247. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 1)
Last Sunday evening when expectation was at its height,
the treaty of peace arrived from Holland with the signatures
of the States General, who transmitted it with all pomp and
ceremony, much to the satisfaction of the Protector and everybody.
Subsequently there was a talk of its being proclaimed
immediately, though now it seems this step is delayed for some
days. I cannot explain why, the only fact which has transpired
as yet is that after the Protector signed the document was sent
back to Holland, some say for the elucidation of a clause which
lacked the signature of one of the minor provinces. Others
consider it due to a wish to proclaim the peace simultaneously
here and on the other side. There is certainly some hitch, though
it is expected to be removed at once. The affair is now considered
settled. Besides gratifying the whole nation it will seat Cromwell
more firmly in command and leave them free here to employ
their forces abroad or at home, wherever most needed or most to
their fancy. Everyone is watching to see what will happen.
Meanwhile it is generally reported here and I have heard it
from a confidant, that a squadron of 20 war ships and more,
ready for anywhere, is destined by Cromwell for the Mediterranean,
chiefly with a view to aid Christendom and consequently
it will be useful to Venice. I was assured of this yesterday and
that his Highness had confided the command of the expedition
to General Blach, who will gladly accept it, provided always that
the peace with Holland is confirmed. The chief motive for this
decision is said to be the capture of a valuable English ship by
the Tunis or Algerine corsairs, (fn. 2) and because these barbarians
hold great numbers of Christian slaves. The English probably
mean after indemnifying themselves for all losses, to demand the
release of the ship and free trade for the British flag. If refused
they will promptly appeal to force in which case they might very
likely wish for an understanding with the Venetian fleet. Of
course I support these projects warmly, and I can only pray God
that their deeds may match their words.
In this uncertain state of affairs I must observe that it is
considered strange there should be so much delay and reserve
about the delivery of a special message and letter from the state
after my congratulations to the Protector on his accession,
following the example of all the other foreign ministers. To
certain hints I reply that the compliment is sure to be paid, but
a letter from the doge in the full tide of the Protector's supremacy
would have gratified him and could not fail to benefit the state.
I have already given the form of address and only await instructions.
The Swedish envoy presented a letter of congratulation from
the queen the other day. To assert his claim to be treated as
Resident he covered himself whenever Cromwell did so, and I
have been assured that the Master of the Ceremonies twice
snatched his hat from his head, a thing remarked and condemned
by all present.
Whitelocke is recalled, his mission having proved fruitless.
The queen's decision to abdicate excites much comment here.
They suspect some secret motives and opinion is divided. They
are waiting with curiosity to see whether she means to go on her
travels or has some great matrimonial project to the advantage
of the House of Stuart.
The Duke of Guelders has had an agent here some time, who
was recently acknowledged and had audience. He offered
congratulations and added that the duke had been unjustly and
violently robbed of his territories, and appealed to his Highness,
whose glory would be increased by restoring an oppressed potentate. (fn. 3)
Cromwell merely answered in general terms and will not
give the matter another thought, as the arguments are not such
as influence him. He has also received the compliments of an
envoy from the Duke of Courland, and so with congratulations
and audiences and other attributes of sovereignty his despotic
rule becomes more and more confirmed.
The desire of France for an adjustment by appointing M. de
Bordeaux ambassador, only seems to increase acts of aggression
at sea. English men of war have recently had an engagement
with some ships of Brittany, capturing several of them. The
French undoubtedly had the worst of it, and from such incidents
it would appear that the misunderstanding between the two
countries is likely to increase rather than diminish.
Gen. Monch is supposed to have arrived in Scotland by this
time, and through him and the fresh reinforcements they hope
to master the insurgents, although these are encouraged both by
the popular feeling and also by the recent advantages they have
gained over the government forces.
London, the 1st May. 1654.
248. Nicolo Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to
the Doge and Senate.
The pope, in speaking of England, said he knew that powerful
English forces were being assembled to take revenge on France
for the reprisals on their ships. They would then send a squadron
to the Mediterranean to take revenge on the Grand Duke for the
wrongs they claimed he had done to the English. I expressed
surprise and said I thought that Cromuel had too many enemies
at home to send his forces so far away. At the same time I
referred to the danger arising from the naval weakness of Italy.
The pope agreed saying, He who is master of the sea makes
himself lord of the land as well. It has been so in the past and
always will be ; but he did not go on with the conversation.
Rome, the 2nd May, 1654.
249. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
800 English infantry of the 1500 given by Cromwell to the
Prince of Condé have landed in Flanders, and the Prince hopes
to take the field very soon and anticipate the enemy.
The English fleet of over 100 sail, when cruising in sight of the
island of St. Malo came upon a squadron of 12 French merchantmen,
laden with various merchandise, which were at once
captured without being able to offer any defence. The people of
St. Malo, injured by this loss and by similar reprisals, rose in
arms with the intention of massacring all the English in the place ;
but the governor aided by the garrison succeeded in quelling the
tumult, observing that if they did as they wished the English
would murder every Frenchman in Great Britain. (fn. 4) These
proceedings of England after receiving the French ambassador
prove that although she does not show open enmity to France
she dislikes her exceedingly, and is secretly agreed with the
Spaniards to harass this crown if not to attack it openly, and thus
thwart its projects.
Your Excellencies will note Paulucci's hint about Cromwell's
intention to send a strong squadron into the Mediterranean.
God grant that the real object be what he pretends, to attack
the Turk, though it does not seem to me to be the right way.
Here they believe that one of its objects is to prevent the projects
of the French fleet, the preparations for which though slow, still
countenance the report that it will be commanded by the Duke
of Guise, with the intention of making some sudden attack on the
Spanish possessions in Italy.
Paris, the 5th May, 1654.
250. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 5)
The mutual desire for an adjustment has prevailed over every
other consideration and at length brought about peace between
England and the United Provinces without any clause providing
for an offensive and defensive alliance, as was once projected.
Thus yesterday the 26th April by this style it was solemnly
proclaimed at the principal thoroughfares of this city in the
presence of the Lord Mayor and aldermen, who announced it as
in the accompanying print, attended by a company of horse,
two heralds and ten trumpeters. The event excited universal
acclamation though not the faintest shout was raised for the Protector,
for the higher he ascends and the more absolute his sway the greater
the odium he draws down on himself and the larger the number of his
enemies. Yet he considers his position strengthened by this treaty
and it is reported he will now assume another title and passing over
the title of king, though it is only unpopular with a small part of the
community, style himself Emperor of Great Britain, though this
may be deferred until the meeting of parliament, which will take
place mainly for the purpose.
The important affair of the peace being now settled it remains
to be seen what employment will be given to their forces here.
Some say they may turn against Portugal by an understanding
with Spain and with the United Provinces against France, as the
incessant reprisals cause increasing exasperation. They still say
that a third squadron will enter the Mediterranean, to clear it of
pirates and overawe several powers, notably the Turks, but I
suspect that this expedition, though the first to be spoken of may
be realised last because of the strong opposition of the Levant
Company to measures which, however desirable for the Venetian
cause could not fail to interfere with their trade by irritating
the Turks. The considerable forces originally destined against
the Dutch will undoubtedly be employed somewhere, as the
Protector's interests demand this and it is good policy. It is
considered at variance with this to remove it any great distance
from the main body of the fleet especially as men now say that
the peace with the United Provinces cannot last and that circumstances
may arise capable of producing a fresh rupture instantly,
especially in the event of open war with France, when the Dutch
would certainly dispute the right of search for French property,
which England will try to assert over their ships, as she did
recently with everyone else in the search for Dutch goods. Meanwhile
the Dutch will take this opportunity to strengthen their
merchant navy, sending out their merchant fleets to the Indies and
elsewhere and awaiting returns. They will also turn to the
herring fishery, now near at hand, and which is likely to prove
very lucrative this season, as it has been abandoned for three
Such is the general talk here in London, where it is also asserted
that the articles of this peace, however honourable for the United
Provinces, shed scant glory on England. Should I obtain the
actual terms I will forward them, but I suspect that the most
important items will be kept very secret. Those concerning
Denmark have been seen however. In substance they are the
payment of an indemnity to the English for the seizure of their
ships and merchandise, 10,000l. sterling at once ; the total amount
to be estimated by arbitrators already named. Until their award
the Dutch give security on behalf of Denmark for 140,000l. which
has already been done, I understand.
The war with Holland being thus ended the Protector will now
apply all his energies to put down civil strife in Scotland, where
the numbers of the insurgents increase, their courage being
raised by successes which cause great anxiety to the government.
A suspicion prevails that the flame is fed with fuel from abroad as
well as from home. The proceedings of Sweden, who is ill pleased
with England, increase the belief in foreign interference. Among
the measures adopted by Cromwell to remedy this evil is a
promise of pardon to all the Scottish rebels and their adherents.
In addition the two kingdoms and their arms are to be united.
But so far these measures seem to have done little good and even
when coupled with others to be taken later for the benefit of the
Scots they will prove less effective than a decisive battle, which
by at once destroying the royalists or rendering them paramount
would settle a question which depends solely upon victory or
defeat in war.
All the foreign ministers are expected to congratulate Cromwell
on the peace with Holland. Although I know that the ambassadors
of Spain and France will be in no hurry to perform this
office, except as a matter of form, since it is relished by neither
Spain nor France, I propose to do so promptly, as it must do good
and the peace is advantageous for the Signory while it may lessen
the resentment caused by the lack of any letter to the Protector
and other omissions. I shall also congratulate the Dutch
Acknowledges letters with expressions of the State's satisfaction
with his labours, and the provision of 1000 francs.
London, the 8th May, 1654.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
251. Proclamation of the Peace with the United Provinces.
Given at Whitehall, the 26th April, 1654. (fn. 6)
[English ; printed.]
252. To the Ambassador at the Most Christian Court.
To confirm the public satisfaction with Pauluzzi. He has
already received clear instructions about the Irish levy. With
regard to the ship Guardian Angel, the ambassador will refer to
the instructions sent on the 11th ult.
Ayes, 110. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
253. To the Ambassador at the Most Christian Court.
Acknowledge receipt of Pauluzzi's letters. Observe that the
peace with the Dutch is on the point of being confirmed. In that
case the Senate is sure that he will not forget to intimate, as he
has done before, the glory which may be won by those forces, in
the act of disbanding, if they should be diverted to go and fight
for the Faith, so menaced by the barbarians. The ambassador
will perform the same office with the Dutch ambassador at Paris.
Ayes, 129. Noes, 1. Neutral, 3.
254. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 7)
Since the publication of the peace they have spent most of the
time here in celebrating it. Although it did not win the Protector
the applause he expected, he has shown his personal
satisfaction at the result which concerns him more than any one
since it favours his present position and future projects. So he
gave the Dutch ambassadors a most sumptuous banquet, assuring
them of his desire to promote friendship and good relations
between the two countries. The ambassadors replied in similar
strain and so the whole of Monday last was passed in rejoicing and
great outward satisfaction. But subsequent events show that,
as usual, fair and foul fortune go hand in hand for on the morrow
news arrived of a great defeat inflicted by the royalists on the
whole government army. The insurgents made a number of
prisoners and left many of their opponents dead on the field,
among them Gen. Monch, according to report though that is
uncertain. (fn. 8) What aggravates the mischief and agitates Cromwell
is the intelligence that some of the officers and men sent as
reinforcements have joined the enemy, who gain strength daily.
To remedy this serious evil strong and immediate measures are
required, but their adoption is another source of anxiety, as the
Protector is aware that among his veterans, although well paid,
there are many who cannot be entirely trusted, and that to send
them to Scotland might serve to strengthen the other side instead
of the reverse. So he finds himself in a dilemma, fearing that the
remedy may increase the disease. Here in London the general
feeling favours the Scottish insurgents, in the hope that they will
put some limit to Cromwell's authority and change the present state
of affairs. That is what the majority here look for and desire,
for the rancour against the Protector personally increases steadily
in spite of the peace with Holland. This is evident from the libels
which are posted all about and also from such epithets as "Promise
breaker," "Usurper" and Tyrant." He is also aware that his own
rise was as sudden as the fall of the late king, so he is determined
to prevent the Protectorate from sharing the fate of the monarchy,
by ruling as he does, though it seems impossible for things to go on as
they are, when every one expects and desires a change which must
come at last, even if delayed.
Nothing certain is yet heard about the destination of the fleet,
though it is still reported that a squadron will go into the Mediterranean.
Although the disbanding of some merchantmen has
reduced its numbers, yet it counts 70 sail, which at times show
themselves off Rochelle and at others are hereabouts causing
alarm to their neighbours. If affairs in Scotland take a turn
for the worse, it will be even more unlikely to go far away from
these shores, so that it may be ready for any emergency and
that it may serve to prevent any intelligence and quench any
hopes that the Scots may have abroad, where there seems increasing
reason for suspicion of Sweden, a country that under favourable
conditions the fleet might reach any day they pleased, speaking
Fresh levies of both horse and foot have been raised to supply
the vacancies caused by the drafts from the old regiments for
Scotland, as Cromwell feels the necessity of having a considerable
force always ready in the neighbourhood of London to back his
assumption of a higher title. This must be delayed some while
if he means to wait for the meeting of parliament, though men still
say that if it is summoned at all it will be for this purpose
The enclosed resolution of the Council of State was delivered to
me recently by order of his Highness, touching the slavery of an
English Captain. The officer who brought it expressed the
Protector's wish for its immediate transmission, which I promised.
He said the Protector would anxiously await the Senate's decree
for the relief of an infirm parent, who would fain hear of the
release of his son from Turkish slavery, ere death overtake
The Agent of the Duke of Guelders has visited all the
foreign ministers including myself, when we exchanged compliments.
London, the 16th May, 1654.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
255. Friday, the 14th April, 1654. (fn. 9)
At the Council at Whitehall.
To recommend to the Agent of Venice the case of Thomas
Gallilee, master of the ship Relief for obtaining his release and
satisfaction of what is due to him, as his father Thomas Gallilee,
merchant of London, has petitioned, showing that the ship was
lost when in the employ of Venice and the captain taken by the
Turks after a gallant defence. He is now a slave with them and
cannot be released without a great sum of money which the
petitioner cannot procure without satisfaction from Venice of
what is due for that ship's service, alleged to be 4177l. 9s. 6d.
sterling, besides 1600l. the value of the ship and 1500l. sterling
in dollars and provisions aboard.
W. Jessop, clerk of the Council.
256. Giovanni Ambrosio Sarotti, Venetian Resident at
Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The Court is pleased at the news of the signing of peace between
England and Holland. At the same time the news that the
Protector Cromuel is having his powerful fleet provisioned with
victuals for six months affords them material for reflection, and
there is no lack of comment and suspicion between the partisans
of the French and Spanish factions, into which this Court is
Florence, the 16th May, 1654.
257. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The capture of the 12 ships off St. Malo rendered the Court
apprehensive of worse mischief, but the French ministers in
London give hopes that there will be no landings or attacks on
fortresses by the English, but only acts of piracy and plunder
on ships, on account, Cromwell says, of 20 millions due from
France for goods and ships, taken during the civil wars. So the
Cardinal, who does not much mind the ill will of England when it
only affects private fortunes, has somewhat relaxed the energy
which induced him to send troops to defend the coast fortresses,
and all his efforts are directed against the Spaniards.
The army for Piedmont is on the road. It is likely to be less
than 10,000 men, including the troops of Savoy, but liable to be
increased in proportion as all doubts concerning England are
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Paris, the 17th May, 1654.
258. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to
the Doge and Senate.
Reports come in from every quarter of the conclusion of peace
between the republics of Holland and England. The decision
taken by the government here has occasioned considerable remark,
in sending 50,000 crowns to the Ambassador Cardenas in London
and in making arrangements with great diligence for the provision
of 250,000 more for the same purpose.
Madrid, the 20th May, 1654.
259. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 10)
Gen. Monch's letters from Scotland, although they disprove the
report of his death, confirm the strength of the royalists and their
recent victory. As he demands immediate reinforcements and
money the Protector and his Council have been busy in providing
him with both. Some of the most willing troops are again
marched in that direction including certain picked companies of
infantry, the staunchest to the present government. Yet the
measure excites apprehension lest they change sides on arriving
there. The anxiety of Cromwell on this score is intense, as he
perceives that the insurgent Scots cannot be gained or even
weakened by lenience. The general promises to exert himself
body and soul for their subjection, but however determined he
may be his task is considered difficult and perilous as he has to
cope with a strong party encouraged by success and well
acquainted with the country, which is friendly to it. Meanwhile
news is awaited with fear and trembling, for I may assure your
Excellency that if Cromwell is harried by events in Scotland, in
England things become daily more serious for him. He is unpopular
with the Londoners, the abuse lavished on him personally is all but
universal, and by many of the military as wellas others his assumption
of absolute power is so resented that in the general opinion some very
important change must befall him ere long. Almost every one
remarks his pensive brow and even the members of his own family
disapprove of his present elevation, which can only last so long as he
is supported by the military, though by calling the new parliament
he pretends to be confirmed by the whole kingdom. To this end all
the members will be his own creatures ; and if any of the counties
persist with others who are not entirely in his confidence the meeting
will be deferred. Yet in spite of the exercise of his usual sagacity and
foresight in this a change is considered inevitable here.
General Pen came up from the fleet and has had many private
conferences with the Protector about its destination, which is a
greater secret than ever. All the ships now scattered in various
ports have been ordered to assemble in the Downs, so it is supposed
they will sail under sealed orders, to be opened and executed in
some specific place, though the general belief amid much impatience
is that the voyage will not extend to any great distance
from these shores.
The Protector and his Council become more and more satisfied
with the peace, which had become so necessary from the bad
state of domestic affairs. It is now known that the Dutch were
no less in need of it than the English, because of the hostilities
with which they were threatened by Portugal and also from the
dissensions between the lesser Provinces and Holland, which is
opposed to the House of Orange and, possibly in concert with
Cromwell, does everything to oppress it utterly. This may
possibly render the Dutch more liable to civil strife than of yore
and prove an additional reason for the individual province of
Holland to abide by the treaty with England.
Since the peace was arranged the Danish envoy has shown his
credentials and had audience to congratulate the Protector upon
it. He was received with every mark of honour and esteem.
The negotiations with France do not yet allow me to form any
positive opinion about, the result. France seems more anxious
for a good understanding than England, but as the mutual
reprisals at sea continue, hopes of an adjustment seem faint.
On the other hand the French proposals show the best possible
disposition and they may possibly induce England to employ her
fleet elsewhere than against the French crown, since it must
certainly receive some direction within a few days.
Acknowledges letters of the 10th which came with the state's
decision for him to remain at his post.
London, the 23rd May, 1654.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
260. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France,
to the Doge and Senate.
The deprivation of the House of Nassau of any share in the
government, by a secret article accepted by the Dutch delegates
in London, is opposed in many provinces by the Orange partisans,
by popular feeling and the recollection of the noble deeds of that
House. Popular clamour makes the government apprehensive
of some insurrection. The Orange cause is upheld by the province
of Zealand unanimously, by the troops and by the populace, and
with this support it is hoped that the article will be annulled.
Two English ships having landed 50 sailors flanked by 100
musketeers on the island of St. Michael, off Normandy, for the
purpose, according to their own account, of watering, but for
plunder according to the French, were repulsed by the natives,
who assembled at the sound of the tocsin, killing some and
capturing the rest, with their ships. (fn. 11) The Court declares that
the ships did not form part of Cromwell's fleet, but belonged to
corsairs, out for theft and booty. It will soon be known how
Cromwell takes the news, but many consider it certain that
unless affairs in Scotland interfere with his plans, he may seize
upon this pretext to break openly with France, as since the peace
with Holland he has a considerable weight of idle troops on hand
which might foment insurrection and civil war at home if not occupied
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Paris, the 26th May, 1654.
261. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to
the Doge and Senate.
I have received an offer of 4000 of his countrymen from Don
Christopher d'Ubrin, an Irishman. I thanked him but went
no further, being aware of the discredit that has fallen upon these
Irish goods (conoscendo quanto discredito sia caduto sopra tale
Reports of the conclusion of peace between the republics of England
and Holland grow in volume, to such an extent that with earnest
application they are digging deep into these profound mines of state
for illumination on some project introduced by the Ambassador
Cardenas in London to the Protector Cromuel offering him a million
crowns a year if he will break with France, allowing the Spaniards
to attack Portugal through the diversion caused thereby. They
undertake afterwards to assist and join with the English in the
conquest of Brazil. The truth is that their chief hopes, the whole
of their attention and that of all the Court are directed towards the
forces of England. Not a day passes but they publish what they
would like to be, and they employ every means to involve Cromuel in
a rupture with the crown of France.
Madrid, the 27th May, 1654.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
262. Iseppo Delfin, Captain of the Ships, to the Doge and
Account of the fight at the Castelli on the 14th April. The
Aquila d'Oro distinguished itself in the action. Being attacked
by several enemy ships it caught fire and was burned. A short
distance away towards Anatolia the Orsola Bonaventura was
attacked by two enemy ships. Though a small ship and imperfect
she won the more glory under her governor Molino and an English
captain, engaging the enemy vigorously and setting him on fire,
when, rather than surrender, he was burned.
The flagship, the 17th May, 1654.
263. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to
Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 12)
In spite of my immediate application for an audience, which
seemed the more necessary because of the report that a squadron
was going to the Mediterranean, I have not yet been able to
offer my congratulations on the peace. I attribute the Protector's
reserve to a desire to show his sense of the Signory's disinclination
to acknowledge him. So I have ceased to press the matter,
though I shall always be ready to obey any call, and I hope the
Senate will send orders calculated to remove the impression and
to encourage a good understanding.
It is still believed that a squadron will enter the Strait, though
the real object of the expedition is still a secret. But the ships
are being fitted out with all speed and every convenience for a
protracted voyage under a burning sun. The completion of other
men of war is also being hastened and the other day three large
60 gun frigates were launched. The Dutch are not understood
to be disarming yet and in spite of the peace it is suspected that
circumstances may arise on the sudden to break it, the more
easily because of the dissensions in the United Provinces over the
House of Orange. Holland, the most powerful of the Provinces,
is bent on the destruction of that family, an object which they
will always be ready to support here, indeed it is said that among
the secret articles of the treaty there is one for that purpose.
I had heard before that the Protector offered the two ambassadors
of the Province of Holland the support of 10,000 troops,
and so, if these dissensions take deeper root the fleet can scarcely
be sent to any great distance.
The belief here in a speedy change of government grows. It is
very evident that the disaffection of great and small and the increasing
strength of the opposition render the continuation of the Protectorate
more and more difficult, not to say impossible. The
Protector recently went to Hampton Court for two days, escorted by
his body guard, for relaxation from the cares which overwhelm him.
On this occasion, as previously, it was observed that the marks of
hatred and aversion lavished on him keep pace with his own assumption
News has come from Zerze, the place of imprisonment of
Colonel Lilburne a man of singular ability and opposed to the
present government, that in consequence of the discovery of some
manuscripts by him prejudicial to the Protectorate, he has been
put to death in prison, without further form of trial. An antidote
is thus applied to the bane which his pernicious ideas might
have produced upon the people, while at the same time Cromwell
is relieved from any further fear or mistrust of a suspicious
person, the open enemy of his supremacy and of the tranquillity
of the Commonwealth.
We hear to-day that 16 or 20 English men of war made a
landing in Lower Brittany at a port called Cancalo, with the
hope of considerable booty, but found the natives so well on their
guard that besides losing 20 men killed or captured, they also left
behind them two large ships, which were stranded at the ebb tide.
Such is the report here ; if confirmed it bears out what I said of
the ill will to France here and the hollowness of the negotiations for
an adjustment which merely serve to delay an issue inevitably bad.
Acknowledges letters of the 23rd inst., enclosing reply to appeal
London, the 29th May, 1654.
Postscript ;—No news of any sort has been received this week
from either Ireland or Scotland.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]