being alike unavailing. The government turns a deaf ear to all that is accessory and devotes its entire energies to the main affair, which is in fact of vital importance. It is a question of clearing the air of certain pestilential vapours, capable of producing a violent hurricane, even immediately. These have already shown themselves in a seditious libel on Gen. Cromwell recently placarded about the chief streets of this city. (fn. 3) The author is evidently a person of high spirit who aims at openly discrediting the General and rendering the present government additionally odious to the people, who are restive now they have lost the hopes of relief conceived on its first formation. As the universal disposition of this people is serious and hypocritical (e nell' universale disposizione di questa gente di spirito pesante e poco sincero), this libel, containing as it does much truth, may be supposed to have made a great impression already. In the first place it accuses Cromwell of being the chief author of the death of King Charles ; of having violated the laws and manifestly infringed the jus of the commonwealth of England by dissolving the late parliament on his own responsibility, a body formed according to the fundamental statutes of the realm ; and of establishing another of his own whim, to the contempt of all forms for the dissolution of the one or the convoking of the other. The writer therefore invites all the chief nobles of the kingdom to assemble at their usual place of meeting on the 16th October, old style, to discuss what is required for maintaining the laws of the realm. He begs them not to fail and to put aside all fears of the military, as this measure harmonises perfectly with the desires of the army.
The sensation produced by these ideas in Cromwell and the entire government is indescribable. On the very day the libel appeared the Council of State was specially convened for the morrow, with penalties for absentees. The matter was discussed and all possible steps taken to discover the authors or abettors of this outrage. Cromwell himself exerted his personal authority and promised money from his own purse for any discovery or revelation. But as the libel indicates the day of meeting, this hint will serve him to prevent it. But it is a difficult business and the more it is probed the worse do its nature and consequences appear.
Meanwhile besides the persons already sent to the Tower for abuse of the present government and from fear of their plotting against it, another Colonel of note has been added to their number, the very same who was once commissioned to arrest the late king. (fn. 4) He may be one of those who repent of the past, say they were deceived and vow that, if necessary, they will wash out the taint with their blood. From hearing such sentiments expressed, from the placards exposed in public and from the discontent of the overburdened people, greater disturbances are expected in this city, whose example will be followed by the rest of the country. In spite of the assertions of those who pretend that such a government as this can be firmly established, those who watch the public mind and the manner of government are of a contrary opinion. London is only kept in subjection by armed force, a state of things that may last so long as the troops are obedient and well paid, for they are powerful enough to check any popular disturbance at present ; but one day it is possible that the tide of discontent may prove too strong for them. Such is the state of affairs here and of current opinion and without predicting the future or the result of such strong measures as this powerful commonwealth may take, with a reform of the government, it seems to me that the Signory will be wise to postpone any decision about closer intercourse with England.
Represents that impossible for him to continue long in England without some recognition from the State. Has no definite character.
London, the 3rd October, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
164. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to the same.
The necessity for keeping the navy and army in a good temper and well paid adds to the financial embarrassments of the government. There are no funds and it is not considered safe to impose fresh taxes, as those now in force are a heavier burden than the English have ever been accustomed to. So to avoid insurrection, before doubling the ordinary and extraordinary assessment, they have decided to raise money from the so called "delinquents" and Catholics. If these wish to retain the two thirds of their property which are declared forfeit to parliament, they are bound to compound for it within two months from this time. After that they will either be forced to a pecuniary compromise or their estates will be pitilessly sold for what they may fetch. They thus further exasperate the subject, whose goodwill has always been considered a rich treasure for the exigencies of the sovereign, but here it is a source of revenue which is most certainly on the decline.
The naval news, confirmed by the last letters from Holland, is that the Dutch General De Vuart is out with 54 men of war and that he was to be reinforced with 40 others under the command of De Ruyter. The withdrawal of the English squadron has given the Dutch merchant fleet destined for different parts of Europe an opportunity of getting out of port with safety, and they may seize this moment for convoying their Indiamen, which have been for some time taking refuge in the harbours of Denmark.
Since the storm an English squadron has been appointed to sail forthwith and cruise off the Texel. It will be followed, they say, by the main body of the fleet, and if they fall in with the enemy another battle may be expected.
The same letters from Holland hold out small hope of peace. On the contrary the Dutch say that the commissioners who came here exceeded their powers, and if it be true, as reported here, that M. de Chanu has been appointed French ambassador at the Hague, the English will undoubtedly consider this a hostile demonstration on the part of the Dutch, and will consequently increase their navy and likewise seek an accession of strength by alliances with foreign powers, relying on the friendliness of Spain. To induce Sweden to follow her example the appointment of Mr. Whitelocke, a lawyer who has never been out of England, as ambassador, is confirmed. But his departure, like that of his colleague for Constantinople, has not yet been positively settled owing to the usual intrigues characteristic of all the proceedings of this government.
As the Vice-chancellor of Poland was to leave for France to-day or to-morrow, I went to pay him my respects. He asked if I had any reply to his message and wished me to inform you that he meant to pay you his respects in Paris. I told him I had received no answer at all. I may add that he has been treated with extreme honour and most confidentially by General Cromwell. All his goods have passed the customs without examination and he was allowed to export 15 horses duty free. The commonwealth has placed a man of war (fn. 5) at his disposal to take him to any French port he pleases, marks of distinction probably due to the letter of the Queen of Sweden in his favour. Your Excellency will hear further particulars from himself.
Has received no communication this week, and consequently no supplies.
London, the 3rd October, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 4.
Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian. Archives.
165. To the Ambassador in France.
Owing to the offers made by Fleming and General Owen no arrangement can be made with General Preston about the Irish levy, or with any others before some positive reply has been received about the proposals from England. You will therefore direct Pauluzzi to obtain a precise decision from Fleming at once, telling him that the republic has other offers from France but that the Senate is unwilling to decide until it has heard the intentions of the government. If the negotiations in London do not offer hopes of a successful issue you will arrange with Preston for a levy of 1000 men on the terms enclosed. The offer of Ralph Isup made to Pauluzzi and forwarded on the 6th ult. must be dropped as his demands are excessive.
Ayes, 108. Noes, 1. Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Oct. 10.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
166. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 6)
I have little to report as I have not had audience yet. Throughout the week the Council of State has held frequent secret sittings largely on account of recent domestic events, as the government hopes by vigilance and assiduity to check that civil strife which is both feared and anticipated. Chiefly for this reason the number of troops in London and the suburbs increases, patrols of horse and foot perambulate the city by day and night, as an additional curb on the populace, and the Council of State has issued an order, confirmed by parliament, prohibiting all conventicles and meetings, either in or out of London. Spies have been set to watch any infringement of this edict ; but however cloudy the political horizon may appear here, the strength and vigour of the government are such that the people resign, themselves to silence and long-suffering. It is very evident that so long as harmony prevails among the members of the Council of State and that body commands with the strong arm of the military which supports it, the threatening storm will scarcely burst, unless other incidents arise on the sudden to change the present state of affairs.
With scant indication of peace with Holland and as, under favour of the late storm the Dutch have put to sea with 50 men of war, conferring the post of the late General Tromp on a very experienced naval officer, who will take command of the fleet with another squadron, (fn. 7) the government here is more intent than ever on strengthening the navy. On the other hand, owing to the time of year and also by order of Gen. Monch who has come over to give his advice, a good part of the English ships, most in need of repair, have withdrawn into the Thames. The main body of the fleet remains near Yarmouth, and only 30 of the best frigates continue to cruise along the Dutch coast, where they are to be joined by others, to make prizes and dispute the enemy's return. Here they are very confident that however costly the continuation of the war may prove to England, the Dutch find it equally so, and if a monthly outlay of 120,000l. sterling is incurred here for the maintenance of the navy alone, the burden will fall even more heavily on the United Provinces because they have lost in addition the profits of this year's herring fishery.
Meanwhile in order to improve matters and to cultivate the goodwill of Sweden the ambassador extraordinary already appointed has just received his instructions in great haste. I learn through a confidential channel that he is charged, if the war with Holland continues, to effect a close alliance with that Crown, though the difficulty of a passage by sea may possibly delay his departure longer than is desired.
The envoy from the Swiss Protestant Cantons, after a lengthy stay here, to offer the mediation of his masters with Holland, is now about to depart, without having effected anything, and has been pressing for some time for a mere audience of leave.
Tranquillity seems to be restored in Scotland and Ireland and the government hope that the winter season may stop all further insurrection for this year. In the mean time they will leave nothing untried to reduce the inhabitants of both countries to due submission and obedience.
Acknowledges letter of the 27th ult. and 4th inst. and receipt of 1000 livres Tournois.
London, the 10th October, 1653.
Postcript :—As I was about to seal the above I received an intimation that I am to see the deputies of the Council of State at 4 o'clock to-morrow afternoon.
[Italian : the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 17.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
167. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 8)
Last Friday at the appointed hour (fn. 9) I went to Whitehall and after some delay Sir [Oliver] Fleming came to say that the councillors appointed to hear me would be there directly. They came and followed me into another room, the Master of the Ceremonies not being present, as on former occasions, which proves the truth of what I reported about him. A chair was placed for me opposite where the councillors sat, and all being covered, I set forth my commissions, precisely as instructed. I spoke of the desire of the Senate to establish and increase good relations between the two republics, for which they would appoint a Resident or even an ambassador, as the Council might prefer, if assured of reciprocity. I asked for a reply in writing, and took the opportunity to request that the ambassador now starting for Constantinople might be charged to favour the interests of Venice, and so aid the cause of Christendom against the common enemy. I expressed the hope of a speedy reply to transmit to the Senate. I then, as usual, gave them a paper in Italian and English, with the substance of my remarks. This was read and discussed in my presence and the senior councillor told me they would acquaint the Council of State with it. I took leave without further reply and they accompanied me to the door. Nothing remains for me now but to wait for the answer. If it is delayed, as usual here, I shall not fail to make enquiries, as both repetition and patience are needed to settle anything with this government. Indeed, the most experienced diplomatists are obliged as it were to go to school when treating with the ministers now in office here, who are both inexpert and unused to affairs, in short, utterly raw.
At sea things seem quiet. The Dutch fleet is towards Denmark and Norway in order to convoy some of their merchantmen back to Holland. The English with 50 good ships are between this country and Holland, cruising up and down according to the intelligence they receive and watching for the return of the enemy. As both parties remain out it is possible the year may close with another naval engagement. This is anticipated if they chance to meet.
Several Hamburg and Lubeck ships which fell in with the parliament squadron, have been brought into English ports, freighted with ammunition, military stores and material for ship building. The new ships which I reported on the stocks make rapid progress every week and three of them, mounting 70 to 80 guns are nearly completed.
Nothing more is said about peace, though the two Dutch commissioners still remain here and lately effected an exchange of 200 Dutch prisoners for an equal number of English, confined in Holland.
Although the Highlanders and insurgents in Scotland have been driven back they make occasional forays, doing as much mischief as possible. In spite of the efforts of the military to keep them in the mountains a firm belief prevails that the Scots will scarcely adapt themselves to the present government unless compelled by main force to tender that allegiance which is considered indispensable here, though the press of business does not allow the compulsion required to attain it.
I have just heard that the minister for Constantinople, availing himself of a large ship bound for the Levant, has left with letters from parliament for the Grand Turk and the Chief Vizier. (fn. 10) He is to cause the dismissal of the minister now at the Porte, accredited by the late king. So far as I can gather these letters announce the loving disposition of the government and its wish to cultivate friendship and intercourse with Turkey, adding that as soon as possible they mean to send another person of rank with credentials to act as ambassador. I shall keep on the watch for anything that may be done.
Encloses accounts for September.
London, the 17th October, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 23.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
168. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 11)
The delay in getting a reply from the Council of State I share with the ministers of Spain and Sweden as well as M. de Bordeaux. The last may have to wait longest because from the first his proposals were considered insincere, an opinion which has gained ground owing to the dilatory nature of his negotiations, and consequently the ill-will towards France seems to augment. The envoy of the Swiss Protestants has only just obtained his audience to take leave, and he was unable to get any reply to the letter he delivered in spite of his long stay here. With the government so bent on procrastination ministers have no resource but patience.
The negotiations with the Dutch are at a standstill. There was talk the other day of sending an express to the Hague with some fresh proposal, but after the matter had been discussed in council, it was abandoned. It is also reported that the two commissioners are coming back to London with fuller powers and that the English will give up their stiff claims to a special alliance. But all is indefinite, the only certain fact I can report is that if an adjustment is made they will strain every nerve here to compass a secret understanding with the Province of Holland, the one which made a separate application for peace, and thus the English will try, if possible, to foment the dissensions between the Provinces, especially as the actual president of the Council of the States is a native of Holland. (fn. 12) As he will remain in office for a month, according to custom, something important may be expected in that period.
Some of the parliament cruisers have fallen in with three large and richly freighted Dutchmen bound from St. Malo in Brittany for Spain, with linen of every description. They are valued at over 300,000l. sterling and it is expected that both ships and cargoes will be condemned. This is likely to make more trouble as the policy here is first to seize everything possible and discuss its release afterwards ; and even when this is admitted to be just it is not always effected, while promises are tardily fulfilled, the delay always favouring the captors.
200,000l. has been demanded of the city of London in aid of the government, but the Common Council shows no inclination to take up the proposal alleging with good reason the extraordinary assessments already imposed and the stagnation of trade. So the Council of State has deemed it expedient not to resort to violent measures for the moment, and will wait for some more pressing emergency. If the war with Holland goes on this cannot long be delayed and may compel the adoption of force, the only guide of all the acts of this commonwealth, whether at home or abroad.
Just when the ambassador to Sweden was expected to be starting he has been stopped by some members of the government who insist first on the examination of all the decrees passed by him as a civil judge, as he was one of the leading members of the late parliament entrusted with two others with the entire civil judicature of England, (fn. 13) against which many complaints are raised. Before he goes some of the administration wish certain awards to be explained, either for the relief of petitioners or perhaps with a view to appoint some one in his stead. This proves disagreement in the Council of State where I know that dissension increases daily both from interested personal motives and from conflicting political opinions, as well as on the score of religion, which becomes more and more confused, and taken with other evil tendencies may one day or other easily produce considerable changes here.
In consequence of the seditious libels on Cromwell I reported, several printers of this city have been imprisoned in separate cells for the better and more easy discovery of the truth.
The city has appointed its new Lord Mayor, a man of fair fame, extremely wealthy and well affected to the government. (fn. 14) Parliament has confirmed the nomination and according to custom he will in a few days take the oath of allegiance and be installed in office.
General Blach has appeared lately in parliament to take the seat assigned to him at its convocation. The Speaker returned him profuse thanks, extolling his merits for the transcendent service rendered by him as General of the Fleet.
Acknowledges letters of the 18th inst.
London, the 23rd October, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
169. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to the same.
The distinguished officers named in the attached sheet have presented themselves to me on the strength of the accompanying letter of Fribart, the Lieut.-Gen. of Ireland in consequence of reports that Venice might wish to raise levies here to use against Ottoman perfidy. They asked if I had any instructions and if they could offer themselves in so Christian a cause. I told them my duty was to listen to whatever might help the state, upon which they expressed their wish to enter the service of the most serene republic, as they had some military experience both out of England and in it during the late civil wars, and wished to turn this to account in the service of the Signory and to avail themselves of the permission to levy Irishmen in favour of Venice in preference to any other power. I said the Senate would appreciate their goodwill and promised to forward their proposals They said they felt sure the terms would be accepted as they were so advantageous, and their personal sacrifice would be received as a mark of respect. Two days later they brought me the enclosed papers relying on the hope of a speedy reply. They expressed their devotion to the republic and their zeal for the Christian religion, seeing that as Catholics their sympathies were cordially enlisted under the banner of St. Mark.
London, the 23rd October, 1653
[Italian.]
Enclosure. 170. Propositions offered to the Resident of Venice, this 10th October, 1653, by Colonels Charles Goring, Sir Herbert Lunsford and Charles Finch.
1. Undertake to raise, ship and transport 5000 Irish to any convenient place in Venetian territory.
2. Expect 11l. sterling for every man so raised etc.
3. Half the money to be paid in advance, upon sureties.
4. The republic to give surety for the rest.
5. All hazards, losses and casualties at sea to be upon the account of the republic.
6. The republic to appoint a commissioner in Ireland to see the numbers shipped and that they are serviceable men.
7. Good quarters shall be provided for the men at the rendezvous.
8. A company shall muster at 40 and a regiment at 400.
9. Each officer and man shall receive two months' advance on landing.
10. At the first muster the common soldiers and uncommissioned officers shall be clothed and armed at the charge of the republic.
11. Desire the whole levy to be put into 3 or 4 regiments, of which they shall have the command and disposal, with blank commissions for officers.
12. If their numbers decrease in service, so as to lose the form of regiments, they shall be recruited at the same rate either with Irish or other strangers, not under the dominion of the republic.
13. The regiments shall stand for 6 years at least.
14. If the republic has peace before, they shall keep the colonel's company in pay and give pensions to the field officers.
15. Officers and men to have two months' pay on disbanding.
During the service officers and men shall have the same pay and entertainment and be in the same condition as other strangers are in the service.
Ambitious to serve on these terms.
Signed : Charles Goring etc.
[English.]
171. Copy of letter of the Lord Deputy Fleetwood to Sir Herbert Lunsford.
Promise that he and Colonel Cooke shall have 5000 Irish instead of the 3000 they petitioned for, in confidence that they will keep their engagement not to do anything prejudicial to the state ; only let him make his terms with any in amity with the state.
From Syon House, the 24th August, 1652.
Charles Fleetwood.
[English.]
Oct. 30.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
172. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 15)
Last Tuesday Sir [Oliver] Fleming brought me the enclosed letter to the Senate which he had since last week. He had waited in the hope of bringing me some reply to my last communication but it was prevented by the numerous and important affairs occupying the attention of the government. He assured me that for more than a month the Council of State had transacted no business with the foreign ministers here. Everyone complained and expected answers, but he did not know what to do. I said I felt sure the ministry here would reciprocate the friendly sentiments of the Signory, if tardily. He then said that he had been charged to ask that the letter might be delivered immediately. The commonwealth anticipated a speedy compliance seeing that in 1645 England obtained a similar favour on the mere demand of parliament, and they expected equal or greater courtesy now when the power and absolute authority of parliament enabled it to reciprocate any friendly action.
I promised to send the missive at once and could assure them of the desire of the republic to give them every satisfaction. When he took leave I asked him in confidence what hope there was of peace with Holland. He replied thus : I fancy it will come. The other two commissioners are expected back with fresh instructions and you may have some good news to report before long. I thanked him and said the Senate would rejoice at anything that might redound to the prosperity of the commonwealth, and so we parted.
Fleming deliverd the missive in the same manner as on former occasions, but the consideration he enjoyed with the present government is on the wane as well as the voice he had in all the most important matters. He is very intelligent, expert in affairs and enjoys the confidence of all the foreign ministers, but this has aroused so much jealousy and mistrust that he is at present in dudgeon rather than satisfied with those in control, who may indeed be said for the most part to lack the qualifications required for the direction of such a vast machine as this commonwealth. So it is no wonder that the administration moves slowly and irregularly and so little to the public satisfaction as to induce a wish for change. This is already foretold and might come at latest on the expiration of this parliament and the summoning of its successor. That is to meet in a few months and may be expected to bring great changes, as the general disappointment with the parliament now sitting may make the people clamorous with the next one, unless the fear of the military perpetuates submission.
Since the publication of the libels on Cromwell reported, other seditious pamphlets have appeared attacking the government, reminding the people of the extraordinary taxation to which they are subjected, and asserting that the object of their rulers is to despoil them of the best of their property and eventually destroy their ancient privileges. These prints were suppressed as speedily as possible and great efforts are being made to discover the authors.
Besides the obstacles to the departure of the Ambassador Extraordinary for Sweden, private letters from that country and Holland in general circulation say that he is threatened with the same fate that befell the parliament's ministers in Holland and Spain, who were murdered. This perplexes the government, as even if they decided to give him a good escort that would be no guarantee against murder. This consideration induces caution and it will always render this government very cautious in sending envoys to foreign Courts, and they might not bind themselves to return embassies in order to avoid such disasters as might befall them in conspicuous capitals. I shall probably not be wrong in saying that they may not respond so readily as might be wished to the most serene republic, a conclusion I have formed in great measure from their delay in answering my last announcement.
Besides the rich prizes I reported nothing has arrived from the fleet this week, except such ships as enter the Thames daily to repair the damage of war or weather. Some 35 or 40 of the best ships remain on the Dutch coast, some to watch the return of the enemy and others to make prizes.
The king of Denmark, though pledged to the Dutch, seems to be dealing very leniently with such English ships as approach those waters, with a view to mitigate the wrath of the commonwealth and facilitate an adjustment for himself also in case the United Provinces make their peace.
Last Sunday, a day observed here with devotion and the utmost reserve, a riot took place in St. Paul's cathedral to the consternation of all present. Among the various sects, of which more than fifty may now be counted in England, that of the Anabaptists which at present numbers many proselytes, had a place assigned it there for preaching purposes, by reason of the size of the building. On Sundays the Lord Mayor and aldermen also attend service in the choir of the church, and on the day in question a considerable mob of apprentices appeared there on a sudden to oust the Anabaptists, whose preacher they began to insult. His followers took his part, but though the military were called in and quelled the tumult, some were killed and others maimed. Guards have been posted to prevent the recurrence of such scenes. This broil took place on the 16th October, old style, the very day designated in the libel on Gen. Cromwell. (fn. 16) The coincidence has caused added anxiety to the Council of State and the city authorities, so on the same night numerous patrols of horse and foot were in motion, and from this circumstance sensible men infer that the confusion of creeds and the general dissatisfaction with the government caused by the extraordinary taxation and stagnation of trade, due to the present war, may produce even more startling events, as I have already hinted.
Acknowledges letters of the 25th inst.
London, the 30th October, 1653.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Possibly Col. Hugh O'Neill, sometime governor of Limerick, for whom, in March, 1653, the Spanish ambassador asked licence to transport 5,000 Irish, Dunlop : Ireland under the Commonwealth, Vol. ii., page 323.
2 This and the following letter forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 14th October.
3 "A Charge of High Treason" circulated on 14-24 September. See Gardiner: Commonwealth and Protectorate, ii., page 303. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1653-4, page 151.
4 Lt.-Col. Joyce.
5 The Elizabeth, Capt. Christopher Myngs. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1653-4, page 186.
6 Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 21st.
7 Jacques de Wassenar, sieur d' Opdam.
8 Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 28th.
9 Friday, n.s., would be the 10th. According to the Council of State proceedings Pauluzzi gave in his papers on 29th Sept., o.s., a Thursday. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1653-4, page 173.
10 The letter to the Sultan was dated 31st August ; Lawrence's instructions the 13th September, o.s. S.P. For. Archives, Vol. 144, pp. 104, 113-7.
11 This and the following letter forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 4th November.
12 John de Witt, who was born at Dordrecht.
13 He was one of the three commissioners of the great seal.
14 Thomas Viner, of the Goldsmiths' Company. He was approved by parliament on the 8-18 October. Whitelock : Memorials (1682), page 547.
15 Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 11th November.
16 "A Charge of High Treason." See at page 132 above. Bordeaux makes light of the affair : Le jour d'hier auquel le peuple estoit convié à un soulevement s'est passé sans autre rumeur que de quelques apprentis qui veulent faire des hurras à l'entrée du temple des Anabaptistes ... establi à l'eglise de St. Paul ... les soldats les repoussaient et cette petite rumeur n'a point eu de suite. Bordeaux to Brienne, 27th October. P.R.O. Paris Transcripts. The rioters were dealt with leniently. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1653-4, page 205.