Venice
July 1660

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1931

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163-178

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'Venice: July 1660', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 32: 1659-1661 (1931), pp. 163-178. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90058 Date accessed: 16 September 2014.


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Contents

July 1660

July 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
168. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king finding the deliberation with which parliament proceeds with the general pardon very tiresome, especially after he had urged despatch, thought fit to repeat this in a letter sent by one of the secretaries of state, recommending the completion of the work, pointing out the need for its speedy appearance to set at rest the many who do not know what will happen to them and long for that boon to see the light. Parliament, anxious to please the king, set to work on the business and that same morning completed the list of 20 who are not to be included in the pardon. So the act is expected to be ready in a few days to receive the royal assent and be published for the general satisfaction of the people, who will then hold their safety in their own hands, which will depend on their future actions, the past being buried in oblivion.
Parliament having settled this very important question has now taken others in hand. It has voted the continuation of the duties, ordinary and extraordinary and they are considering establishing the yearly revenue of the king, without which his Majesty cannot complete the formation of his household, for he cannot dispose of anything before he has it to give.
They are also considering the revenues of the queen. Although both houses definitely forbad the continued alienation of the goods of her and her son, the cutting of wood in the royal parks or the destruction of anything belonging to them, yet considering that owing to numerous sales of those goods the queen cannot at present enjoy much especially as the decision about all that has been alienated is left to parliament, which will not settle such a matter very quickly, they passed a vote the day before yesterday to pay the queen 20,000l. sterling to meet her present needs, until she returns to England, which will apparently be in a few weeks, after she has taken the waters of Barbon, for which she will soon be leaving Paris, where she has stayed during her son's exile.
The king is much incensed over the affair of the regicide Scot, who is believed to have been taken again in Flanders. His Majesty has written a letter to the Catholic this week complaining strongly of the personal hostility shown by Don Alonso in protecting a rebel without orders from his master; but being a creature of Don Luis d'Haros Cardenas will trouble little about complaints from this quarter.
The earl of Bristol, who represented the king at Madrid, has arrived at Court from Spain. Since he came there is talk of an armistice between the English and Spaniards in all quarters, like that at Dunkirk, but so far it seems to be words without deeds. It is said, however, that Caracena is to go from Brussels to Ostend to negotiate an adjustment. But it is doubtful and also whether they will be willing here to restore Dunkirk and Jamaica, as they seem little disposed that way, considering the former as of great importance to the English as from its position it serves as a bridle on the French, Spaniards, and Dutch, and for the latter the merchants here point to great advantages for the crown, so we must wait for time to show.
The elector of Brandenburg had no minister in England, and as he professes the closest confidence with the king here, as soon as he heard from Flanders of his Majesty's good fortune he despatched his master of the horse to London (fn. 1) with letters for the king and his brothers with his congratulations. This person arrived recently, but with no character except as envoy. On Wednesday he paid his respects to the king and yesterday he saw the dukes, accompanied by the new master of the ceremonies, Sir [Charles] Cotterel, and was graciously received by his Majesty.
Of all the ministers here Portugal alone has so far received his credentials, and next week he will ask audience to present them. In view of the refusal of his Majesty to see the ambassador of Braganza in Holland (fn. 2) , he is afraid that it will not be granted; we shall soon see. All the others except France and Holland have seen the king in private audience, some at Canterbury and some here, and all are expecting credentials to legalise them for coming events. In view of these all are renewing their coaches and liveries, and I also have done this entirely changing the colours of the liveries, so as not to show that of Cromwell's time. These expenses will run to some 100l. sterling in addition to what I had to spend the previous weeks, so I hope the state will not let me succumb under the burden.
Holland did not see the king because just as he was going to ask for audience he received orders from the States to leave at once. He did so immediately, without saying a word to anyone. It is now supposed that the king made representations in Holland to have him removed, being ill pleased with the minister personally owing to his behaviour during the late incidents. He has left his secretary here until the arrival of the ambassadors extraordinary, which is delayed by disputes between the Provinces, who all want to send. Holland wants to be head of the embassy, but if all send it will be Guelderland, as a duchy, the other being only a county.
France also has not seen the king for the same reason, as all the time he has been here he has spoken of the king in an improper manner and in writing he has exceeded the limits. So when he asked for a private audience, like the others, he was refused absolutely, though he urged it eagerly through his friends and confidants. It has since been intimated to him by a third party that it will be better for him to leave here. It seems that the king said he would gladly receive anyone whom the Most Christian may send, but he cannot admit Bordeos as he is perfectly informed of what the ambassador has done and spoken to his disadvantage. His Excellency has reported all this to France and is waiting for instructions. There is no doubt that during his stay here he has behaved most indiscreetly, speaking and writing against his Majesty, who has in his hands several of his intercepted papers. This has not happened to anyone else, as knowing the intentions of their masters, they proceeded with great reserve, as I have done myself, never saying a word against the king or meddling in what I saw did not concern me.
London, the 2nd July, 1660.
Postscript: The courier of Flanders has just arrived, obliging me to open these to acknowledge receipt of the ducal missives of the 11th ult. with the credentials for the king. Your Excellencies also direct me to see the king's brothers, but do not send credentials though they are most necessary. I ask that they may be sent as without them I do not know how to ask for public access. It would not be bad to send them also for the queen, to be ready on her arrival, so as not to lose time in asking and waiting for them.
[Italian.]
July 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
169. To the Queen Mother of the King of England.
The republic, which has always cherished the most sincere regard for the crown of England cannot refrain from conveying to her Majesty the most pure and sincere expressions of their exceeding gladness at hearing of the termination, by God's grace, of the adversity which has for so long distressed her Majesty to the regret of all good men. Our ambassador with the Most Christian will deliver this and offer the congratulations and expressions of satisfaction on behalf of the republic.
Ayes, 106. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
170. To the Ambassador Grimani in France.
As the queen of England is there we consider it extremely necessary that after you have entered on the functions of your embassy you should perform a most fulsome office with her of congratulation upon the restoration of her son King Charles to the paternal sceptre. We enclose letters for you to present with a suitable office.
Ayes, 106. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
171. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his despatch of the 2nd ult. Approval of his office with the king and of his going to Canterbury. The Senate has decided to send two ambassadors extraordinary to England, who will start as soon as possible. Next week he will be advised of those who are chosen, and he will then inform the king, assuring him of the republic's regard. Permission to enter in his accounts 97l. sterling spent on celebrations.
Ayes, 106. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
In the Collegio: Ayes, 19. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
172. In the Pregadi.
In consideration of the return of King Charles II to London and that all princes are likely to send ambassadors extraordinary as a sign of regard, and in view of the republic's friendly relations with his predecessors, that at the first meeting of this Council choice be made of two nobles of ability and experience with the title of ambassadors extraordinary to King Charles II, who shall serve, upon the penalties for those appointed to embassies to crowned heads. They shall start when their commissions have been settled by this Council. They shall have provision of 600 gold ducats a month each, for which they need not account, with four months' pay in advance, and for equipment 300 ducats each. They are required to take a secretary of the ducal chamber and a coadjutor, 200 and 100 ducats respectively being granted to these for their equipment, with a salary of 25 ducats a month for the secretary and 15 ducats for the coadjutor, with four months' pay in advance. For the interpreter and chaplain they shall have 10 crowns a month each and 30 ducats each for two couriers, who will accompany them.
Ayes, 106. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
173. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Great declarations have been made by the king of England towards the crown of Spain. He stated publicly in Holland that a cessation of arms between the two countries would follow, and received the Catholic Ambassador Gamarra with the utmost courtesy, while he treated the President di Tun, the Most Christian ambassador very badly. The truth of the matter is that the deputies of London placed in the king's hands the very letters of Cardinal Mazarini which impeded his Majesty's return to his kingdom and disclosed the dealings and arrangements which the Ambassador Bordeos was conducting from time to time with the malcontents of the late government. Here they are indeed eager for confidential relations with England, but they do not care about committing themselves or the tendency to other fresh quarrels (ma non si ama l'impegno o le dispositioni con altre nuove rotture), for it seems to them that King Charles is too easily led to make declarations, having made some in favour of Denmark and against Sweden.
Already they have sent to London the Marquis Conflans, nephew of Batteville with letters to open the way to negotiations, hoping to receive every possible satisfaction from the crown. By another way they have sent the remittances for the 100,000 ducats which were held back by Caracena, but these have not been put at his disposition.
Madrid, the 7th July, 1660.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
174. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Although the act of indemnity was practically ready last week and is awaited with extraordinary impatience by the people it is not yet in a state to receive the royal assent which his Majesty so ardently desires to give. The act has been minuted and read several times these last days, but many amendments have been made, causing delay, though it is hoped that it will soon come out.
As many acts of parliament have subsequently been made public with sinister interpretations, to prevent this in the future they have passed a resolution this week forbidding any member to talk of what takes place in the assembly, no matter what its nature, under severe penalties, and the printers are also forbidden to print what may come to their knowledge without a special order of parliament. So it will now be very difficult to find out about their decisions. For the current week they are of no moment, as they have only attended to private affairs and to the settlement of the revenues of the king and queen mother.
When he was in Flanders the king issued commissions for taking English ships etc. belonging to this nation, then hostile to him. A proclamation (fn. 3) has now come out forbidding anyone, under severe penalties, to use such commissions any more, annulling those granted by the duke of York, as Lord High Admiral of England, as well as the king's. This same proclamation orders all Englishmen in the service of foreign princes at sea or in maritime affairs, to return at once to England when they hear of it, so I have thought proper to inform your Serenity in order that the necessary steps may be taken to ask the king's permission that his subjects in the service of the most serene republic may remain there without hindrance.
In obedience to another royal proclamation issued later, yesterday was observed in this city and throughout the kingdom in giving thanks to God for the happy return of his Majesty. In the morning many hours were spent in church, the afternoon in feasting and recreation and the night with bonfires in every part of London, accompanied by ringing all the bells and firing the guns of the Tower. Like the other foreign ministers I celebrated the day with illuminations, spending 22l. sterling, which I beg leave to enter in my accounts.
Earl Germin, who has stayed almost constantly with the queen of England at Paris, returned here recently from France. It seems that he will soon be going back to the Most Christian Court to fetch her Majesty to London.
At the request of the earl of Vinchelsea, who wants to go ambassador to Constantinople, the king has decided to recall the English minister now at the Porte and to send the earl in his place. As the ambassadors to the Turk have no affairs except for the merchants, they are paid by the Turkey Company, and on Monday, according to ancient custom, the king wrote a letter to the Company informing them of his decision and recommending the earl. The merchants are amazed at a person of this rank wanting to go to Constantinople, a thing never seen before, and they are not altogether pleased, as they will have to incur greater expenses, for the earl no doubt desires the post merely for the gain, but such being his Majesty's wish they must needs conform to it. They have not yet answered the royal letter but will do so soon.
Meanwhile the earl has been to see me. He expressed his regard for the republic and told me all the affair, asking me to offer the Senate his services at Constantinople and telling me he will assuredly go out at the end of August next, travelling by sea, as his household etc. would make it too troublesome to go by land. I made a suitable response and ask the Senate to send me instructions in the matter. At the same time it is my duty to inform your Serenity that the earl is a young man full of idle talk (di gran ciancie), informed about many things, but not very steady, rather inclined to be light and volatile, like the climate of the country. For this reason no one thinks him suitable for the post of Constantinople, which requires mature and sober men, but his chief object being gain, he has not thought of anything beyond and his talk is all of occasions which may bring him profit. I could easily see that this was the case especially as he intimated to me that he knew that the French ambassador was looking after the interests of the republic at the Porte, and has received large presents, and that he would be in a position to serve much better than the Frenchman, with more of the same sort, which I report to show the disposition of the man.
The instructions received last week direct me not to present the credentials except when the other ministers here do so, and so far no one has, except the special envoy of Brandenburg, who cannot serve as a model. Portugal has asked for audience and is more hopeful of getting it than he was before his credentials arrived. France having heard from Court with the return of his express, has asked to see the king, but being denied he is now packing his things to depart as soon as possible; meantime his horses have been seized and his steward arrested for debts. He announces that his master is ill pleased with the behaviour of the king here in refusing to admit him, and that the marshal Turenne, who had been appointed ambassador extraordinary to England, has since been ordered not to move. But others assert the contrary and state further that the Most Christian is displeased with Bordeos for having exceeded his commissions and for having spoken injuriously of the king here and of all the royal house during their exile from England.
London, the 9th July, 1660.
[Italian.]
July 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
175. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledgment of his letters and approval of his action. The Senate has chosen Signori Angelo Correr and Michiel Morosini to be the ambassadors extraordinary. They will leave for England at a suitable time. He is to inform the king of this at a special audience, with a suitable office, calculated to foster the most perfect correspondence.
Ayes, 101. Noes, 2. Neutral, 7.
[Italian.]
July 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
176. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The three English frigates (fn. 4) which are cruising along the coast of Spain without opposition, entered the port of Alicante and carried off a wheat ship of Sicily with other lesser craft. Forty men have been slain in a fight with an English ship off the riviera of Genoa.
Madrid, the 14th July, 1660.
[Italian.]
July 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
177. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The people vie with each other to express to the king and his brothers their supreme delight at the restoration of the Stuart family. All are inviting the king and Court to hunts, festivities and recreations. But while these things please his Majesty as showing the friendly disposition of the people, they are tiresome and inconvenient for him, for he cannot get an hour's rest, though he bears it all from his desire to please his people. All the week the king has been engaged, the morning at one place, the night at another. Yesterday he was entertained by the city of London in a most splendid manner, the privy council and the two houses of parliament also being present at the banquet and at the music, comedies etc. that were performed. The king went to the city in a superb cavalcade, but it rained incessantly the whole day and spoiled the preparations that had been made to render it majestic and sumptuous.
The act of indemnity has not come out and may be delayed for some weeks yet. Amendments are made daily and when all is finished it has to go to the upper house for its consent. That body will discuss it for some time inserting certain particulars and excepting some of its own members who had a hand in the death of King Charles.
Some regiments of horse and foot, consisting of English, Irish and Scots which his Majesty had in Flanders, and which since his return have remained in the same quarters over sea which were originally assigned to them, have now been ordered to march to Dunkirk to stay there in garrison. Money has been voted and a fund for their pay and a good sum will shortly be sent of which they are in great need.
In the army here they keep changing the officers, raising those who have always taken the royal side and putting down those who seem uncertain and suspect. The governorships of the chief fortresses have also been changed and placed in safe and loyal hands. The Tower of London has been given to Alderman Robinson, recently created a baronet for his steadfast loyalty to his Majesty. Hull is given to Lord Bellasis, who never left the royal party. The same is done all over, such as the supervision of the artillery and all sorts of munitions of war, which are all changed and conferred on worthy and distinguished persons.
After all the talk about the titles of General Monch a patent has come out under the great seal creating him baron of three places, earl of Torinton and duke of Albemarle. He is also a knight of St. George, master of the horse and a member of the privy Council. The dukedom is in Normandy, a title formerly held by the house of Piantagenet, which came from France and from which Monch is descended on the female side. The earldom and the baronies are in Devonshire and the neighbouring counties. With these titles and the general esteem Monch has become one of the foremost men at Court. The Chancellor Hide is also in great authority, as also the marquis of Ormond, Grand Master of the Royal Household, and the earl of Manchester, the chamberlain. I know that other foreign ministers have written to their masters for letters of credence to all these. I mention this in case your Excellencies should send by the ambassadors extraordinary. In any case it would not be a bad thing to write to Monch, flattering him liberally, as he takes great pleasure in such signs of esteem and respect.
The Turkey Company has not yet answered the king's letter about the embassy at Constantinople. I fancy the merchants are not much inclined to change their present representative at the Porte, and propose to petition the king against it, representing the great cost of such a change and to the company's lack of funds owing to the numerous losses this year at sea, so the change cannot yet be considered certain though Vinchelsea feels sure of it. (fn. 5) I will keep the Senate informed.
The French ambassador, being unable to obtain audience, has left for Paris. Portugal is still waiting and hoping for his. The resident of Florence has his credentials and is asking for it. A deputy of Geneva (fn. 6) here had it on Wednesday but without any ceremony. Sweden, Denmark and the rest are expecting their letters by the first ordinary. I will keep mine by to present them when others, who are on a par with the republic, do so.
London, the 16th July, 1660.
Postscript: After I had sealed the above Colonel Bertrand de la Coste, a Frenchman, came to see me. He wishes to serve the republic and asked me to forward the enclosed offer. He showed me patents and other papers from the king of Denmark and other princes who had employed him.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.178. Offer of Colonel Bertrand de la Coste to serve Venice against the Turks. Has an expert knowledge of bombs and mortars. Their efficiency shown at Smolensk, formerly considered impregnable (fn. 7) ; services to the king of Denmark, etc.
[Latin.]
July 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
179. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters. Enclose what the Ambassador Nani writes about a report that England is negotiating an offensive and defensive alliance with the Turk. He is to look out for corroboration of this. He is also to watch closely what is decided about Dunkirk as important consequences may depend upon this.
Ayes, 124. Noes, 0. Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
July 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
180. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Gamarra, the Catholic ambassador in Holland, writes that he has received a promise and pledge from the king of England, so that there is no longer any doubt about a reconciliation between these two crowns. This news comforts the Court greatly since the English fleet threatened a sensible blow.
The courier sent to Flanders publishes the permission and liberty granted in the ports there to all ships flying the flag and bearing the name of his Britannic Majesty. It is six days since an envoy of King Charles arrived in diligence at Madrid with royal letters full of love and confidence, beyond the usual style adopted by sovereigns or by that country. (fn. 8)
500,000 crowns are being given to the Baron di Batteville for the embassy of England. 15,000 more are being sent to France to the Count of Fuendalsagna.
Madrid, the 21st July, 1660.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
181. To the Resident in England.
The Senate notes the receipt of the letters of credence for the king. Others are enclosed for the dukes of York and Gloucester as well as for the queen mother, although another has been sent to the Ambassador Grimani in France, which however she may not have seen. He is to present these with suitable offices. The Senate will consider his expenses for a new coach and liveries.
Ayes, 100. Noes, 2. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
182. To the Queen Mother of the King of England.
Rejoicings at the restoration of the king. The congratulations will be presented by the Resident Francesco Giavarina, to whom she is asked to give credence.
Ayes, 120. Noes, 2. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
183. To James, duke of York.
The like, with the same voting.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
184. To Henry, duke of Gloucester.
The like, with the same voting.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
185. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The marquises of Arghil and Antrim, Sir Arthur Haselrig and Sir Henry Vane have been suddenly sent to the Tower this week. The first is a rigid Presbyterian and always hostile to the king; the second a Catholic of Ireland and very vacillating in his Majesty's service; the other two are English, one an Independent the other an Anabaptist, ringleaders in the late troubles, bitter persecutors of the Stuart family and of the monarchy, judges of the late king and now excepted by parliament from the act of pardon. As they are all of different faiths they have never been able to unite together except now that they are in the Tower. By the king's order they are guarded most strictly, no one being allowed to communicate with them. Many others have been arrested since yesterday, but their names are not yet known.
The motive for the arrests seems to be to prevent some design of the Presbyterians against the crown in the matter of religion, as they want to establish it according to the diabolical doctrine of Calvin, and the Court wants to restore episcopalianism, as in the time of the late kings. Parliament is also working at this question and as there are many Presbyterians in the house of Commons, they engage in disputes which only serve to postpone a decision, to the inconvenience and prejudice of the Court. But now their evil disposition is seen and they are under guard it will be easy to destroy all evil humours and prevent any attempts. For this cause the council of state has spent its days in serious deliberation and they have increased the guards at Whitehall. Besides the double sentries on foot they have added two on horse at every approach. But this does not prevent the king from going out every day and engaging in hunting and other recreations in which he most delights.
In Scotland also it seems that the Presbyterians are not content on the score of religion. They talk openly at Court of the discovery that Cardinal Mazarini sent a large sum of money to the ministers of that country to exhort the people in their sermons to fresh disturbances for the maintenance of their false creed and to force the king to keep the covenant which he was compelled to take some years ago when he was in Scotland. In short the idea is to kindle a fresh fire in these kingdoms, to which France will contribute all she can to divert the storms that menace her, as she did in the time of Richelieu. Here they will quash it all now they have found out the design and it would not be difficult for them to turn their arms against France, as the natural antipathy between the two nations persists and occasions of offence increase daily. I will keep the Senate duly informed.
They say that the Most Christian has taken exception to the king's refusal to receive the Ambassador Bordeos. The Court here declares that France has no cause for offence as the objection is only to Bordeos personally; kings of England have on other occasions refused audience to French ministers and a prince may do so when the person employed is objectionable to him. Meanwhile we do not hear that the French Court has appointed anyone to be ambassador extraordinary to England; indeed they say that when the king here commissioned a gentleman about the queen mother in France to pay his respects to the Most Christian about the peace and the marriage, he would not hear him, in revenge for the treatment of Bordeos.
They continue active in changing officers of the army and the governors of the chief places in the realm. Worthy men are being sent to the forts on the coast and to the islands and peninsulas near England to guard them, those who lost all in the king's service being rewarded in this way until other means can be found to do so more amply.
The Portuguese ambassador seeing his audience delayed which he asked for three weeks ago, and finding that all the means employed to get it have proved vain, interprets the delay as a tacit refusal and seems to think of going. With such a refusal all the treaties concluded by Braganza with the former council of state will fall through; and with the failure of English assistance and that of France by virtue of the peace between the crowns Spain may the more easily pursue the conquest of Portugal.
This refusal also indicates a friendly disposition here for the adjustment with the Catholic. In this connection they say that the prince di Ligne and the baron di Batteville, chosen by the king of Spain as ambassadors extraordinary and ordinary respectively to this king will soon arrive with instructions to conclude it, and that Batteville's nephew (fn. 9) has already arrived in London with letters of the Catholic, as a simple envoy, to lay the foundations and prepare the way for the embassies.
The Resident of Florence had the audience he asked last Friday. Denmark also had letters of credence by the last ordinary and presented them latterly in public audience telling his Majesty of an ambassador extraordinary, who is on the road and should soon arrive. With this example I also asked audience, which was granted to day after dinner. Sir [Charles] Cotterel, master of the ceremonies, fetched me with the coaches and brought me back, the formalities customary in the time of the kings with residents of crowned heads being observed. I spoke to the king in accordance with the terms of my instructions, telling him of the intention to send two ambassadors extraordinary, presenting my credentials. His Majesty stood uncovered, a formality not observed by any crown with residents, but adopted by this king with every one whatever his character, for he excels all other potentates in humanity and affability. He answered in French expressing his regard for your Serenity and seemed pleased about the ambassadors extraordinary. He treated me personally very courteously and expressed his pleasure that your excellencies had sent me as a precursor of the office of rejoicing which I passed in your name.
Having now seen the king I will visit the dukes, though I have no letters for them, going in private as Denmark has done, telling them that he expected the credentials. I also will promise them as I am sure they will not tarry long in coming. I will also see Monch and others as instructed, giving the Senate a full account.
Besides those which came with the master of the ceremonies there were other coaches and six of lords and friends to show their esteem for the republic and these served me as a suite. In gratuities to the coachmen, postillions and footmen, following the example of Denmark, Florence, and Brandenburg, I spent 23l. sterling which I ask leave to include in my accounts.
London, the 23rd July, 1660.
[Italian.]
July 28.
Senato,
Seereta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
186. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Account of a conversation with Don Luis. He spoke of England and referred to the case of the Ambassador Bordeos. Meanwhile Don Luis is treating secretly with the gentleman of England, desiring a squadron of armed ships, and he does not despair of getting them if he can get together a sufficient stock of money for the entire payment.
Orders from his Majesty have gone to all the ports of Spain so that English ships may be received in freedom and safety. He has further commanded that all that has been taken belonging to the English from the 6th June shall be freely restored, so the two ships which came from Smyrna and Alexandria may profit by this concession of the king.
Some English ships which were cruising in the waters of Malaga searched two Dutch ships of the convoy of Genoa, and after taking something of the cargo restored it to them, receiving in exchange a handsome present.
Madrid, the 28th July, 1660.
[Italian.]
July 28.
Collegio,
Lettere
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
187. James, Duke of York to the Doge and Seignory of Venice.
Messieurs:
Comme le ressentiment que mes amis ont fait paroistre de mon infortune m'a beaucoup soulagé dans les malheurs que j'ay souffert par la passé aussi la part qu'ils temoignent prendre au changement des affaires qui me regardent releve beaucoup la joye que j'en recois. C'est pourquoy vous vous persuaderez facilement que les marques d'amitié que vous m'avez donné tant par vostre lettre que par le Sieur Francois Giavarino m'ont esté fort sensibles et m'obligeront a chercher toutes les occasions par lesquelles je pourray vous faire voir que je suis Messieurs,
Votri tres affectionne ami,
[Signed] Jacques.
De Londres le 7me d'Aoust, 1660.
July 30.
Senato,
Seereta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
188. To the Resident in England.
The Senate notes the proclamation requiring all the English in foreign service to return home. Much harm will be done if those in the service of the republic should leave. When he communicates the choice of ambassadors extraordinary he is to press for a declaration that those serving the republic are excepted from this decree, as being engaged in so just a cause against the common enemy. If he is successful he is to obtain a copy of the exemption and forward it. Approval of his action with the earl of Winchelsea. To cultivate his goodwill to the republic. The sudden departure of the French ambassador is noteworthy. He is to watch closely all the deliberations which are taken in this connection.
The Senate will consider his expenses for the festivities.
Ayes, 88. Noes, 1. Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
July 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
189. Francesco Giavarena, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The important and thorny question of religion, taken in hand last week, has been discussed in parliament during this week, very seriously. After many disputes and other reactions between the Presbyterian and Episcopal parties it was seen that the latter would prevail, so they decided to put the matter aside and say no more about it for the space of three months, and that in the interval his Majesty should nominate divines to examine the question and decide what is best for the good of the crown and the whole nation in a matter of such urgency and importance. Although this decision is not categorical or absolutely decisive, it greatly distresses the Presbyterian party as showing the disposition of the assembly to please the king in this also, as he will now be able to advance the Anglican church, restore the bishops and re-establish everything as it was in the time of the late kings, before it was interrupted by the long parliament and utterly destroyed by the tyrannical hypocrisy of Cromwell and his followers.
Another decree has followed, very consoling to the Court, to the advantage of the royal house, that the king shall have back all the revenues and goods which his father possessed, which have been sold and distributed among the rebels; that his Majesty may take them wherever he finds them and re-enter into possession of what has always been his own. In this way the Court will little by little regain its former flourishing condition. At present it is still in confusion without the smallest order, while from all parts of the country the people with one accord are making presents to his Majesty, of plate etc., vieing with one another to show their passionate love for their natural sovereign.
Many more arrests have taken place this week, including Thomas Scot, captured in Flanders and sent here from Dunkirk, who is one of the seven condemned to death by parliament. With these measures and parliament's decrees in the king's favour they hope to prevent any evil inclinations of the Presbyterians and there seems no longer any reason for doubt about complete peace and tranquillity in these realms. On the other hand there are strong grounds for suspecting a rupture with France. Occasions of offence multiply daily and one hears nothing on the people's lips than wishes for war with the French, showing the great rancour and hatred that this nation has for the French by natural antipathy.
Lord Jermin, earl of St. Alban, left for Paris the day before yesterday. He goes to make arrangements with the queen of England for her coming to London, which is not expected for some months, as it seems that he is to return again to the Court and then go back to fetch her Majesty.
The envoy of Brandenburg has performed the office of congratulation, for which he was sent by the elector. He threw out some suggeston of a marriage between the king here and a princess of Brandenburg, though one does not hear of anything being arranged or of any progress being made. He has bought some horses for the elector's stables and having taken leave of his Majesty and the Court, is about to set off home.
The Portuguese ambassador, after despairing of an audience and talking of leaving, made a strenuous effort to have it and finally got his wish. He was received publicly yesterday by the king to whom he handed the letter of Braganza. It is said that he bought this access very dear; they state that he paid 10,000l. sterling to the grandees of the Court to smoothe the way. All are amazed at this sudden change of the Court, the Spanish envoy, the marquis of Conflans, more than any other. He announces that it is only a show and that when Portugal comes to serious business he will meet with obstacles that he cannot surmount and that he will get nothing here but words and compliments. There certainly is some sign of this for the English recently took Spanish ships, but the king will not allow them to be adjudged lawful prize, but only detained in deposit, showing his friendly disposition to the Spaniards; so if the Portuguese audience is surprising one may suspect that a hard bargain was driven. Conflans who presented his letters in private and has seen the king several times, complains about it, but gets no consolation beyond the hope that the audience will do Braganza no good. The Prince de Ligne, ambassador extraordinary of the Catholic, is expected in a few days from France and he will try to prevent Portugal from obtaining what it hopes.
France makes no sign and the Court is amazed that the Most Christian has sent no envoy to perform the offices done by all the princes who had ministers here and by many who had not, through special gentlemen, such as Spain, Brandenburg and some private princes in France, which afforded the king and Court much pleasure.
I reported my audience of the king and yesterday I saw the dukes of York and Gloucester, speaking in accordance with my instructions, telling them that I expected letters for them, they seemed pleased. I shall now take occasion to see the other great men of the Court and take the opportunity to suggest some help for the republic in its present distress. But though I feel sure to find them sympathetic and well disposed I am much afraid of the issue as the interests of trade and the merchants will always prevent assistance for your Serenity, since it does not suit them to offend the Turks. God grant I may be wrong, but my experience here makes me fearful. Assistance in money the king cannot yet give because he has none himself. He might give ships and men but the above considerations leave no hope.
There is another way which the merchants might not oppose, which would not burden the king and only very lightly the people while bringing great advantage to your Serenity. This is to ask his Majesty's permission to make a collection in the kingdom; I believe he would readily consent and it would undoubtedly bring in a large sum. It is perhaps hardly decent, as it amounts to asking alms, but the cause makes it excusable. I find that years ago the Spaniards asked for one against the Moors, which was granted by the king then ruling in England. Certain Protestants asked in the Protector's time and one for Piedmont granted in only 4 or 5 counties realised over 90,000l. sterling. I have thought of this for some time, but it is not a thing to ask without definite orders from the Senate.
London, the 30th July, 1660.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Gerhard Bernhard von Pölnitz, freiherr von Assbach. His letters of credence dated at Cologne, 24 May. S.P. For. Germany States.
2 Henry de Soura, de Tauares, count of Miranda.
3 Of 15 June, o.s., revoking all commissions at sea granted by the king or Duke of York before 1 May, and ordering all English subjects in foreign service to return to England. Steele: Tudor and Stuart Proclamations, Vol. i, No. 3228.
4 Probably Capt. Robert Blake in the Newbury. He was instructed to take with him two other ships already in the Strait. One of these was the Preston, Capt. Robert Robinson. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1659–60, page 554; Id. 1660–1, pp. 125, 311. The fight is probably that recorded by Tasca, No. 160 at page 160 above.
5 At the Court held on 19–29 July, it was resolved to answer the king's letter, representing the low condition of the Company's funds and their desire to retain Sir Thomas Bendish, and asking for the confirmation of their Charter. S.P. For. Archives, Vol. 151, f. 382. A week later the earl was duly elected. Ibid., f. 384.
6 Among the state papers (S.P. For. Switzerland, Vol. vi.) are two letters, one from the Senate and Council of Geneva and one from the Pastors, both dated 6 June, congratulating Charles on his restoration; but the name of the envoy is not given.
7 Taken by the Russians on 4 October, 1654. Bain: The First Romanovs, page 110.
8 The king's letters of 2 June delivered by Sir Henry Bennet. De Haro to King Charles on 20 July. S.P. For. Spain.
9 The Marquis of Conflans. Batteville to King Charles on 28 June. S.P. For. Spain.


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