Venice
June 1659

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1931

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26-37

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'Venice: June 1659', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 32: 1659-1661 (1931), pp. 26-37. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90045 Date accessed: 02 October 2014.


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Contents

June 1659

June 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
25. Francesco Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The bad news about Locart proved to be untrue. Word has come of his safe arrival at Dunkirk escorted by 1000 French horse and 1200 English infantry, who were between Amiens and Abbeville. Parliament has confirmed Locart as governor of Dunkirk and as ambassador and general of the English troops in France. Since these orders arrived the mayor of Dunkirk (fn. 1) and others who were beginning to intrigue against him have quieted down and are disposed to obey him, as before.
Paris, the 3rd June, 1659.
[Italian.]
June 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
26. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The council of state nominated by parliament, after making changes in some of the members to meet the wishes of the officers of the army, has recently begun its sittings. While parliament is in session it will co-operate with that body in deciding upon the steps which it will be considered necessary to take for the consolidation of the republic and to render it permanent and formidable. When parliament is not sitting it will have full and ample authority over everything except the promulgation of laws or other acts which can be carried out by parliament alone by virtue of the ancient statutes and institutions of the country.
Parliament has examined the articles of the petition presented by the army and seems disposed to do everything that is asked by the officers, so it is clear that their only desire is to please the army, that being the body with power behind it, causing its authority to prevail, inspiring all men with fear and obtaining decisions of every kind in its favour.
A committee having been appointed to treat with the eldest son of the late General Cromwell, that being the title now given to the late Protector Richard, they met him recently and in the name of parliament asked him to make a statement on the nature and amount of his debts. They also asked if he intended to submit to the present government and similar expressions to the same end, but without making him the slightest offer of any assignment or anything else. Cromwell took time to consider the questions put to him and the day before yesterday wrote a letter to Parliament signed “Richard Cromwell” which was immediately printed. In this he gives a clear statement of his debts, showing how they were contracted and making his peace with the present government he submits absolutely to the authority of the republic, protesting that he values the peace of the nation more than his own private interests, and accordingly he implores the protection of parliament, putting himself entirely in their hands.
The submission of the Protector will influence the others who have not so far declared themselves openly. They are most afraid of Montagu, news of whom is exceptionally delayed, to the amazement of all. It is feared that he will not hand over the fleet to Lausson, who was sent to the Sound on purpose to take it. They no longer have any reason to fear Monch and the army of Scotland as fresh, assurances of adherence arrive daily from the officers there, the more so as parliament has empowered the council of state to make a reply to their letter thanking them for their congratulations and assurances of loyalty. It also seems certain that they can count on the submission of Locart at Dunkirk. Of Henry in Ireland one does not know what to think. Yesterday was printed a proclamation which he had published at Dublin and throughout Ireland in which he straitly charges all men, whether of the military or any other profession not to depart in any way from the obedience due to the Protector, his brother and his government, from which one may gather that he is far from intending to conform to the present state of affairs. But some believe that the example of his brother will influence him also, and it seems that parliament has deputed four commissioners (fn. 2) to go to Ireland to treat with him and arrange a settlement, but upon what terms and conditions does not yet appear.
The disposition for peace with Spain continues and grows steadily, for the reasons given, supported also by the merchants who point out how much they have suffered through the rupture and that things are steadily getting worse. They hold out hopes that the Spaniards also are inclined for such an adjustment, which they try to facilitate and put in train with all their might. It is also stated that there is in London secretly some individual sent from Brussels (fn. 3) who is covertly encouraging this feeling and forwarding the business, and that here they are thinking of despatching some one to Spain. Time will soon show.
Having found out some secret design of King Charles, by intelligence here, to make an unexpected landing in England and strike a sudden blow, the government immediately took effective measures to prevent it. A quantity of arms stored secretly in London and outside for such a purpose, has been discovered, seized and sent to the Tower. It is also known that his Majesty has enough troops and vessels to cross the sea and give himself a good start, but in the absence of the chief motive power, i.e. money, it is to be feared that even the present opportunity will not serve to relieve his distressed condition, especially as here they find out all that is being contrived, even to the very words spoken about all these transactions; and this is inevitable so long as he keeps with him certain persons to whom he confides everything, and until he decides to play the part of secretary himself as well as that of king.
The Dutch ambassador Niuport having received fresh credentials for parliament from the States, asked audience on Monday and had it Tuesday morning in the full assembly when he presented the letters, expressing the satisfaction of his masters at the re-establishment of the republic and their desire to continue and increase the friendly relations between the two countries. That done he was taken back to his residence by the state coaches and the persons deputed by parliament to attend him, with Flemingh, the master of the ceremonies. They have referred him to the council of state to hear what more he has to participate, and they are to inform parliament.
His letters of credence were simply addressed to the Parliament of the Republic of England and so accepted. The other ministers will now be performing similar offices as the letters reach them from their masters. Without these no one will be admitted either to audience or to treat or speak on any business whatsoever. I ask that anything sent may be by way of Flanders as being shorter and more speedy than the French route.
London, the 6th June, 1659.
[Italian.]
June 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
27. To the Resident in England.
We received your letters. You very prudently point out that things cannot continue in their present state without any form of government and in the confusion indicated. It would be a great matter if the parliamentarians should succeed in resuming their sittings, and ii the Protector should be reduced to the status of a private individual. We rely on you to inform us of the smallest particulars.
Ayes, 116. Noes, 15. Neutral, 19.
Second vote: Ayes, 108. Noes, 17. Neutral, 19.
[Italian.]
June 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
28. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Besides the petition from the army others are daily presented to parliament by citizens and others, not of London alone but from other places in the kingdom. As all these tend to prescribe the form of government which they desire, they are being duly examined and discussed; they promise the people to put things straight so that they will have not the name only but the reality of a republic. Thus the assembly is labouring incessantly so to consolidate the internal affairs of the nation and on so firm a basis as to render them permanent and unshakeable for ever. But they constantly meet with so many serious obstacles that there seems little likelihood of their realising these aspirations very easily, or that things will proceed quietly without further complications. Those who claim to form a serious and impartial judgment are of opinion that this will keep twisting and turning and that they will never enjoy true repose or regain the right path till everything is brought back to its original condition.
Since this change of government one has noticed an extraordinary and unbridled licence among the people in writing and publishing broadsheets, some of which are very satirical and impertinent. Thus this week two pamphlets have appeared which state openly that they want the king; that tax parliament with many things; that urge the people not to submit to the yoke that is being prepared, but to shake it off before it is more firmly fixed, when they can do it more easily and with less resistance. This makes the government very apprehensive, the more so since it is observed that these expressions do not come from opponents or royalists, but from those who have been supporters of parliament. They know what sort of impression such declarations are likely to make, especially in a country so volatile and inconstant. Accordingly they are keeping a sharp look out and are taking effective precautions everywhere especially in the coast towns most exposed to danger, to prevent any sort of disorder. But no one can feel sure how far these precautions will serve or foretell what the future will bring in this variable climate which changes from one moment to another.
In the present state of affairs it is impossible that anything will be firmly established or last for long. These realms have been accustomed to be governed by crowned heads, and the grandees and middle classes can never submit and never will to be ruled by base and vile folk as they are now, so it is to be feared that they will be constantly involved in dissensions and confusion, especially as one cannot say that the complete harmony rules between parliament and the army which is required to carry out what they appear to wish.
While there seems to be no further cause for misgivings about Scotland and Dunkirk, from which protests of loyalty and submission are constantly arriving, while Locart is fortifying Dunkirk and Mardich against any sudden attack, nothing certain can be said about Ireland or Montagu. They announce that these also have submitted, and printed declarations from those quarters are expected any day, but I know on good authority that there is not the slightest foundation for this, and that they are very anxious particularly about the fleet. It seems that the council of state is trying to appoint commissioners to send to the Sound and certain persons they have thought of refuse to go. (fn. 4) This is because everyone feels that the present state of affairs cannot last very long, and although they announce that they want to send these commissioners to forward the adjustment between the crowns of Denmark and Sweden, which they pretend to desire. But it is more likely that they are going out of concern about Montagu's fleet, as their own affairs always take precedence over those of others. It may easily happen that while attending to the one they will keep watch on the other and try to extract from those monarchs the ratification of the form of reconciliation which the ministers of France and England in Holland and the deputies of the States have decided to propose to them.
Meanwhile parliament has decided to increase the number of warships cruising in the Channel for the safety of these shores. The crews of some ships have already been selected and the day before yesterday parliament nominated the captains to command them. (fn. 5) From this remarkable measure when money and every sort of provision is exceedingly scarce it may be concluded that there is something to fear, but what this is must be a question for the imagination rather than for penetration.
To facilitate peace with Spain, i.e. to hold out inducements to the Catholic as they are very eager for it here, the merchants trading in that king's dominions have presented a petition to parliament this week asking for the prohibition of the transport to England of fruit or any sort of commodity from Spain. This was referred to the council of state which will afterwards report to parliament. Meanwhile there is no doubt of there being some one here on behalf of Spain incognito. (fn. 6) It seems he is a canon of Brussels cathedral who is negotiating secretly and backing its supporters. It is further stated that at Paris Pimentelli has orders to put out feelers (di gettar progetti) and encourage negotiations towards a reconcilation with any one whom he may think fit.
Meantime I have been informed by one who takes part in affairs that since it is well known that the Spaniards will never make the first advances, it is equally certain that England will not do so either. Accordingly there will be nothing but a disposition on both sides unless some mediator comes forward, when the thing can be managed and easy to carry through. I cannot say whether this is merely the private opinion of my informant or if it was done by order, though it is easy to guess the object, as I have intimated before. But in the present crisis it is unlikely that any prince will take such a step, the government being uncertain and everything else on shaky foundations.
There is some doubt whether parliament may not issue a definite act annulling all measures taken by the late Protectors including the treaties with foreign powers. Accordingly the Dutch ambassador is negotiating with the council of state to get parliament to confirm the agreement made between the States and Oliver, and he is sanguine of success. So far he alone has had audience of parliament. The French ambassador has not yet received his new credentials though he says he expects them by every ordinary. As there has been ample time the government here is astonished and very suspicious at the delay.
The recently arrived ministers of Poland and Denmark, although without letters, yet to avoid the further procrastination of their business, have presented a memorial to the council in which they pledge themselves for their masters to recognise the present government and ask leave to transact their business, representing the injury that may be done by their remaining idle until their masters can hear of the change in England and send to them. This was granted and commissioners have already been appointed for Denmark. He has met them once and made his proposals which deal with the dispute between his master and Sweden. Poland has not yet received a reply of any kind but he expects one momentarily.
The ambassador extraordinary of Portugal at the Hague, who went to arrange a settlement of the differences between the Dutch and Portuguese over Brazil has suddenly gone away, (fn. 7) abandoning his post and, so they say, his master as well. It is not known where he has gone, but many insist on its being Spain as he intimated that he meant to return to the service of his natural king. It is an extraordinary and outrageous proceeding exciting much comment. The consequences are undoubtedly considerable as his uncle is very near to Braganza and his step may lead to other things very prejudicial to Portugal.
London, the 13th June, 1659.
[Italian.]
June 14.
Seneto,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
29. To the Resident in England.
We note what has been intimated to you by order of parliament. Your prudence will recognise the necessity of observing what is done by the other foreign ministers in this change of government. We therefore direct you to be guided by the example of Holland, Sweden and Denmark and others in the recognition of parliament, according to the circumstances that arise, in which your prudence will know what course to take, and from the aspect of affairs and from their stability, so far as you are able to judge of it.
Ayes, 100. Noes, 1. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
June 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
30. Giovanni Battista Ballarino, Venetian Secretary at the Porte, to the Doge and Senate.
I am charged by your Serenity to divert from the service of the Turks the ships of England and of other nations. I do not spare any pains to secure this and so far with success. To this end I have cultivated the English ambassador and treated him with every respect. He assures me that he has done his part not only here but at Smyrna and other places, with strong orders; so that if there be any means of withstanding the violence of those in power, your Serenity will be fully served in this respect also.
Pera of Constantinople, the 18th June, 1659.
[Italian: deciphered.]
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
31. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
As there are many things requiring the consideration of parliament which cannot be decided very speedily, if they do not wish to rush them, altho' it was announced and believed that it would separate in a few days leaving affairs to the council of state, they have this week resolved by a definite resolution to continue to sit until the 17th May, 1660. Meanwhile they continue with uninterrupted energy to arrange everything necessary for the establishment and consolidation of the government, receiving daily the congratulations of the people and assurances of absolute concurrence in present affairs.
Parliament having decided to have the control of both the naval and land forces, although many officers seemed unwilling to submit to this decision, they appear to be adapting themselves to it and bowing to the will of the supreme magistracy. Thus fresh commissions signed by the President have been presented in full assembly to each of the officers, and yesterday they gave one to Flitud confirming his title of Lieutenant-General. He is not altogether satisfied as he has not succeeded in getting that of generalissimo for which he started all the present turmoil. Parliament reserves that office for itself desiring to have the military entirely dependent on itself and not on others. For this reason some of the officers have been cashiered and others put in their places, while others have been confirmed in their posts.
From Ireland Henry has sent three commissioners to parliament to report on the affairs of that kingdom and to treat with it about his pretensions. (fn. 8) These are that he shall be confirmed in the government there and that no changes shall be made. Parliament has not taken this action in good part. It received this as an affront and refused to recognise the persons sent as commissioners but merely as messengers, refusing to admit them or confer with them about anything. With some amount of passion it passed a resolution that the government of Ireland ought no longer to be administered by a single person but by commissioners, nominated and authorised by parliament. Accordingly they at once chose five (fn. 9) who are hurriedly making their preparations to cross to that kingdom, Henry being charged to keep quiet and submit to the decisions of parliament and to come to London at once to give an account to that body of the state of affairs there. It is not known whether he will obey, but it may be that he will for he may easily be deserted by the troops, who are all English and will want to support and conform to the action of the army in England. The truth will soon be known. From Scotland Monch reports the loyalty and steadiness of the troops there and urges that no changes shall be made in them.
To the same end and to give an account of the affairs of Dunkirk Locart has recently come to London. It is believed that he will be sent back soon confirmed in his post of governor of that place. He conferred with parliament but it cannot be discovered what account he gives of the peace between the crowns.
From Montagu also letters arrived the day before yesterday bringing his submission with that of all the captains of the ships composing his fleet. He asks that no change be made among those officers, all of them promising punctual obedience and an unalterable loyalty to the republic.
It is not yet known who are to be the commissioners whom they propose to send to the Sound. The council of state is busy over the appointment which has to be confirmed by parliament. It is believed that they may be despatched in a few days and meantime an express has been sent there to announce their imminent despatch so that any treaty between the two northern kings may be kept on foot and not concluded before they arrive. What results may be expected from these efforts cannot be discovered, but it is to be feared that serious difficulties will arise far from easy to surmount, which may upset that adjustment.
Some months ago the Swedish envoy granted commissions to an English captain to go privateering under the Swedish flag. It appears that he has taken three Dutch ships laden with wine and this has been sold in London with great secrecy, the proceeds being divided between the captain and the Swedish minister. (fn. 10) Complaints about this having reached parliament it immediately issued orders and sent a war frigate in search of the captain to arrest him and bring him to London to render account of his actions and to state by whose permission he received the commissions aforesaid.
London, the 20th June, 1659.
[Italian.]
June 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
32. Alvise Molest, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
Ambassadors have been sent to the North by France, England and the States to make every effort to bring about peace between Denmark and Sweden. It is noticeable that the articles are signed in the name of the Protector of England, who no longer exists, and on this account the envoy may not enjoy the authority which was destined for him. The English are fortifying Dunkirk and Mardyke, indicating no good will for their restitution. Of 1100 Spanish infantry sent on Dutch ships to serve in Flanders, 700 have arrived and 400 have been taken by the English. These may be released because of the English desire for peace with Spain.
Vienna, the 21st June, 1659.
[Italian.]
June 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
33. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Parliament goes on dispensing commissions to officers of the army, changing many and reinstating all those who were cashiered by the Protector Oliver. Although it is working its hardest to consolidate the present state it clearly perceives that it will have a good deal of trouble with no hope that affairs will proceed as it desires; for though the people bring their congratulations it knows the instincts of this race from past experience and long continuance cannot be predicted for the present government which has not even begun to have an appearance of solidity, much less to be established. The officers who have been dismissed make a noise, those who remain grumble at having to take their commissions from parliament, even the newcomers are not entirely satisfied, so it would not be surprising if we saw more changes in this unstable climate.
The commissioners for Ireland have not yet started. Their instructions are being prepared but the disturbances which seem to have broken out in that country do not leave much hope of things proceeding quietly or that they can do much in the interests of parliament. For the last two days it has been stated that King Charles's party has greatly increased in those parts and worse may be expected especially as Henry is far from satisfied and other officers of that army are not entirely well affected to this side.
In the Highlands and Islands of Scotland there is some unrest and we hear of risings and disturbances in those parts fomented by some individual sent there by the king. If this gets a foothold it will cause a great deal of trouble especially as it is now admitted that all the letters from Monch, although expressing submission, are worded so ambiguously as to occasion no little suspicion and misgiving.
There is no certainty about Montagu either, as though he submits, his expressions have a double meaning which leave them here disturbed and hesitating. In short the position is far from good and things are so balanced that it is impossible to say which side will prevail. I should mention here that I have been told on good authority that they are waiting here for open declarations from Scotland and Ireland before taking some unexpected step here also. They have indeed been saying in parliament that however much they turn about and whatever they may choose to do it will be necessary in the end for Charles to come back, since it is impossible for this people to put up with any government except that of the king. They argue that it would be a worthy and honourable act to invite his Majesty to return rather than suffer foreign arms to open the way for him, to the scorn and detriment of the nation. They are holding secret conferences upon this question and if Scotland and Ireland should declare themselves openly it is not unlikely that England also would concur and in this way, by miracle, that poor prince would be restored after languishing in misery so many years.
They have appointed the persons who are to go to the Sound to arrange an adjustment between the two kings of the North. (fn. 11) They bear the title of commissioners and plenipotentiaries. Their instructions are being prepared and they may start at the beginning of next week. The resident of Denmark will take the opportunity to go also, to inform his master orally of many things which he would not risk in letters. He expects to be back here in two months, and in the interval the deputy extraordinary, recently arrived will remain in London.
On Tuesday evening Locart set out for Dunkirk. After a glance at the affairs of that town and Mardich he is to proceed with all speed to Paris, but nothing can be found out about the business he takes, except to assure that monarch of the friendship and regard of the parliament. He will also have to deal with the question of the peace and other kindred matters.
Yesterday the envoy of Hamburg had audience of a committee deputed by parliament and presented new letters of credence. (fn. 12) In the coming week the envoy recently arrived in the name of all the Hanse Towns is also to have audience, (fn. 13) The French ambassador, although he has received new credentials delays presenting them, without the reason for this being known, and it causes great suspicion and misgiving. Perhaps, with affairs so troubled he wishes, before presenting them, to see if there is any sign of greater tranquillity or some permanence.
The day before yesterday a letter was brought me from the magistracy of the Admiralty, of which I enclose a translation for the benefit of the Senate. Your Excellencies will see that it is about a claim of the shareholders in the ship Angelo against the Captain General at Sea, Morosini and Admiral Priuli, for the arrest of that ship and an intimation that the question is to come up next Wednesday. I shall not appear or send any representative as nothing that I could allege would prevent the course of the enquiry or do any good, such being the custom of that magistracy in dealing with complaints of this kind, no matter how ridiculous or extravagant they may be, and they claim to pass judgment on the subjects of other princes. All that the Admiralty is doing is to make enquiry, after which they will report to the government. I shall hear from them and try to refute the claims of the shareholders. But as they have oral testimony I am afraid that the papers which I hold on the subject will be of no use so it would not be amiss to send some more authentic testimony upon what took place, with the depositions of those who were present as unauthorised copies are of no use. I will keep my eye on the matter but I cannot appeal in case of need to the council of state as I should not be admitted without new letters of credence or without pledging my word for them, and I cannot do that without express instructions from the Senate.
London, the 27th June, 1659.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.34. The Admiralty Court to Francesco Giavarina.
Whereas Jonathan Keat and other owners of the ship Angelo, William Rand captain, were taken at sea about April 1658 by a squadron of the Venetian fleet commanded by Francesco Morosini and Antonio Priuli, carried from port to port, detaining it 115 days, taking out goods on board belonging to divers passengers and others, the cargo being estimated at 5540 thalers with 2560 thalers for the passengers' fares and money lent by William Rand on behalf of Jonathan Keat and others on the said goods thus taken, to the value of 9800 thalers with divers other goods and money belonging to Captain Rand and the Company, and much injury done by them to the rigging and appointments of the ship, have appeared before us judges of the Admiralty Court and asked us to grant process against the said Francesco Morosini and Antonio Priuli and any others who claim to defend the capture of the ship and the taking of the goods, to appear before us in the common hall of Doctors Commons in London on Wednesday the 22nd inst. between 9 and 12 in the forenoon to take evidence on this matter, and we accordingly notify your lordship so that you may make arrangements to appear if you see fit.
Signed: John Godolphin,
G. Cock.
Doctors Commons, the 10th June, 1659.
[Italian, translated from the English.]
June 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
35. To the Resident in England.
We note that the Ambassador Nieuport has received commissions and credentials and has had audience of parliament with acceptation of the title used by parliament of the republic of England. In conformity with what was done in the year 1652 we send you letters of credence, to be presented to parliament. You will dilate on the expressions contained therein adding such other matter as you may consider suitable.
Ayes, 140. Noes, 1. Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
June 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
36. To the Parliament of the Republic of England. (fn. 14)
We rejoice at the news of the establishment of the republic and wish it every prosperity. We have accordingly directed our Resident Francesco Giavarina to express this orally. We shall welcome any opportunity of making known our cordial disposition which we have cherished from of old for the sovereign power of England and so great a parliament, for which we would desire all prosperity and every other happiness.
Ayes, 140. Noes, 1. Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Presumably Pierre Faulconnier the Grand Bailly. See his letter to Lockhart of 28 July. Thurloe: State Papers Vol. vii, pp. 699–700.
2 Col. Jones, William Steel and Robert Goodwyn, appointed on 7 June, and Col. Tomlinson, nominated on the 9th. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1658–9, pp. 367–8.
3 This appears to refer to Father Pierre Talbot, a Jesuit, brother of Col. Talbot, who went to London from Brussels sent by the Marquis of Caracena and Cardenas, with powers to make great offers to the Protector. Col. Talbot to Col. Preston on 12 April. P.R.O. Paris Transcripts. He was still in London in June. Bordeaux to Mazarin, June 5. Id.
4 Bulstrode Whitelock, Col. Algernon Sydney and Sir Robert Honeywood were nominated as commissioners on 5 June o.s. Whitelock excused himself, on the ground of his health, really because his claims to the first place would not be recognised. Whitelock: Memorial ed. 1682, page 681. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1658–9, page 365.
5 Vice Adm. Lawson to the James; Geo. Dawkins to the Bristol; Robert Mackey to the Yarmouth; Henry Fenn to the Hampshire; Willoughby Hannam to the Kentish and Giles Shelley to the Providence, on 1 June o.s. Mercurius Politicus, May 26–June 5. Lawson was appointed by decision of parliament on 26 May, o.s., to command a squadron in the narrow seas. It was nominally to prevent invasion from Flanders, but really as a check on Montagu. Journal of the House of Commons, Vol. vii, page 666. Firth: Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow, Vol. ii, page 92.
6 Father Pierre Talbot. See note at page 28 above.
7 Don Fernando Telles. He seems to have disappeared in April, having engaged in treasonable negociations with the Spaniards. See Aitzema: Saken van staet en Oorlogh Vol. iv, pp. 489–92.
8 Colonel Edmund Talbot and Dr. William Petty from Henry, and Colonel Phare from the army in Ireland. Mercurius Politicus, June 16–23.
9 Colonel Jones, William Steel and Robert Goodwin, chosen on 7 June, o.s.; Matthew Tomlinson and Miles Corbet chosen on the 9th. Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. vii., pp. 674, 678.
10 Apparently Capt. Christopher Harrington of the Isle of Wight, who took the Grey Posthorse, with patents of the King of Sweden, and probably the Crooked Billet and Prince of Opmeere. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1659–60, pp. 98, 106.
11 Col. Algernon Sydney, Col. Edward Montague, Sir Robert Honeywood and Thomas Boone; their appointment approved by parliament on 9 June, o.s. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1058–9, page 368.
12 Johann Schulten. See the preceding Vol. of this Calendar, page 231n.
13 Martin Boekem. His letters of credence from Lubeck, Bremen and Hamburg dated 23 May, 1659. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1658–9, page 374.
14 The Italian text printed by Barozzi e Berchet: Relazioni: Inghilterra, pages 415–6.


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