Venice
December 1660

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1931

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220-233

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'Venice: December 1660', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 32: 1659-1661 (1931), pp. 220-233. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90063 Date accessed: 31 October 2014.


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December 1660

Dec. 3.
Senate,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
242. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Parliament continues to sit without intermission, watching carefully over internal affairs to consolidate the repose at present enjoyed by the people and to render durable the great gift which Providence has conferred on this nation after a long course of vexation and misery. They keep their attention fixed on getting the money to pay off the troops, while aiming at burdening the people in the way they will feel it least, so that they may not have reason to complain, past scars being sensitive yet, although it is supposed that at present they will submit readily to any decree, in the assurance that all that is being done is to relieve them of heavier burdens, which used to be regular.
They do not lose sight of the establishment of the militia of the respective counties; many are already on foot and others are directed not to delay the execution.
The House of Peers has devoted all its time to restoring to certain lords the property (beni) lost by the usurpation of the rebels. Yesterday it voted the restoration to the family of the earl of Arundel, now at Padua, of the dukedom of Norfolk, taken away under Queen Elizabeth, and now it only wants the concurrence of the Commons and the king's assent, which are matters of course.
Seeing that in the Lower House there are many members of unquiet spirit owing to differences over religion, who though unable to prevent decisions tending to quiet and the welfare of the nation, do their best to delay them, the king has decided to dissolve parliament and summon a new one. He therefore sent word the day before yesterday that they shall issue the writs, which he has ready, with speed, because on the 20th inst., old style, he means to dissolve the present parliament, and that the members shall all go home. Meanwhile they are despatching the things begun in the short time left.
His Majesty's coronation is fixed for the 6/16 February, after which a new parliament will be summoned and as care will be taken to nominate persons entirely devoted to the king they will take many decisions which are required to clinch the royal authority, which cannot yet be called total and absolute, in the person of the present king who is compelled to depend in large part on the Presbyterians and not to offend them, seeing that they restored him to his throne, but by dissimulation and blandishment he will strengthen himself and consolidate for the future.
The Lower House had prepared a declaration to cause all the laws against the Roman Catholics of the time of Queen Elizabeth to be put in force, but being sent to the Lords it has so far lain dormant, and is not expected to pass. It seems that the king does not want anything to be done against them, as he found them faithful and true during his misfortunes, and thinks it no more than a poor return to leave them undisturbed in their opinions and to shut his eyes to the private exercise of their faith. Besides this the king shows such a propensity for Catholicism that there is good cause for hoping that with new influences Heaven will bless this nation and direct it into the true way, after so many thousands of sheep have wandered, in danger of falling into the jaws of a wolf which aspires to devour them without sparing one.
The marriage question between Princess Henrietta and the duke of Anjou seems to have progressed so favourably that no doubt appears to remain about its conclusion. The queen and princess are to leave here on Monday the 13th for France and Lord Jermin will go to Paris with her Majesty with full powers from the king to settle everything for these nuptials for which the duke and princess are both eager.
The king having appointed commissioners to treat with the Catholic ambassador, he began his conferences with them yesterday, to treat about Dunkirk and Jamaica, wherein he will certainly meet with many difficulties. He has the king's promise that they shall not be incorporated with the crown, as parliament intended, but can obtain nothing substantial for their surrender. From recent conversation with his Excellency I gather that the Spaniards would be satisfied with the restitution of Jamaica, which costs England so dear and brings them no advantage. For the time being they would say nothing about Dunkirk, but in the event of objections Batteville foretells not an open rupture, but a suspension of trade which would ensue in any case, with untold damage to this mart; so if they do not want to break the peace with the Catholic they must needs satisfy him in this particular. Time will show and I will keep the Senate informed. This also bears upon what the Spanish ambassador said to the Proveditore Cornaro, mentioned in the state missives of the 23rd October.
London, the 3rd December, 1660.
[Italian.]
Dec. 4.
Cinque Savii
alia
Mercanzia.
Risposte.
Venetian
Archives.
243. With regard to the choice by the most serene of England of Egidio Gionas to be consul of the English nation in this city, (fn. 1) it is the custom of princes to have their consuls here, as do France, Spain, the States etc., and from previous papers we find that in 1646 the governor and assistants of the Trinity House made choice for this post of John Obson, and that in 1653 your Serenity was requested by the Protector Cromwell to confirm Obson in the consulship. As the king has now conferred the post on Gionas we think that your Serenity may admit him to discharge it. Dated at the office the 4th December, 1660.
Domenico Vendramin.
Mario Marcello.
Domenico Zane. Savii.
[Italian.]
Dec. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
244. To the Resident in England.
Seeing that the disbanding of the troops is delayed longer than was expected, we are sure that you will have more scope and opportunities for negotiating the levies already mooted and for which you have the necessary commissions, and similarly you should be able to negotiate an agreement with some war leader who is suitable for our service.
Ayes, 87. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Dec. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
245. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The published commerce between England and Portugal has been received here as most unpleasant news. The first vituperation and accusations have fallen, according to the modern fashion, upon the Ambassador Batteville. He writes indeed that King Charles remained more constant than ever in supporting all the claims and interests of the Catholic, but that among the leading men in parliament a natural undisguised antipathy disclosed itself. It was also known that Braganza from of old had squared General Monch and possibly the earl of Ormond with a good quantity of money, so that the words and representations of the Spanish ministers made little headway against the gold of Portugal.
An English ship of war has taken the direct route for Algiers. They say that it has two commissions from the king its master. The first is the renewal of the treaties which the Barbary peoples had with England; and the second to rescue from slavery a personage of high rank and a friend of his Majesty. (fn. 2)
Madrid, the 8th December, 1660.
[Italian.]
Dec. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
lnghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
246. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
To enable them to attend without distraction to the more important affairs concerning the safety and preservation of these realms and to be ready for the dissolution at the prescribed time parliament voted on Monday that for 8 days no private affair should be discussed and on the expiry of that period no member should propose anything and no committee report on business of such character except for two hours after they assemble, which is at 8 in the morning each day, and that the rest of the time until the House rises, usually at midday, shall be devoted to public affairs alone, fines being imposed on those who transgress.
Meanwhile they persist in their earnest endeavours to collect money. They have decided that the new tax, which was to have been for 6 weeks, shall be for six months at 70,000l. sterling each month. They are seeking for persuasive phrases to insert in the Act to assure the people that never again will such burdens be imposed, to induce them to pay without murmuring. This is sure to happen, the more so as the cash gathered in will be devoted solely to disbanding a few regiments which remain, the poll and other taxes not having sufficed, the amount which the troops and the fleet have absorbed surpassing belief.
It being desirable for many reasons that the king should see the present parliament dissolved, and considering that if the queen left for France on Monday as proposed, and he accompanied her and had to remain long away from London, as might easily happen at the present season, if the wind was contrary, especially as the queen decided to cross from Portsmouth to Havre de Grace, he might not be present at the dissolution when his presence is most necessary in order to sign the bills passed, he has persuaded his mother to delay her departure. To this she readily consented, especially as she does not wish to be travelling at Christmas time, now at hand. So her departure is postponed; they do not say until when, but it must be until after the dissolution, and some would even put it until after the king's coronation.
That function is confirmed for the 16th February and everyone is preparing for it, and they say it will be done in the most dignified and splendid manner. The foreign ministers will have to make a worthy appearance and I must do honour to the republic. There are also the gratuities for the new year, which are bound to consume a large sum in sterling, as they will have to be greater than in past years owing to the king's return.
The marriage negotiations of the princess are conducted with such secrecy that nothing certain can be discovered. Last week it all seemed practically settled, and they even announced the departure of Lord Jermin for Paris with full powers. It now seems that new obstacles have arisen, much to the distress of the duke of Anjou who is apparently consumed with desire for the consummation of the nuptials. I will keep the Senate advised as well as of the project previously talked of and then dormant of a marriage between the king here and Cardinal Mazzarini's niece Hortensia. It seems that the Ambassador Batteville is doing everything in his power to promote this. Nothing definite can yet be learned about his negotiations upon Dunkirk and Jamaica.
Besides Prince Roberto his brother Prince Edward has since arrived from Paris. Neither has brought any business, and Roberto has not treated for the emperor, but they have both come on private affairs, consisting in a pension paid to their family by this crown and suspended during the past revolutions. By treating with the king Roberto has obtained the confirmation of 2000l. sterling yearly, which he had with 2000l. in addition; Edward, who had nothing, has obtained one of 2000l., so with this consolation he is returning to Paris, leaving Roberto here. It is believed that prince will stay here until after the coronation and then proceed to the Imperial Court. They state that if the emperor comes to an open breach with the Ottoman, as seems likely, he will stay in Germany to fight against the common enemy, but otherwise he thinks of coming to stay in England, where he is very fond of living.
A seditious book has recently appeared called “The Long Parliament Revived,” acclaiming all the actions of that barbarous assembly. Parliament at once took steps to destroy this pernicious work. The book was condemned to be burned by the hangman, and efforts were made to discover the author, printer and publisher. They have found the author and printer, who have been imprisoned and examined. The former has confessed all and will now have to pay for his fault. (fn. 3) The other has been released, escaping with a slight penalty, as he was only guilty of printing.
John Lentall, son of the Speaker of the Long Parliament, was found to have tried to forge the great seal of England and use it for his own purposes. Being denounced by one whom he employed to help him, soldiers were sent who caught him in the act. He was at once arrested and sent to the Tower, where he awaits the punishment his crime deserves.
Since the state despatches of the 23rd October those of the 30th have reached me with others of the 5th and 13th November, the former delayed by contrary winds. I do not find that the king has informed any prince of his return to the throne. He has not even informed his friends and allies of the death of the duke of Gloucester, as he ought. The neglect is due to the secretary of state, who is young to his duties though old in years and neglects such convenances; his only care being to accumulate money to leave his children wealthy. In the short space of life that remains to him he wishes to make good, as he could not during his Majesty's exile and his own sojourn across the sea.
With regard to help from the king against the Turk, the Senate has heard what his Majesty said to me. I have not pressed much since as I saw that the king and ministers were engrossed in numerous internal affairs and I found no opportunity. When parliament is dissolved everyone will be more free and I can then prefer my requests. Meanwhile I will not miss any opportunity.
The greater the efforts I have made about levies the less progress I have made. Some offers have been made but no one will listen to the terms prescribed in the Senate's letters of the 18th September, or the proposal about donations. On this ground Count Dillon's offer fell through. They all say they have not the money to make the transport at their own expense. They prefer to enter the service of the Spaniards or Portuguese who, they say, offer larger donations, although the distance is less than Zante, and many other advantages. So your Excellencies must not look for any levies here or officers of any kind.
I will inform the king of your Serenity's ready response about the two gondolas and boatmen. I am sure his Majesty will be very pleased, as he takes unspeakable delight in such foreign craft. He recently received from Holland some rich and noble barques after the fashion of that country, and he has sent an English ship from Leghorn to Naples to bring here one of their feluccas. It is all for the channel he has had newly dug. It is well advanced and he hopes to see it quite completed by Christmas and promises himself much sport from the variety of the craft thereon.
London, the 10th December, 1660.
[Italian.]
Dec. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
247. Alvise Grimani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The queen of England announces her return very soon, with the princess. With regard to the other marriage of the Cardinal's niece to King Charles, the matter seems very much alive and awake as the cardinal has a confidential agent in London with the king, (fn. 4) besides the queen. But there are many obstacles to overcome. It is believed, however, that if it does not take place with England they will try to arrange this marriage of Mancini with Savoy, on whom they have always kept an eye fixed, to divert his attention from of the Princess of Orleans and to prevent that duke from carrying it into effect without awaiting the final resolution here.
Paris, the 10th December, 1660.
[Italian.]
Dec. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
248. To the Resident in England.
Approval of his office with the queen mother and the king. It must be his care to continue to cultivate his Majesty and especially those in whom his Majesty confides, reminding him at the proper time but with the tact and mildness that he will know how to use. Commend his office about the ambassador in ordinary and gratified that his Majesty intends to send one. In response the republic will choose one to start as soon as possible. He will inform the king of this. The two ambassadors extraordinary will be leaving soon, but the weather is so unfavourable. His expenses over the arrival of the queen will be allowed in his account. He must follow the example of the other ambassadors.
Ayes, 123. Noes, 1. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Dec. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
249. Alvise Molin, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
I hope to secure the introduction of confidential relations with England also, as I foresee and propose that from that quarter also there should result cooperation for the public cause, to the advantage chiefly of your Serenity.
Vienna, the 11th December, 1660.
[Italian.]
Dec. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
250. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The majority of members now sitting in the Commons are anxious above all to prove their sincere devotion to his Majesty's interests, not so much for the sake of evincing their desire for the peace and prosperity of the country as to make themselves eligible for re-election in the coming parliament. Although there are many obstacles they temporise adroitly to achieve their intent, if not with the consent of all the members, at least with the majority. Meanwhile they have decided to give the king for life half of the excise or new impost on beer, ale (alla)and many other liquors drunk here, except wine, which comes to a large sum, in addition to the customs revenue, or duty on exports and imports, already granted to him, giving him a certain yearly revenue of 1,200,000l. sterling and they are now discussing how to give this effect. The other half of the excise is given to the king in exchange for other things enjoyed by his predecessors which lapsed during the revolution and are now considered as abolished. The excise on wine is taken off but the ordinary duty is increased by 3000l. sterling on every ton. (fn. 5) That on all foreign imports ceases on the 25th inst., old style, but will be continued for some time and set apart for the payment of certain public debts. In the enjoyment of all these sums added to the ordinary revenue of his hereditary possessions there is no doubt that the king will be very opulent and formidable.
Parliament has taken in hand the case of the regicides referred to their decision. After going into the question they considered that to uphold the public good faith it would not be right to put them to death, and they have appointed a committee to consider the matter and report what punishment can be given, and upon that parliament will act. Meanwhile they have decided that the corpses of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, John Brascio and Thomas Pride, all ringleaders of the rebellion, shall be taken from their tombs, placed separately in coffins and dragged at the horse's tail to Tyburn and there hanged for some time in the public view and then buried under the gallows, the Provost general being charged to see that these orders are punctually carried out.
The bill for the restoration of the dukedom of Norfolk to the family of the earl of Arundel passed the Lords and was sent to the Commons. It was read there twice, but the third time, on Monday, there was much opposition on the part of the Presbyterians, as the family are Roman Catholics. After a debate lasting 6 hours the bill passed by 191 votes to 107, so it only requires the king's assent, and this noble family will be restored to its ancient honours. Mr. Howard, the second son of the house, has carried this point by his tact and prudence and it seems likely that he will achieve the other of Grand Marshal of England especially as this great post remains unallotted though the king has distributed all the rest to deserving subjects.
By virtue of an act of the present parliament they have set up a council of trade, (fn. 6) composed of members of the privy council, other persons of rank and merchants from all the companies. The commissions are issued under the great seal of England and they meet twice a week to direct, regulate and increase trade in every part of the world. This will do great harm to all the marts for trade and especially to the Dutch, but it will bring corresponding benefits to London and the other marts of this country.
I have informed the king as instructed about the gondolas and boatmen. He expressed great pleasure and is very eager to see them. He asked me to convey his warmest thanks to the Senate.
London, the 17th December, 1660.
[Italian.]
Dec. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
251. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledgment of his letters and approval of his operations, Pietro Mocenigo has been chosen as ambassador in ordinary to that Court. To inform the king of this in a suitable office, as well as of the admission of Gionas to the office of consul.
Ayes, 152. Noes, 1. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Dec. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
252. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The Resident of England has been engaged in bitter and difficult audiences since the publication of commerce with Portugal. Don Luis spoke with great emphasis to the effect that King Charles had already forgotten his obligations to the Catholic king; that Flanders had served as a haven and refuge for his house; that the money paid had been his support; that in his interest the war had broken out with Cromwell, with attacks on the fleets, loss of the places, in short at the risk and hazard of all the finest jewels of the crown. He was well aware of the orders given to Caracena in the first months of his return to London, that in case of need he should send over all the army of Flanders to assist his Majesty in England in securing the throne.
To these reminders the Resident replied modestly that the late revolutions had ruined and upset all the good maxims of the English ministers. He was sorry to speak in disparagement of his own nation, but in London at present the only thing they cared about was gold. If the Spaniards carried on their negotiations by this means they would meet with every possible satisfaction, and they would achieve more in one day with 25 to 30,000 reals than in a whole year with 200,000. He afterwards opened out with the secretary of Don Luis telling him that the Catholic king was the first to send an ambassador to parliament; that numerous negotiations had been on foot for uprooting for ever the House of Stuart; that the regicides had been allowed to escape; that there was a veritable malicious union among the Spanish ministers against the king of England of whom the leader was Cardenas, who had entered Madrid the last week, making a display at his house of the royal spoils, and that the commerce announced with Portugal was true, but he would let them know that sixty houses of English merchants existed at Lisbon, while in Spain there were two of them and those contemned and ill used in every way. He said more besides, so that the secretary thought it advisable to write it down and show it to Don Luis. I am also informed that the resident sent a full account of this to his king.
The English ship from Algiers brings the harsh and haughty reply from the Basha commanding there, saying that the truces shall be renewed with satisfaction, but that he claimed to search English ships and to take men and goods of other nations. With regard to the prisoner he was bound for 4000 reals and for many ships' masts promised, and if this was not fulfilled he could not consent to his release.
Madrid, the 22nd December, 1660.
[Italian.]
Dec. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
253. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian President in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Thursday next is the day appointed for the dissolution of the present parliament, which is merely attending to the finishing off of the bills for his Majesty's assent, so nothing further of consequence has occurred. Before parliament reassembled everyone predicted a great uproar there over the ill assorted marriage between the duke of York and the Chancellor's daughter. But nothing has been said on the subject, for although the king from the first felt it bitterly, yet he found it necessary that justice should have its course and has since become reconciled to it. He seems to have taken the lady's side, telling his brother that having lacked caution at first he could not draw back in conscience at this stage, and he is also much attached to the chancellor, who is a man of great judgment and corresponding authority, so it looks as if everything will go smoothly. When, as will happen soon, the queen has left for France and the princess of Orange for Holland, both strongly opposed to the marriage, they say that York and his duchess will live together at the palace. She has been staying at her father's house, (fn. 7) where the son was christened on Sunday after dinner, the king acting as godfather, being called James after his father. There is no doubt that this action has much diminished the high esteem in which the duke of York was held, his conduct being blamed as light and imprudent.
The king, foreseeing that the House of Commons would take the matter up and wishing to avoid a discussion and the consequent outcry, in order to shut the mouths of the members, created the chancellor baron Hender (fn. 8) thereby giving him a seat in the House of Lords and thwarting the Commons as they may not meddle with anything touching the peers of the realm. It is said that at the coronation, when the king usually distributes favours the chancellor will be raised to the rank of duke, and so the marriage will be rendered more compatible.
A plot has recently been discovered by various sectaries and especially the Fifth Monarchy men, to disturb the present tranquillity. Some of the accomplices were arrested and imprisoned yesterday. They are being very thoroughly examined to get at the bottom of their designs, and it seems that they readily disclose the authors. Meanwhile strong guards have been set at all the corners of London and the palace, as likely to be the first to suffer, as it seems these villains meant to set fire to them and destroy them, but God has not allowed this barbarity to happen.
So far the Spanish ambassador has only met the commissioners twice about the question of Dunkirk and Jamaica. Meeting with serious difficulties he thought it better to allow parliament to dissolve before insisting further. The ambassadors of Denmark and Holland are doing the same, awaiting the same time, since parliament only serves as an obstacle and embarrassment to all private affairs and especially foreign ones.
The elector of Mainz has sent a nephew of his as envoy to this Court to congratulate the king on his restoration. (fn. 9) He had audience recently and performed his office, and is now about to return to his uncle. The marquis Palavicini has also arrived at Court for a like office for Savoy. Before announcing his character he wished to know if he was in time to ask for the hand of Princess Henrietta for his master. Being told that she was already disposed of he went to audience as envoy and offered congratulations, but in the other case he would have taken the character of ambassador.
From the reply to Savoy there is good reason for considering the marriage of the princess to the duke of Anjou as beyond doubt, yet some assert that it is greatly troubled since it seems that Cardinal Mazarini thinks of breaking off all the negotiations if his niece does not marry the king, but only time can make all clear. Besides this niece two other proposals for a marriage have been made to the king, to wit: the Infanta of Portugal and the widowed empress, but which of the three he will have remains uncertain. His Majesty listens to all and tries to gain time. The Spanish ambassador supports the empress, disparaging the Portuguese as much as possible, calling her hunchbacked and lame. He is actively assisted by the Abbot Obigni, a great favourite of his Majesty, brother of the late duke of Richemont (fn. 10) ; but there is not the smallest sign of a conclusion. I will keep the Senate fully informed.
London, the 24th December, 1660.
[Italian.]
Dec. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
254. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledge his letters and approve of his action about assistance, which is more important than everything else. He will not speak of it expressly to the king or ministers owing to the numerous internal affairs which they have in hand, but he will aim at cultivating the good will of all in order, when occasion serves, to obtain the greatest possible advantage. It is noted that the king's coronation is for the 16th February and that all the ministers are preparing for it. The Senate will take into consideration his obligation to do the same, to show the regard of the republic, feeling sure that he will act in every way to uphold the dignity of the state, but with moderation, reporting the expenditure incurred so that the Senate may decide what is considered proper.
Ayes, 85. Noes, 20. Neutral, 22.
[Italian.]
Dec. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
255. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Parliament should have dissolved yesterday, but as the members could not quite finish the bills they wished to pass the king granted them until to-morrow. The day before yesterday the chancellor told the House that his Majesty was determined that the session should end even if they had not quite completed all that they had in hand. Many of the members and especially the Presbyterians much regret this dissolution, foreseeing that they will not come back to the new House after the coronation. Many of them have already begun quarrels with those who have to make the elections, and there is no doubt these will be better than the past and more favourable to the king and the general interests of the whole country.
The conspiracy mentioned in my last has occupied the Court all the week, all their attention being devoted to penetrate to the bottom of the matter. Many private houses have been visited and many arrests made while every precaution has been taken to prevent mischief. The king himself examines the prisoners and by severity and mildness draws out enough information to disclose the plot. It is found that all the ill humour proceeds from disbanded officers, and these, joined with disaffected sectaries and bitter enemies of the monarchy were contemplating a return to the late disorders. So the king has issued a proclamation (fn. 11) commanding all officers and soldiers recently disbanded and all others who cannot give a good account of their residence in London or Westminster, to leave within two days of the publication to a distance of 20 miles from the city, not to return without permission or to continue except with the approval of a member of the privy council or of the committee for disbanding the army.
Colonel Overton, leader of the Fifth Monarchy men, a great man under the Long Parliament, and Colonel Desbero, brother in law of the tyrant Oliver, a leader of the Anabaptists, have been imprisoned on suspicion of having a hand in the conspiracy, the first in the Tower. The plot is said to have been projected and fomented by Lambert, who although confined in the Tower, never ceases his secret intrigues to stir up fresh trouble. But he only succeeds in producing the opposite effect as all these machinations against the king only serve to consolidate his authority.
Now it appears that there is reason to fear they will set up a special regiment of guards. The king has not one now, that which he had in Flanders consisting only of a few officers, who remained on the other side of the water. It was opposed, chiefly by the Presbyterians, who represented that it was superfluous and too costly, and said he should be guarded by the few companies left on foot for the safety of General Monch, which would not have been sufficiently decorous for the king. Accordingly they will send for the officers in Flanders to come at once to England and the few soldiers who survive the miseries suffered there, and compose a regiment of brave devoted veterans to guard the king's person against all evil influences, his Majesty having no reason to trust the Presbyterians, any more than the Anabaptists, Quakers and other fanatics, who abound in this kingdom, all enemies of the monarchy, who do not know what it is they want.
During the late troubles the usurper Cromwell disposed of all the goods of those lords in Ireland who took the king's side and stripped all the Roman Catholics merely because of their faith, distributing them among his followers, directing his policy to the extermination of the old owners. His Majesty now, taking compassion on the condition of the old proprietors while unwilling to offend the present possessors, decided on a declaration with his privy council some weeks ago, which only came out yesterday. (fn. 12) This directs the restitution of all such goods to the true and legitimate owners, assigning to the others in exchange other possessions belonging to the crown in that country, and other advantages, satisfying one side without offending the other, who should be content to see his Majesty so gracious to them.
Her Majesty's postponed journey to France was fixed for Wednesday next but since yesterday it is uncertain whether she will go as the night before the princess of Orange was taken with a violent fever with great fear of the small pox, so it is believed that her Majesty will not move before she sees what will happen to her daughter. They at once caused the Princess Henrietta to leave the palace (fn. 13) for fear of infection, which in any case will be dangerous in the present severe weather and with the delicate constitution of her Highness.
The owners of the ship Angelo seized two years ago by your Serenity's fleet, have presented a petition to the king representing their losses and have easily obtained from him a letter directed to me, which I enclose. I also enclose a sheet with the depositions of witnesses against your Serenity in the court of Admiralty here, in virtue of which the king granted the letter. To those who brought these to me I merely said that I would speak to the king on the matter. I shall draw up a paper with a full account showing his Majesty the losses suffered by the republic through the flight of this ship with the infantry, and I shall await instructions upon the contents of the letter.
I must add that the traders here complain greatly that all English ships putting in at ports there are forced to take to the islands or elsewhere troops and biscuit for the service of the army without any hire or payment, even of out of pocket expenses for feeding the soldiers. The captains of the Hannibal and of other ships have given a very bad account against your Serenity to their owners, who also intend to petition the king, claiming compensation for the damage they say they have received.
London, the 31st December, 1660.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.256. King Charles to Francesco Giavarina.
Illustris et magnifice Domine:
Narratum nobis est navem quandam Angelum nuncupatam ad Jonathanem Keate baronettum aliosque Anglos spectantem, gubernatore seu magistro Gulielmo Rand, Smyrnam navigasse; unde cum reditura esset, dictum Gulielmum merces multimodas Anglorum aliorumque, necnon quosdam vectores Turcas cum eorum bonis ac mercimoniis in dictam navem accepisse, ut Tunetum adveheret, ibique summam argenti peramplam partim pro vectura partim pro maritimo excambio reciperet; sed dum iter secura ac pacate faceret, quinque bellicas naves Venetas (praefecto Antonio Peruglia) ex inopinato praedictam Anglicam invasisse et pugna inaequali conserta multos vectorum interfecisse, navem nautasque diripuisse; Postea Franciscum Marcinum Reip. classis Legatum nec mitius nec meliori jure quam Perugliam egisse, sed bonis omnibus publicatis, nihil praeter navem dicto Gulielmo (utcunque contra violentiam et injustitiam reclamanti) adjudicasse. Unde praefatus Baronettus et socii ingentem jacturam fecerunt. Quare cum probationes factae in Curia Admiralitatis nostrae satis luculenter demonstrent hostilem et iniquam depredationem in nostros commissam vos rogatos volumus ut Remp. eorum justissimae querelae certiorem faciatis, adeoque efficaciter scribatis ut intra mediocre temporis spatium damna resarciantur, ne jure gentium agere cogamur, neve aliquid incommodi inter nos et Ser. Remp intercedat, quacum amicitiam semper illibatam colere desideramus.
Dat. e Palatio nostro Westmonast. 4to die Decembris, 1660.
[Signed]: Carolus R.
Countersigned: Guilelmus Mauritius.
Enclosure.257. I have read the evidence taken in the Admiralty Court on the part of Sir Jonathan Keat and Co. owners of the ship Angelo and find it sufficiently proved:
(1). That Keat and Co. were the true owners of the said ship in 1657 and 1658, William Rand being master and Daniel Elwood purser, and they sent the ship on a voyage to Smyrna, where they took divers passengers, some being Turks, with divers goods to be taken thence to Tunis and Leghorn, and were to receive 2630 pieces of 8 reals for the passengers and 6190 for the goods on arrival at Tunis or Leghorn, for the benefit of the Co.
(2). The master and purser when at Smyrna lent 9800 thalers by way of maritime exchange, of the Company's money to some of their passengers, and were to receive 11,342 thalers or pieces of 8 on consigning the goods at Tunis and Leghorn.
(3). A short time after the ship, when sailing peacefully, was furiously attacked by 5 Venetian ships of war commanded by Sig. Antonio Peruglia, vice admiral of the fleet, on the 16th April 1658, when 7 or 8 of the passengers were slain, many of the ship's company wounded and 600 men boarded, stripping the sailors and passengers and dividing the goods among them.
(4). Although the master complained to the vice admiral and after to the general, showing to whom the goods belonged, the hire due to the owners and how the merchandise was pledged for the money lent to the passengers he could never obtain satisfaction, and in a suit only the ship was adjudged to him for the satisfaction of the owners. So it is clear that the Venetians treated the passengers unjustly; but the master did his duty to prevent their loss, which cannot be imputed to him.
Sir J. Keat and Co. were more particularly injured as the Venetians maltreated the crew, deprived them of the hire for passengers and goods as well as of their money advanced on loan.
(1). By the law and custom of the Mediterranean and Levant sea if the goods of enemies are taken in the ships of friends the master of the ship taken shall receive his full hire as if the ship unladed at its destination. In time past an English ship with Turks on board, who owed for their transport, being taken by a warship of the Grand Duke of Florence, Alberico Gentile, a famous Italian lawyer pronounced that the English should receive the full amount for transporting the Turks.
(2). As regards the loss of Keat & Co. on account of the goods taken which were pledged for the loan, admitting that the passengers were Turks or enemies of the Venetians, the latter could not acquire a better right to them than belonged to the passengers themselves, and the plundering could not wipe out the just claims of the English.
I am therefore of opinion that for the satisfaction of Keat & Co. his Majesty may inform the Agent of Venice that he is informed of the violence shown by Venetian forces against the ship Angelo and that he looks for satisfaction in some reasonable time, failing which he will be obliged to grant his subjects such means for recouping themselves as are permitted by the law of nations.
Richard Zouch.
[Italian; from the English.]

Footnotes

1 Giles Jones seems to have been appointed to September, 1660, to replace Hobson. See his letter of 9 August, 1662. S.P. For. Venice.
2 Capt. Thomas Allen, in the Plymouth, who went to rescue Lord Inchquin's son, Lord William O'Brien. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1660–1, page 402.
3 William Drake acknowledged himself the author on 17 November and was impeached on the 20th. Joseph Cranford the printer was discharged on the 26th. Journals of the House of Commons Vol. viii, pp. 186–7, 193.
4 The Sieur Bartet, secretaire du cabinet, who had been instructed to stay on until an ambassador arrived. Avenel: Lettres du Card. Mozarin Vol. ix, page 954.
5 Written thus in full. It should be 3l. Statutes at Large 12 Chas. II, cap. 4, Vol. v, page 183.
6 Instructions were issued on 19 Nov., o.s. Cal. S.P, Dom: 1660–1, page 353.
7 Worcester House, in the Strand. Evelyn: Diary, page 270.
8 He was created Baron Hyde of Hindon on 3 November. G.E.C. Complete Peerage, new ed. Vol. iii, page 264.
9 Francis George von Schonborn, his brother's son. His letters of credence are dated at Mainz on 14 October, 1660. S.P. For. Germany. States.
10 Ludovic Stuart, seigneur d' Aubigny, abbé de Haute Fontaine, brother of James Stuart, duke of Richmond, who died in 1655.
11 Proclamation of 17 December, o.s. Steele: Tudor and Stuart Proclamations Vol. i, No. 3270.
12 Declaration of 30 Nov., o.s., incorporated later in the Act of Settlement of 1662. Bagwell: Ireland under the Stuarts Vol. iii, pp. 13–4.
13 She retired to St. James's palace. Evelyn: Diary, page 270.