Venice
December 1658

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1931

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269-278

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'Venice: December 1658', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 31: 1657-1659 (1931), pp. 269-278. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90017 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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December 1658

Dec. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
246. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Although the posts have arrived from every quarter this week, including the letters which were missing a week ago, no news has come about the doings of the Swede in Denmark, and the government, which is most eager to hear, is filled with amazement. The twenty ships which they decided to send to the Baltic left the Downs a week ago, but when they had got some way out to sea they were obliged to return to avoid a fierce storm which sprang up suddenly. After some days the weather improved, and they put to sea again, news having come that they have been sighted some way out. But as the wind has not been entirely favourable to take them to their destination as quickly as they would desire, it is believed that they will have a great deal of trouble before they can reach the Sound. In the interval it is generally believed that the Dutch fleet will have accomplished its purpose and will be steering for home. The Ambassador Niuport himself told me yesterday that Admiral Opdam, who commands this fleet, has orders to return to winter in Holland after he has thrown the succour into Copenhagen and rendered some service to Denmark. As a further reinforcement for that monarch the Dutch were embarking 4000 more soldiers, who were to start as soon as the wind is favourable.
On the English ships in question went Sir [George] Aschiu, who is engaged to serve under the Swedish flag; also the Chevalier Duval, the Swedish envoy who came to London on purpose to perform the offices of condolence and congratulation. That done, he took leave and seized this opportunity to return to his master. He received from his Highness a ring with a diamond of no remarkable value.
Although the secrets of this government are inscrutable, yet from a knowledge of its nature one may guess at them without much difficulty. Before the decision to send succour to the Swede, they held long consultations in the Council of State at which it is believed they took the decision in question, not only by virtue of the affiance between the two powers, but for their own advantage and with the intention of getting a footing in those parts. It is said that the Swedes promise the English the Sound and the castle of Cronemburgh, situate on that passage. This is not so very unlikely, as it seems evident that they would not have decided upon this step without some advantage, especially at a time when they might hope for other profit if this fleet had gone to meet the gold fleet of Spain. There will no longer be time to send in that direction, as a great deal is required to equip enough ships for such an enterprise, and with money short the armament also will be defective. So it seems likely that the Spaniards will have a free and open passage to take their plate home.
If the castle in question and the Sound are handed over to the English, which seems to be beyond question, and with their possession of Mardich and Dunkirk in Flanders, there is no doubt that they will make every effort to gain a footing in Italy as well in view of the ambition they cherish to give the law to all the powers and to keep them all bridled and in constant alarm. Their proposal to reinforce the Mediterranean squadron leaves no escape from the conviction that they aspire to great things in our province also, for there is no doubt that in conjunction with the French they are contemplating great designs. If these are realised they will aim first at destroying the Dutch, who would no longer be able to navigate safely in the Ocean, the Baltic, or the Mediterranean, while such proximity could never be advantageous for the Italian princes and least of all to the State of the Church, against which the people here profess aversion and eternal hatred.
Sir [William] Locart recently arrived in London from his governorship of Dunkirk. At present they are discussing with him their plans for the coming campaign in Flanders, as he has experience in that province and knows what places can be conquered most easily. But if the fleet from the Indies succeeds in reaching Spain safely, the people there hope that in the coming year they will make good the disasters of this.
Everything being in order for the funeral of the late Protector, Tuesday was appointed for the function, which took place with the utmost pomp and state. A huge crowd of people gathered to watch the ceremony, and divers companies of infantry and many troops of horse were dispersed about at all the corners of the city, for safety's sake and to prevent any disturbances which might arise. The effigy of the late Protector, his actual body having been buried privately many weeks ago, was followed on foot from Somerset House to Westminster Church. It was borne on a car, wearing a crown on its head and holding the sceptre and orb in its hands, with every other token of royalty, and drawn by six magnificent horses superbly caparisoned. It now lies in state in the church in a prominent position, exposed to view for a certain time.
The Protector did not take part in the function, to which all the foreign ministers were invited, except Brandenburg and Courland. The ambassadors of France, Holland and Portugal were present, with the two ministers of Sweden, and those of Genoa, Holstein, Hamburg, Danzig and Bremen. Denmark, Florence and Venice were not present as they did not have a place assigned to them suitable to the dignity of their princes. It was claimed that the Swedish ministers, who do not bear a much higher character than the Dane or your Serenity's, should go with the ambassadors, and that the rest should all go together among more than 200 persons, who walked after the ambassadors, and among the titled persons of the country. This has never been done before, as in the memoirs of Finet, a former master of the ceremonies, they went before the barons, while now they want them to give way to all. Having heard of this beforehand and of the great distinction shown to the Swedes, Denmark decided not to go, and I also thought it best not to take part, to avoid creating an injurious precedent. I hope that my decision will not be condemned by the Senate. At the moment when the ambassadors were starting, the minister of the Most Christian objected to the ministers of Sweden going with them, threatening to withdraw, as they were not even residents, but only envoys. So to avoid confusion it was necessary to make an alteration on the spot, and this was done by getting the master of the ceremonies to walk between the ambassadors and the Swedes. He went with four other persons of the palace, all bareheaded, completely separating the two parties, but taking the place from all the titled persons of the realm. Genoa, Holstein and the others mentioned took a very low place, after all the titled persons, and it was observed that Genoa took a lower place than Holstein, although he has a much higher character, and that both gave way to Danzig, Bremen and Hamburg.
London, the 6th December, 1658.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
247. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The day before yesterday the Dutch Ambassador Niuport came to see me and informed me of the victory which it has pleased God to grant to the arms of his masters in the Baltic against the Swedish fleet. He told me he had letters from the Admiral Opdam from Copenhagen stating that besides throwing troops into the city he had succeeded in burning three Swedish ships, capturing three and sinking six, with the slaughter and capture of many men. On the Dutch side only one ship was lost, with the death of Vice-Admiral Weiten, who was struck by a musket ball in the left breast. (fn. 1) Another commander was killed as well as some soldiers and sailors of inferior rank. Opdam's own ship had suffered severely from the Swedish guns, nearly all its crew being killed. She was making six feet of water and was rendered unnavigable, so it was necessary to take her to Copenhagen for repairs, while the admiral transferred his flag to another vessel. The Swedes had taken refuge under the guns of Cronomburgh castle, watching the proceedings of the Dutch. These intended to go and destroy 24 vessels which had taken cover at Landscroune, and hoped that the enterprise would not prove difficult. They expected to hear of it at the Hague any day. In addition to this news he told me that the States had not been moved to assist Denmark for any advantage to themselves, but solely in virtue of agreements already made with that monarch, renewed in more ample form a few years after the original treaty. In proof of this he said that the States had ordered Opdam to surrender to the Dane all the prisoners taken and all the ships captured, leaving it to that monarch's descretion to take into consideration the losses of the Dutch fleet and to remunerate them as he thought proper. Meanwhile that king has written to the Hague a courteous letter full of thanks and appreciation of the considerable reinforcement received from the States, without which he was in serious peril. The ambassador asked me to convey all these particulars to the Senate, while I did not fail to respond suitably to his courteous communication.
Although the ambassador publishes this news by virtue of his orders, and on the strength of Admiral Opdam's own letters, the ministers of Sweden here deny it altogether and claim the victory for their side, with a thousand inventions devised to raise the credit and interests of their master. Meanwhile they lament that the wind, which has been persistently contrary, has prevented the English ships, which recently left for the Baltic to help the Swede, from proceeding as speedily as they would wish, and they are very apprehensive that this delay may lead to some serious disadvantage to their enterprise. Accordingly, they are waiting with impatience for some news from the spot where that squadron is, no report having arrived from it since the first one of its having been sighted well out to sea; but as the wind has never been favourable since then it is supposed that it will not have got much further.
It seems that Sir [William] Locart, who recently returned to Court, did not give the Protector an entirely favourable account of Cardinal Mazarini. He said that in spite of the promise to pay the garrison of Dunkirk some money out of what the French cavalry is accumulating in its raids about the country and from the contributions of the peasants, not one penny has been paid since the capture of that place. When he applied to his Eminence for fulfilment he was told that since England had already broken many of the articles arranged with France, she was not now bound to keep them all. If they keep their agreements punctually on this side they will be met with a return that will leave nothing to be desired. For this reason, there being other complaints of like nature, he asks the Protector for money to satisfy the garrison there. They are also very short of provisions of food, as the greater part of what is sent there from here is captured by Ostend pirates, who do a lot of damage. He has been promised a good sum soon, so he will be able to go away satisfied. It is the same with Morgan, governor of Mardich, who came to London with Locart. The day before yesterday he received the honour of knighthood from his Highness in respect of his distinguished services to the nation during the two years he has commanded in Flanders.
Don John of Austria, who has been recalled to Spain by the Catholic from the governorship of Flanders, to be employed in the war against Portugal, has sent an express from Brussels to Dunkirk with letters to Governor Locart asking him to obtain from his Highness a passport for himself and family, for two armed ships and whatever else he needs to take him to Spain. Not finding Locart at Dunkirk the courier went on to London, where they immediately granted all that was asked, with the utmost courtesy, being very pleased at the incident which demonstrates the power and dominion of the nation over the Ocean.
For some days past there has been talk of signs of peace negotiations between Spain and England. They are throwing out feelers through the merchants on both sides, and as they have found both parties well disposed, it is thought that once the foundations are laid and negotiations started a conclusion may be reached without much difficulty, a boon so deeply desired by the traders and so essential to the interests of both nations, the question is who will be the first to speak, and it will be worth noting, as both will stand on their dignity and will not let themselves go. In this connection I know that the Ambassador Niuport has told someone in confidence that the States have been asked by the Catholic to interpose their mediation. But this would cost them dear, for the war between the two countries is a gold mine to them, since at present they monopolise all that trade, bringing to England all the fruits, etc., from Spain, which cannot come in English ships, and if an accommodation came about they would lose it all with no hope of further gain, which is the only object of all their actions, although they would like people to think otherwise. I have thought it right to report this and must add that one who takes part in the affairs of the government told me that in the event of such overtures for peace with Spain they would undoubtedly require a mediator, and here they would always prefer the most serene republic to act in that capacity, before the Dutch or anyone else.
London, the 13th December, 1658.
[Italian.]
Dec. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
248. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian-Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Two missives from your Serenity of the 26th October and the 2nd November reached me last week by way of France on successive days. Those of this week are lacking through the delay of the courier, owing to the bad weather and the severe cold which has interrupted the sea passage and the journey to London. I note the instructions conveyed to me. With regard to their desire here for a special embassy, I have nothing to add except that no one contemplates sending one, as all have performed the necessary offices through their ordinary ministers. The resident of Tuscany and the ministers of Bremen and Danzig did so on Tuesday, so there is no one left except Brandenburg and Curlandia, who have not yet received new letters of credence, the first because the elector intends, from what his minister says, to send someone else with a higher rank, and the other because his master is prisoner to the Swedes, with all his family and Court.
In the matter of the bankrupts, Arson and Dorat, I will punctually fulfil the instructions of the Savio Cassiere, reporting progress to him from time to time. I regret that since the favourable sentences in the lower court it has not been possible to make progress in the higher, as term is now over and nothing can be done until the court opens again in February. Meanwhile, one must put up with the delay, which is most tedious in these parts, especially in suits, as well as very costly, as when there is hope of a successful issue it is desirable as well as customary to be openhanded with the councillors and lawyers here, who will not trouble themselves to defend any sort of cause for a trifle. Of the two already attached, Gilbert and Brinlay, the first escaped and the other fell sick and died when I was about to take action, stopping further proceedings.
The president of the Levant Company has been to see me, and I told him what your Excellencies prescribed about the debts owed for the ships Nortombria and Paramour, enlarging on the regard felt for his country, the intention of the state to satisfy them, and so forth. He told me that the 6000 ducats voted them had not yet been paid, from what their agents wrote, although I had told him that a part had been paid. This was nothing by comparison with the large amount due for the ships which comes to more than 60,000. The fair words they were always getting had no effect in procuring larger or more frequent payments and all the partners were resolved to withdraw the ships from the service, and they would find some other way to recover the debts. Meantime, he merely asked me to approach the Senate again to harken to their reasonable and just demands. I did my best to soothe him, but I am bound to report what he said. He made no reference to his threat on a previous occasion to ask the government for letters of reprisal. I keep on the watch and will not fail to do my utmost to prevent such a thing.
I find no confirmation of the idea your Serenity tells me is entertained by Cussein Pasha to add a considerable number of the ships of this nation to the Ottoman fleet which he intends to collect for the coming year. None the less, I will keep my eyes open upon a matter of such consequence and endeavour to discover the truth. In any case, I will at once repeat to the Protector the representations I made to his father to prevent such an outrage.
I acknowledge the copy of the letter of the consul Armano from Leghorn about the flight of the English ship Angelo from the Venetian fleet, and will use it when necessary to discredit bad impressions which its captain may seek to create against the most serene republic. I have also informed old Galileo, as directed, about the release of his son from the Turks and the payment of what is due to him. He begs that his son may be restored to him with the utmost speed to comfort his declining years. He also begged with tears in his eyes for the prompt payment of at least the 3000 ducats voted to him more than three years ago, which he has never been able to collect, so that he may meet his present necessities, in part satisfaction of the great sums due to him and to enable him to put off his creditors with the hope that he will receive what the republic owes him.
London, the 13th December, 1658.
[Italian.]
Dec. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
249. To the Resident in England.
Approval of his audience of the Protector and the manner of it. Upon the more important point of joining forces against the Turk you will ask for another audience and say that we have most highly appreciated his generous expressions as we have always made great capital of assistance from that powerful and most noble government, and we shall value it the more at present now that we are troubled with this prolonged war with so powerful an enemy. Our requirements would be a good number of troops and a squadron of ships to unite with our fleet. His name will achieve immortal glory if he should come to such a decision, prompted by his great zeal and his piety towards the general good.
By this office he will have a means of finding out the real intentions of the government and what it actually thinks about assistance.
That his allowance shall include his expenses upon gratuities and for the collection, to be made in his accounts.
Ayes, 109. Noes, 1. Neutral, 1.
Vote on the allowance:
Ayes, 124. Noes, 10. Neutral, 4. It requires 4/5ths.
In the Collegio:
Ayes, 16. Noes, 1. Neutral, 1. It requires 4/5ths.
[Italian.]
Dec. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
250. Francesco Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Although the latest news from London reports the departure Of a large fleet sent by the Protector to help the Swedes, the Dutch ambassador here declares that it is false, and that in any case, as the States have sent another great relief of 4000 men and are preparing another squadron of ships to be sent to the Sound, they have no fear of the forces and efforts of the English.
Paris, the 17th December, 1658.
[Italian.]
Dec. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
251. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After the squadron for the Baltic left these shores to help the king of Sweden, the wind remained steadily unfavourable. Although it was reported to have been sighted well out to sea, they have heard from Admiral Gudson, the commander, at the beginning of this week, that he has been driven back to the shores of England by a great storm and much damage, so he had only advanced a few miles. This has greatly distressed the Swedish ministers in particular, but seeing that the wind has changed since yesterday and become favourable, they console themselves with the thoughts that the squadron will sail in obedience to its original orders and find itself in a few days at the place where it is wanted to assist their master, who desires it eagerly to support his forces which were so badly mauled in the late encounters with the Dutch fleet. But considering the ice which is sure to be found in the Baltic just now, in view of the acute cold of these last days, which has entirely frozen over the Thames here, it is believed that even if the wind is favourable to take them to the Sound it will not arrive in time to pass through as the entry will be blocked by ice, and so it will have no opportunity to render service. Many are, therefore, of opinion that Gudson will take it upon himself to steer for the coasts of Spain, when he sees that it is hopeless to approach the Sound and by trying to find the Spanish fleet bringing plate from the Indies will seek to win some advantage. But even this hope may prove vain, as all traders, including those of this mart devoutly wish, for they always have interests in those fleets, seeing that its arrival in Spain is calculated for the end of this month or the beginning of January, and they reckon that there will not be enough time for the English to meet it and do what they wish.
The talk of peace between Spain and this country still continues, but I fancy that it comes more from the traders, who desire it with all their heart, than from members of the government, though some of these have intimated that they would not be disinclined to arrange a treaty if it was proposed. For this reason the merchants, who see clearly that the Spaniards and the English too will stand upon punctilio and that neither will act first, would like some sovereign to offer mediation, and in this way set going the machinery for a conclusion. But it is not thought that anyone will make such an offer without being asked, and so one must suppose that the time for this boon is not at hand. The French would not fail to place every conceivable obstacle in the way to prevent what could not fail to be most prejudicial to them.
Before the adjustment between the Most Christian crown and this state some three years ago, a stipulation was made whereby France was to send commissioners to London to unite with others nominated here, to arrange some settlement of the claims advanced by the merchants of both countries for losses suffered in the late war between the two powers. These were never sent by the Most Christian, and they are now asking M. de Bordeos that the mission may be no longer delayed, as they wish the matter to be settled as soon as possible. After the accommodation it happened that the marshal della Migliare, governor of Brittany, captured a merchantman belonging to this mart worth over 20,000l. sterling. (fn. 2) The interested parties applied to Paris for restitution, and it seems that they have never been able to get it, in spite of divers decisions of the magistrates in their favour. Owing to the resistance of the marshal they applied to the king to use his authority to compel restitution, but apparently they did not get a favourable reply. Despairing of redress they appealed to the government for protection, and it is said that this has been promised them if they have not recovered their property by the 25th March next, giving them letters of reprisal to obtain by force what they have not been able to get in any other way.
The complaints of the merchants and the unfavourable account of Cardinal Mazarini given by Locart irritate the government and force them to speak sharply to France and such action as the promise to give the merchants the letters aforesaid. Complaints come daily from the merchants against the Dutch, also for the capture of ships in the Indies, and letters of reprisal are asked for. Some traders of this mart also rail against the pope, asserting that the Rota of Rome has refused them justice on some question of a prize, solely because they profess another faith. Accordingly they rail impiously against the Holy See, urge their complaints and demand protection. It is said that letters of reprisal may easily be granted to them, and if so, it would be a serious blow to Catholicism and would involve other and infinite consequences.
I ought to say that this state cherishes an irreconcileable animosity against the pope, not only on the ground of religion but also on account of some very mordant writings that appeared against the Protector over the alliance with the French, which issued from Rome with the permission of the pope and the encouragement of the Spaniards. The government is very angry over this, so much so that a confidant who knows what goes on in the hidden places intimated to me that the complaints of the merchants against the pope and the licence which is allowed at Rome to malicious tongues, which never cease to speak against this government, may irritate them so far that they will be forced to take measures which are unexpected. They certainly have the power, and with the inclination as well it would not be difficult to raid the shores of the states of the Church, destroying, pillaging, and wreaking extraordinary mischief.
The government having decided to summon a parliament for the 27th January, they are fully occupied at Whitehall in preparing the writs to be sent to the communes for the nomination of the members who are to take part, and to arrange for the countless things which have to precede the meeting.
The ducal missives of the 9th and 16th November reached me together this morning. The first should have come last week and the other on Monday, both being delayed by bad weather, as frequently happens at this season. I learn from them of the flight from the fleet of Captain Rand with the English ship Angelo, the transport of troops by Commander Zane, the landing at Leghorn and arrest of the commander with four men, with instructions to guide me in preferring requests to the Protector on this most important matter. I went at once to the palace to communicate to the secretary of state the improper action of Captain Rand and to ask him to obtain audience for me. I found him and all the other ministers engaged over the approaching parliament, and did not succeed in seeing anyone. To-morrow I will do what I have failed to do to-day, making a supreme effort with the Protector and ministers in this important matter so that your Excellencies may get what you want, as is only just and reasonable, so I hope that the Protector will not deny me justice.
London, the 20th December, 1658.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
252. Francesco Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The French ambassador Bordeos, with the Protector of England, has recently sent his gentleman to Court with the decision of the Protector to give assistance to the king of Sweden and to break with the Dutch, provided he is succoured and defended by France in accordance with the need and with the accidents that occur. They have not yet decided upon the answer to be made and meanwhile they are trying to send off the destined fleets, both to London and to Holland, where the French ambassador extraordinary was labouring to find some means for an adjustment and to prevent the States from proceeding to further committments.
Paris, the 24th September, 1658.
[Italian.]
Dec. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
253. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
These last days the wind has been as favourable as previously it was unfavourable for the squadron destined for the Baltic, since it weighed anchor for the second time for its destination. It left the Downs, where it was sheltering, on the 18th inst., and it is calculated that if it has not actually arrived it will not be far off the Sound. The government and the Swedish ministers hope that the south-east wind which has blown the last few days will have melted the ice and opened a passage for the squadron, of which everyone is waiting for news with the utmost eagerness.
Meanwhile, the Dutch, who do not wish for a rupture and who are most anxious to avoid offending England in any way, have directed their Admiral Opdam to stay on at Copenhagen and to cause their fleet to winter in the ports there, suppying it with victuals and other requirements as best he can; all this to avoid a clash with the English squadron, which they fear might engage them. For the same reason they have countermanded the orders to some other ships which were ready to leave Holland for the Baltic to succour Denmark and reinforce Opdam. They have also put on shore the 4000 infantry whom they proposed to send with the ships, under the command of Admiral Ruiter. As the conflict between the Swede and the Dane is a matter of great moment to the States, since it seriously prejudices their interests, they would like to see a speedy adjustment between the two powers. Accordingly it seems that they incline to send an embassy extraordinary to the king of Sweden to suggest some means of settling the dispute between those monarchs and arranging for a peace through the mediation of France and England.
To come here as ambassador extraordinary to the Protector, the king of Denmark has nominated the count of Rantzow, a man of birth and great parts who has filled other such positions and who recently represented that monarch at the diet of Frankfort. Although it is known that he is charged to proceed to England with the utmost despatch, yet the Danish resident here states that when his master hears of the despatch of the squadron to the Swede, he will change his mind and delay the mission.
Following the example of Denmark, it is said that Sweden also may send an embassy extraordinary, but we have not yet heard that anyone has been appointed.
They are ceaselessly at work at Whitehall getting ready for the coming parliament. Only yesterday they sent the writs for the nomination of members by express couriers to Scotland and Ireland. Those for England are still under consideration by the Council of State, which meets twice a day expressly for this business, not listening or attending to any other thing. It seems that a dispute has arisen as to whether both chambers, i.e. the upper and lower, should be summoned, or the commons only, and their quarrels over this are losing time and delaying the despatch of the writs.
Meanwhile, the Council has set apart Wednesday next to be spent in fasting and prayers for the blessing of God upon the coming parliament and upon all the affairs of the nation. The Protector and all his household, and all the officers of the army who are in London will perform this act of humiliation in the chapel of the palace. On the following Wednesday the same thing will be done in all England and in Wales, and on the Wednesday after that in Scotland and Ireland, so that all three kingdoms will perform this duty.
I have informed the secretary of state and some other ministers of the improper action of the captain of the ship Angelo, and asking that his Highness may immediately issue the orders requested by your Serenity. I left with the secretary a memorial of the incident, so that he should be better acquainted with the facts and that justice may be done more readily. Everyone reprobates the action of the captain, but I have not yet learned what his Highness said when he heard the news, as internal affairs concerning the parliament do not give them time to attend to matters outside. I will work hard to secure what your Excellencies desire and report to the Senate.
The four soldiers whom the consul Armano said had been sent to London by the captain have not yet arrived, and I have not heard that they are to come, but a ship is daily expected from Leghorn and it is possible that they will be on board. When it arrives I shall be told, and shall take steps to dissipate any evil impressions that they may try to create, while I will keep an eye on the procedure of the merchants interested in the ship. So far they have not opened their mouths, and apparently they are waiting for the arrival of Captain Rand before they lay their complaint before the government; but by forestalling them I hope that they will find ears closed against any absurd demands they may make.
London, the 27th December, 1658.
[Italian.]
Dec. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
254. Francesco Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch succour for Denmark is unable to move because of the ice in the Baltic. Meanwhile, in the present winter season, the French will try for an adjustment, if not between the Swede and the Dane, at least between the English and Dutch, to prevent them from coming to a rupture.
Paris, the 31st December, 1658.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The Brederode with the Vice-Admiral Witte Wittenszoon. Le Clerc: Hist, des Pays Bas, Vol. ii, page 399.
2 The Endeavour taken on 21 Nov., 1655 when on her way from Teneriffe to London. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1658–9, page 57. Charles de la Porte, due de La Meilleraie, marshal of France.