Venice
June 1660

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1931

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150-163

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'Venice: June 1660', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 32: 1659-1661 (1931), pp. 150-163. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90057 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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June 1660

June 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
147. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
After the happy news of the establishment of the king of England in his kingdom the Catholic has invited the duke of York to Spain, not only as an expression of his regard, but to contribute relief and moderate assistance.
Sir [Henry] Benet, when visiting the emperor's ambassador, asked him if his Majesty had a sister of marriageable age. When the ambassador answered, No, Benet went on to say that the king, his master, has one in France, with his mother, brought up in the Catholic faith, and that the king would be very favourably disposed to give her as wife to his imperial Majesty. From this talk another important consideration has arisen, namely that the king of England may marry the sister of Braganza, with that substantial dowry which was suggested to France a few years ago, since it is very well known that Portugal alone can raise up the house of Stuart again from its past and present difficulties.
Madrid, the 2nd June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
148. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Reports of the proclamation of his Majesty arrive at every moment from all parts of the realm, with extraordinary demonstrations of joy everywhere, the people sparing nothing to express the joy of their hearts at the precious gift from the Almighty of the king's return. Preparations to be ready for his Majesty are being hurried on everywhere, and on receipt of news that his Majesty had embarked and was at sea many started on the way to the place where he is expected to land, and men compete with each other in getting together companies, in showing liveries and costly dress and in making the most noble and stately appearance possible. General Monch has already set out towards the king with a numerous and splendid suite. The coach built for his Majesty has also started with saddle horses from the royal stables; so the king's arrival may be expected soon and he will certainly be acclaimed and welcomed by the people beyond expression.
It is as yet uncertain whether his Majesty will come straight to London or stay at a royal palace not far out. It is probable that he will not come here immediately as everything required for his reception is not yet ready. The city of London is to go in a body to meet him some distance out and is expected to make him another present of 10,000l. sterling.
They are still active in trying to get hold of the late king's judges but have only found a few, most of them having escaped and others being in hiding. Sir [Henry] Mildmay has been taken just as he was embarking for France; some others have been stopped in the country and the goods of all are being confiscated, making them thus pay for their crime.
News has come of the safe arrival with his Majesty of the commissioners sent by parliament and the city, to the general satisfaction and we hear that the king received them most graciously with every sign of affection. Among those who have gone to the Court across the water is one Morland who served in the secretariat in Cromwell's time and was a favourite of Secretary Thurloe. Throwing himself on his knees before the king he implored pardon for his past errors and revealed many things of which his Majesty was not aware. He disclosed that many who were always believed to be of the royal party had drawn pensions from Oliver, some of 500l. and some of 1000l. a year, thus selling his Majesty and informing Cromwell of all his proceedings. (fn. 1) It appears that some persons of rank who lived with the king and had access to his secret council are found to be guilty of similar delinquencies. All is now coming to light, and in time we shall learn more as God will not permit such wickedness to remain hidden any longer. As a reward his Majesty has made Morland a knight and given him other recompense for the service rendered.
Parliament is at present engaged in discussing the means of paying the army of which it seems some regiments are soon to be disbanded; but nothing has yet been resolved. Until the king arrives nothing is happening here that merits consideration as no one is attending to anything but preparations for that event. I will keep the Senate fully informed.
London, the 4th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
149. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Great commotion has been caused in the mind of this government by the unexpected news that the English have signed a treaty with Portugal, Braganza allowing free commerce for the navigation of Brazil. But they believe that King Charles, who has received so many benefits from Spain, will not consent, if he has the power, to a reciprocal union of those two countries, where the better the aspect of affairs for the interests of Portugal the more Don Luis will be disposed to favour the adjustment, the sole obstacle to an offer of generous assistance to your Serenity.
Madrid, the 4th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
150. To the Resident in London.
Extreme satisfaction at the restoration of King Charles II. The Senate is particularly pleased at the friendly disposition evinced by the king and leading men towards the republic. He is to respond and to cultivate this sentiment, especially with General Monch. With regard to credentials the Senate has decided instead to send two ambassadors extraordinary to express the regard and cordial friendship always entertained by the republic for the Majesty of Great Britain. They will start as soon as possible. The Senate is sure that he will have made suitable demonstrations of joy on the king's arrival in London. On receiving these presents he is to take steps to inform the king of the above resolution, with a suitable office.
When the ship Fregata del Zante arrives at Venice, which is going to the islands to lade currants, it shall enjoy every facility and shall not be subject to any obligation. He is to inform the merchants of that mart of this assuring them that the Senate will seize every opportunity of favouring a nation so beloved and esteemed.
Ayes, 5. Noes, 4.
[Italian.]
June 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
151. To the Resident in England.
Satisfaction at the restoration of the king. As all the foreign ministers have sent the news and are waiting for letters of credence, such letters are enclosed for him. In this he will follow the example of the other ministers, presenting the letters with an office of congratulation and announcing the sending of two ambassadors extraordinary. But he is not to present them if the other ministers do not do so. In that case he is to let the king know through a minister or confidant of the decision to send ambassadors. To cultivate Monch as well as the earls of Vincelstra and Arondel. If many regiments are disbanded it will be a favourable opportunity to get some sent in a body against the Turk, without expense. To give assurances to the merchants about the Fregata del Zante.
Grant of 1000 ducats to meet the expenses occasioned by the king's return and for making the necessary appearance at Court. That this sum be paid to the agents of Francesco Giavarina as a gift, for this occasion only.
Ayes, 55. Noes, 1. Neutral, 70.
Second vote: Ayes, 52. Noes, … Neutral, 77. Pending.
In the Collegio: Ayes, 17. Noes, 3. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
June 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
152. To the King of England.
Satisfaction of the republic at the restoration of his Majesty to the throne so gloriously enjoyed by his predecessors and which, by fatal destiny has been withheld from him until now. God, who has always protected the justice of his cause, has also brought about this most happy ending, which all good men have longed for and which is now so generally applauded and by the republic in particular. (fn. 2) The Secretary Giavarina will present these letters and ask for credence. Further compliments.
Voting as above. Carried on the 11th June by 71 votes.
[Italian.]
June 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
153. Alvise Grimani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Letters from Holland report that the king of England sailed on the 2nd with his brothers in the English fleet and that the States, with a profusion of gold and every possible demonstration of honour and respect entertained and regaled him, endeavouring to draw him to them in the fullest confidence and union, because of many considerations. There is no doubt that these two nations together would render themselves formidable to all.
Paris, the 8th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
154. Giovanni Battista Ballarino, Venetian Secretary at the Porte, to the Doge and Senate.
There are various rumours and many things are discussed, but common talk is not worthy of the ears of your Serenity. One thing is certain that the English ambassador thirsts for an absolute dominion over the marts of the Levant to the exclusion of France because this would mean the greatness of his house and fortune. As certain as his aversion for France is his desire to cultivate ever more intimate relations between the Turks and the English. The secret transactions are apparent to every eye; the rest is referred to the mature consideration of your Excellencies.
In response to my office about not granting ships to the Turks, the English ambassador has given me to understand that he has directed the departure together of eight of his nation which were at Smyrna, some destined for Leghorn, others for London, upon which, he told me, the Grand Vizier might possibly have designs. I thanked him and do what I can to preserve his goodwill. On the other hand I have tried to ascertain the truth by sending an express to Francesco Lupagoli, my confidant, who lives at Smyrna. He assures me that the ships left as stated by the ambassador. I am not sure if this may not be some sort of a sleeping draught, but it will not suffice to keep my eyes closed, since I know for certain that when that minister had audience of the Caimecam last Thursday, and speaking of the present war with the most serene republic, he said, his dragoman Piron interpreting, that it was not good for the Sultan to keep enemies in his country since it only served to do mischief and to write worse. I heard this from Musur Aga, who was present.

Pera of Constantinople, the 10th June, 1660.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
155. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters relating to the arrival of King Charles in London. Great satisfaction at this. Are sure he will have performed the necessary offices with the king, lords and princes as well as with Monch. He is to inform the merchants concerned of the concessions made to the Fregata del Zante.
Resolution to grant him 1000 ducats for special expenses.
Ayes, 54. Noes, 1. Neutral, 10.
[Italian.]
June 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
156. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After I had sent my last despatch an express courier arrived here from Dover with news that his Majesty was in sight of England and would land in a few hours. Immediately a great crowd of persons of all ranks set out for the Court. Some of the foreign ministers also took that road to congratulate his Majesty privately on his happy arrival. I myself took this course, thinking thus to serve your Excellencies as when the foreign ministers complimented the king at Breda there was no representative of your Serenity. When half way on the road I heard that his Majesty had landed at Dover with his two brothers, the dukes of York and Gloucester and all the Court, and without stopping there advanced to Canterbury, 52 miles from this city, where he proposed to pass the night. I hastened my steps and reached that city in a few hours just when the Court was entering. I had the good fortune to meet at once Mr. Henry Howard, brother of the earl of Arundel, who told me he had been at Breda these last weeks and had informed the king of the regard of your Excellencies and that I was the only foreign minister who had not recognised the parliament, at which the king expressed his pleasure. Mr. Howard at once presented me to his Majesty whom I congratulated briefly on his return, assuring him of the friendship of the republic. His Majesty replied in Italian and seemed very pleased that I had been the first to perform this office. He told me he knew that I was the only minister who had not recognised the parliament, and professed his obligation to the Senate for which he entertained the same friendly feelings as his ancestors, with more indicating his confidence and affection for the republic.
Having performed this office I took leave of the king making way for an immense crowd of people who came to see his Majesty. At great personal inconvenience he remained standing many hours to receive the respect and submission of the great numbers who came on purpose to kneel and kiss his hand, according to the custom of the country. I went on more privately to the quarters of the dukes of York and Gloucester whom I congratulated suitably, to which they also replied in Italian with much cordiality.
After these duties I set out on the following day to return to London meeting on the road some of the other ministers who had started before me but had not made such haste, and leaving the king at Canterbury. He stayed there over Sunday and on Monday proceeded to Rochester. On Tuesday the 29th May, his 30th birthday, he entered London on horseback between his two brothers and surrounded by a crowd of the nobility, with great pomp and triumph and in the most stately manner ever seen, amid the acclamations and blessings of the people, beyond all expression. The mayor and magistrates of the city met him and tendered the customary tributes, and he passed from one end to the other of this very long city, between the foot soldiers who kept the streets open, raising his eyes to the windows looking at all, raising his hat to all and consoling all who with loud shouts and a tremendous noise acclaimed the return of this great prince so abounding in virtues and distinguished qualities of every sort. Through this great crowd he proceeded to Whitehall where he remains, and where so far he has been allowed no rest, showing himself at every moment to the people who press impetuously forward to offer their devotion to their sovereign. He takes all his meals in public and by his royal presence affords his people the utmost consolation and enjoyment.
For three days and three nights they have lighted bonfires and made merry, burning effigies of Cromwell and other rebels with much abuse. The foreign ministers have taken part in these rejoicings, and I also, in addition to the illuminations have kept before the door a fountain of wine and other liquors, according to the custom of the country, much to the delight of the people and amid acclamations. In these three days, in my journey to and from the Court and in previous celebrations at the proclamation etc. I have spent just 97l. sterling, an insignificant sum in comparison with what others have expended, Denmark alone having spent over 200l. on illuminations these last three evenings. As all these expenses are extraordinary I hope the Senate will allow them in my accounts.
London, the 11th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
157. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Since his Majesty's arrival in London no business has been done as he is devoting himself to pleasing the people by his presence and in rewarding the deserving by making them knights, with other marks of honour. General Monch is in the highest favour and almost revered by the king, who has decorated him with the order of St. George, which is his own, made him a member of the privy council, confirmed him as general of all the forces of England, Scotland and Ireland and made him master of the horse. More is being prepared for him in recompense for his great gift to the nation which after God may acknowledge him as the author of the prosperity and repose which these realms at present enjoy.
One Morris, a confidant of Monch, has been knighted and given a place in his Majesty's privy council, to which the earl of Sutampton and Sir Antony Ashley Cupper have been added. In this way his Majesty is distributing honours and filling empty posts. The master of the ceremonies is not yet chosen, but he will be, to replace Flemingh, who had it in Cromwell's time. The offices of Lord Chamberlain and earl marshal, which are the most conspicuous, have not yet been filled. There are many pretenders for the first and the second may be confirmed to the house of Arundel, which has always held it in the past. This is concluded from Mr. Howard, the second son of that family, being very close with the king and in great credit at Court, so your Serenity may look for assistance from this influential person. He came here yesterday on purpose to ask me to tell the Senate how glad he was to be in a position to serve the republic, to which he is so deeply indebted. I thanked him suitably and intimated how useful it would be to interest the king in the just cause which the republic is maintaining alone against the Ottoman power.
In Holland his Majesty's reception by the States was extraordinary, and from the accounts of those present, quite unprecedented. Besides the state welcome to all the Court, presents to his Majesty of a service of gold and of plates worth more than 70,000l. sterling, and the restitution to the Prince of Orange of all the honours and titles which his father possessed, they permitted his Majesty to enter the Assembly of the States itself. When he entered, the president, who represents the sovereignty of the republic, rose and gave his seat to the king of England, who made a long speech thanking the States for the favours received and promising friendship and good relations. To preserve and increase this the Dutch have spared nothing, not only by flattering speech but with a profusion of gold, as they have made presents to every one of the Court to keep them friendly and to win the hearts of all.
It will be interesting to see what will happen with Dunkirk. Some say it will be restored to the Spaniards; others assert the contrary, but nothing can yet be said for certain. I have it from a confidant and on good authority that they will certainly make peace with Spain and in that case they should give up Dunkirk; that it may be considered infallible that they will then help the Catholic against Portugal, especially as it was observed that in Holland his Majesty would not give audience to the ambassador of Braganza, excluding him among all the other ministers there; that they will keep in with the Dutch assisting them against Sweden; and if Mazarini should object to such proceedings they will make war on France. All the people desire this as besides a natural instinct to hate the French, they are bitter enemies of the cardinal, who is not loved by the king either, in return for the scant affection his eminence professes for his Majesty as the former will certainly not rejoice at heart in the present prosperity of England.
Nothing is yet heard of his Majesty's coronation and it is thought that it cannot be celebrated for some time. They talk of mourning for the late king, of a funeral for his body and that the Court will soon be wearing it, to which the foreign ministers will have to conform. These are all waiting impatiently for letters of credence to perform publicly what they have only been able to do privately. Ambassadors extraordinary are also expected from all parts, but they cannot come soon though we hear that Genoa has already appointed one.
Yesterday the dukes of York and Gloucester entered parliament and this morning the king went by water to sign acts and other things which require his signature for their validity.
The lower house was preparing its lightenings against the Catholics, but it seems that it cannot get the other to agree, and without this and the king's assent nothing can be done, and it looks as if his Majesty will be much more indulgent than his predecessors.
They are devoting their energies to getting in money and are compelling everyone to contribute to the public revenues. There is no doubt that while this king will be formidable by sea and land equal to meeting any power that exists, he will also be most opulent in gold through the confiscations which are presently to be made, increasing the revenues and advantages of the crown.
Differences arose between the two houses on the question of privilege, the lower making unprecedented claims, but these have been settled, the commons yielding what they could not aspire to. (fn. 3) As there are many turbulent and contentious spirits among them, parliament may be dissolved to make way for a new and lawful one in accordance with the constitution of the realm as the present cannot be called a parliament since it was not summoned by the king, but by persons who had not the power to do so.
London, the 11th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
158. Gio. Battista Nani, Venetian Ambassador extraordinary in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The king of England has communicated the snares laid for him on his journey by sea. A gentleman of his is expected at Court at any moment, (fn. 4) bringing word of his entry into the kingdom. I have learned for certain that before he left Flanders his Majesty received from this crown a secret assistance of 100,000 crowns in ready money and they talk of removing the Ambassador Bordeos from London and sending thither some one more in his confidence.
Andaye, the 14th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
159. Francesco Giavabina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king went to parliament on Friday and was received in the upper house with every sign of respect, congratulated in the name of all by the president, the earl of Manchester, in words befitting such a prince. He put his hand to three acts, one confirming the present parliament, without which its deliberations and acts would not be lawful; the second continuing the civil judicature, which has not run for some months; the third for a tax of 70,000l. sterling a month for three months. After this, by the mouth of the chancellor the king said he would have been pleased to sign the act of oblivion and general pardon, which was preparing but not ready for signature. He strongly recommended despatch to remove the apprehensions of so many persons who do not know whether they will be included or excluded from this gracious indulgence.
In obedience to the royal command parliament has attended to nothing this week but this bill of indemnity, and has made great progress though it is not yet complete. Of those who sentenced the late king seven will not enjoy the benefit of the indulgence. These were named the day before yesterday and they were all among the most cruel and inhuman against that innocent blood. Some are already in the hands of justice and others have left the country, but all are condemned to the supreme penalty from which they can only escape by the special favour of his Majesty. A proclamation was issued on Wednesday citing the others who made up that unjust court of justice and who have fled, to present themselves within 14 days under pain of being excluded from the pardon and that those who hide or protect any of them are guilty of rebellion. (fn. 5)
Two other proclamations have come out this week, one against rebels in Ireland so that proceedings may be taken against them by the ordinary law, the other forbidding the use of force against those who possess goods acquired during the past disorders, and thus to prevent disturbances which might arise and preserve the peace, the whole question being reserved for the consideration and decision of parliament. (fn. 6) This severity greatly distresses many depressed families which have been in want during his Majesty's exile solely because they remained loyal to him, and who with his return hoped to enjoy their own. They now have the mortification of seeing themselves still shut out and unable to claim anything until it pleases parliament to decide, and God knows what decision it will take upon this.
His Majesty is forming his privy council and every day adds some fresh member. The duke of Buckingham, although received back into favour, is so far excluded with no indication that he will ever be admitted owing to the unfavourable opinion that the king has of him. At the instance of General Monch some Presbyterians have obtained a place in this distinguished body, which is taken very ill by those who truly love the king, as they know that the Presbyterian principles only turn to their own advantage both in ecclesiastical and temporal matters, to utterly destroy the Anglican church and episcopal power, which is the belief professed by the king.
At Monch's request also many have been knighted who were never friends of the king and it is not certain whether they can be called so even now. Everything he asks is granted without the slightest difficulty and he makes the most of the opportunity by elevating all his creatures, preferring unlimited requests without the slightest consideration, to the exclusion and prejudice of so many poor folk who have lost everything for the king, who have shed so much blood for his cause and are reduced to beggary and misery for him, so that their disgust and grumbling at the present unexpected procedure may be imagined.
There is some talk of bringing the queen mother back from France, but they do not say when. Meanwhile they are fitting up the house where she used to dwell (fn. 7) and parliament has voted to restore to her the revenues which she enjoyed before she was exiled from England. They have not yet touched any business of consequence or private affairs. The king is devoting all his attention to the formation of his own household and he is busy every day distributing the posts and offices which pertain to it.
Colonel Locart has been removed from Dunkirk and his Majesty has sent Colonel Harley to be governor there in his place. Of the peace with Spain there is nothing to add to what I wrote last week. Time will ripen many things and I will keep the Senate fully informed.
London, the 18th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Genova.
Venetian
Archives.
160. Paris Tasca, Venetian Consul at Genoa, to the Doge and Senate.
At the present moment the squadron of the prince of Montesarchio is in the port of Vado. News has just come that the prince, on learning that under the fortress of Airassi there was an English ship lading oil, sent two ships of war thither. These engaged the Englishman, who defended himself bravely, with the favour of the fortress, slaying a captain and 40 to 50 soldiers. Finally the Englishman was driven ashore and one of the Spaniards, the former having surrendered. Here they exclaim against the lack of respect shown to the fortress. Galleys have been sent in that direction with a commission to see that their ship is restored to the English.
Genoa, the 19th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian Archives.
161. Alvise Molin, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
Terlon, the French ambassador had sent a gentleman with letters of his own and of England complaining of Reuter and of the Dutch deputies; but in spite of this the English mediators had urged the Dutch to resume negotiations on the condition of releasing the Swedish ships. The Dutch would not listen to this, being determined to act with vigour against the Swedes since they do not accept the treaty of the Hague. It is also reported that the English are not well satisfied with their deputies in Denmark because they have been too partial to the Swedes, and for this reason they may be recalled. If this should prove true it may be of great assistance for the adjustment of those affairs.
Vienna, the 19th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
162. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The Spaniards are content with the terms of peace with France, including the abandonment of Portugal, that being the greatest gift that France could confer on the crown of Spain. They hope that intercourse and negotiation may be introduced with England and that by means of money and of the friendly disposition of King Charles the agreement stipulated by the Council of State with Portugal may not have effect, now that the government is changed and with it the considerations and conveniences of that unstable and stern nation.
All the same two galleons of the squadron of Spain which sailed from Porto Santa Maria laden with provisions for Oran, besieged by the Moors, fell in with three English frigates; fired on by the guns of these last one of the galleons succeeded in escaping, the other ran aground, when the English after releasing the Turkish slaves, burned the ship.
Madrid, the 20th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
163. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king is very slow in arranging his household which is indeed all in confusion owing to the claims of many, the king's desire to satisfy everyone and the impossibility of pleasing all. On the other hand parliament is showing great quickness, vigilance and prudence in preparing the act of pardon, which it hopes to issue before long for the satisfaction and consolation of so many who are looking for it. Besides the seven regicides condemned to death, twenty more are to forfeit not their lives but their goods and be banished the kingdom. Some of these have already been named and new ones are added daily, the punishment falling on those who showed most barbarity against Charles I, who will thus be despoiled of the great wealth they acquired indirectly, against divine and human law, to the hurt and destruction of so many poor families. As punishment is deserved not only by those who pronounced the sentence but also by the principals who had the pretended Court constituted, a proposal to this effect was carried in parliament and they at once began to vote out those who sat in the long parliament in 1648 and who are members of the present, declaring them incapable of any public charge and with other pecuniary penalties they propose to make them do penance for their villainies.
His Majesty's privy council sits but so far no discussion of consequence has taken place there. They are attending solely to internal affairs, issuing proclamations against vagabonds and other rogues and receiving congratulations, which are constantly arriving from the provinces on his Majesty's happy return, all of one accord not only in their expressions but in their voluntary offerings to show their affection and submission.
To the general wonder nothing is heard about peace with Spain and a recent incident at Brussels may serve to postpone what the traders of both nations sigh for. Some of the English who remained in Brussels after the king's departure came by chance across Thomas Scot, one of the seven regicides sentenced to death, who had saved himself by flight, like many others, going to France and elsewhere. They captured him with the intention of sending him to England to meet his sentence, when he produced a passport of Don Alonso de Cardenas, formerly ambassador of the Catholic, and now holding an important appointment in Flanders, and an enemy of the king here. But this did not suffice to procure his liberty. When Don Alonso heard of it he sent fresh orders for his release, and when this had no effect Cardenas applied to the Governor Caracena, no friend of the king either. He sent troops who took Scot out of the hands of the English and Don Alonso afterwards had him conducted out of Brussels by night by twenty of his servants on horseback. The incident is greatly resented here and they speak strongly about the indiscretion of those two ministers in protecting openly a rebel and traitor.
His Majesty is constantly conferring titles on deserving subjects and on others recommended by General Monch, to whom nothing is refused. The Marquis of Hertford, who has always belonged to the royal party and General Montagu have received the order of St. George from his Majesty and others have had other marks of regard for good services to the crown.
The effigy of the tyrant Oliver Cromwell, whose name and memory are increasingly cursed by the people, was exposed all day yesterday hung from a window in the court of the palace, with a rope round its neck, abused by all the populace who thronged to see it and who spared no act of contempt and ignominy.
London, the 25th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
164. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
It is already stated on sound authority that a cessation of arms has taken place between Spain and England to become later a secure and durable peace. King Charles has written letters entirely courteous, giving an account of his entry into London. He added that to finish the life of a tyrant God permitted many months, but no one was able to restore life to a good prince, such as the late king, his father, was. Here they have now chosen as ambassador extraordinary to England, to offer congratulations, the Prince of Ligni, general of the cavalry in Flanders, with a grant for his expenses of 12,000 crowns. They also proposed to send back for negotiation Cardenas, who is at Brussels, but on several occasions King Charles has said that that minister had accumulated more offences and injuries to his royal house than Cromwell himself, so that he is for ever excluded and ruined.
Madrid, the 25th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Genova.
Venetian
Archives.
165. Paris Tasca, Venetian Consul at Genoa, to the Doge and Senate.
The Council of State decided to demand the restitution of the English ship taken by the Prince of Montesarchio. In the mean time they decided to send out six vessels and six armed galleys from this port which joined with four English ships that are here, to procure the recovery of the English ship by force, in case of refusal. The minister carried out his commission, after some altercation, the ship being claimed as good prize; but they agreed to restore it, and this was afterwards done, to the gratification of the mart, for the avoidance of complications. According to universal report a present of 4000 pezzi was covertly made, contributed by the interested parties.
Genoa, the 26th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
166. Gio. Battista Nani, Venetian Ambassador extraordinary in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Court here is greatly stirred against the king of England. The Count of Brienne told me particulars about the treatment of the Ambassador Bordeos. He said they would have expected anything but this from the king of England, to whom, immediately upon the conclusion of the peace with Spain, to which incidentally he owes his restoration, France offered all her forces and opened her purse allowing him to take as much money as he liked. The king knew all about Bordeos. He declared that war had been made for less. They were sending orders to Bordeos to leave at once, I tried to soothe him. Brienne shrugged his shoulders and said they would wait to see what satisfaction England would give for so great an affront.
I well understand their anxiety that the king's gratitude should not be all directed towards Spain. It was foreseen that the king would not wish to treat with Bordeos and they intended to remove him, but it was forgotten amid other preoccupations. I believe however that the king of England, whose fortunes may still be considered uncertain, will take care not to irritate a power which can make a great deal of trouble for him at home, so I feel sure that there will be no rupture and an effort will be made to reach a satisfactory adjustment.
Bordeaux, the 28th June, 1660.
[Italian.]
June 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
167. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Here at Court they talk of nothing but the war with parliament. They have great hopes of England. The Spaniards say that the war was with parliament and with Cromwell but never with King Charles, towards whom they have used every demonstration of the utmost esteem and confidence. They regret here, however, that the Marquis of Caracena, on seeing King Charles leave Flanders and go off to Breda to receive the deputies from London, had without orders stopped the payment of the 100,000 crowns; but he writes to the ministers here to the following effect, that provided the money is safe, honour is safe also.
Madrid, the 28th June, 1660.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Samuel Morland arrived at Breda on 6–16 May. There is a list of those who betrayed the king among the state papers. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1659–60, page 411.
2 The Italian text to this point printed by Barozzi e Berchet: Relazioni, Inghilterra, page 419. The date is given wrongly as 12 June. There is a copy of the letter, undated, in the Public Record Office S.P. Venice, Vol. xlv., together with a draft of the king's reply, which is not to be found at the Frari, Venice.
3 Concerning the treatment of the regicides. The peers claimed that judicature belonged solely to the lords' house. Conferences between the houses were held on 19 and 22 May, o.s. Old Parliamentary History, Vol. xxii, pp. 301–2.
4 William, lord Crofts. D'Avenel: Lettres du Cardinal Mazarin, Vol. ix, page 622.
5 Proclamation of 6–16 June, citing John Lisle and 43 others, Cal. S.P. Dom. 1660–1, page 41.
6 Proclamation of 1–11 June, for quieting possessions. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1660–1, page 34.
7 Somerset House. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1660–1, page 277. Those who were dwelling there had been turned out on 27 May. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962P, f. 649.


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