Venice
July 1661

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1932

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1-20

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'Venice: July 1661', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 33: 1661-1664 (1932), pp. 1-20. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90094 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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July 1661

1661.
July 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
1. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The courier sent by the Ambassador Batteville about the marriage got back at last from Madrid on Saturday at noon. With letters of the king and of Don Luis of the 10th June he brings to his Excellency a reply to several despatches which he had sent to the Court on this subject by two expresses. Their contents cannot be learned, but it seems that although they credit the declaration, because the ambassador wrote it, they will not believe that the marriage will take place, because Portugal is in no condition to fulfil the promises, adding that the numerous assurances of the king here, given orally to Batteville and also contained in several letters to Don Luis, persuade the contrary. They say further that it is necessary before coming to any decision to see the articles agreed upon which so far remain secret, and then the effectuation, until which time the affair is subject to a thousand contingencies, and indeed they are in confusion here and not a little uneasy about the vast offers of Portugal, so it seems likely that they wish they had not proceeded so hastily in a matter of such importance.
Since the arrival of the courier Batteville has seen the king twice privately, and as he is refurnishing his house, which he dismantled some weeks ago, this causes much talk among the people who from these signs conjecture that the ambassador will remain permanently and consequently peace will be maintained with the Catholic. They cannot restrain their expressions of joy in their own interests for which a rupture with Spain would be a calamity.
The motives of the ambassador's audiences cannot be learned, but I know that he complained about the purchase of horses by Mello, said to amount to 300, to be sent to Portugal, of which a good number are already secured and embarked, saying it was contrary to the peace between this crown and the Catholic. At first the king professed ignorance of this but afterwards he made excuse saying that he could not forbid anyone to buy horses or anything else with their own money, and similar flimsy reasons, but the ambassador would not accept this as satisfactory, repeating that it was contrary to the peace, intimating that he would report to the king, his master, and so departed.
Truly 300 horses cannot do much harm to the Spaniards, especially as leaving this moderate climate for one entirely different and excessively hot they will probably all die. But the consequences are considerable and from this we may learn the intentions of the ministers against Spain, and especially the chancellor, who for reasons already given, could not be more violent against that monarchy. He may be called the absolute director of the government, having been bought by Portuguese gold. It is said publicly that he has had over 100,000l. sterling in cash besides other presents, and he will have obtained for Mello the permission to make the aforesaid purchase.
In the first of the two audiences the king took occasion to complain to the ambassador about the paper he had printed and circulated about the offers of marriage made to his Majesty in his master's name. He said that it contained scandalous remarks and was calculated to stir up sedition and revolution among the people, with much besides to aggravate and condemn what he had done. Batteville replied sagely showing the reasons which had led him to make the revelation and so justifying himself that the king had not a word to say, the true reason for publishing the paper being merely to make known the efforts he had made to prevent the marriage with Portugal and they had never replied here to the memorial on the subject which he had several times presented, although the king himself and the ministers had promised it several times.
The English were much more alarmed than the Spaniards by the declaration of this marriage. It appears that upon the news they had all arranged to depart hurriedly and to evacuate all their goods from the dominions of the Catholic for fear of confiscation and reprisals. Thus a ship left here for Bilbao with goods on behalf of traders here, before the declaration. On hearing the news, when she had actually arrived at the place of unlading, in fear of orders from the Court of Madrid to sequestrate the property of the English, instead of entering the port she returned to England, much to the detriment of the parties. To prevent the English from throwing away their property and to quash the reports of reprisals etc. a courier was sent express from Madrid to all the ports to assure the contrary and to charge the ministers to do nothing against the subjects of this nation but allow them to enjoy their usual privileges.
To see the fleet before it sailed the duke of York, the Lord High Admiral, went from here to the Downs, and is already back. The wind being favourable we hear that it has since weighed anchor and put to sea. It consists of fifteen powerful ships of war furnished for all eventualities. They say it will touch at Lisbon and then proceed direct to Algiers, with the objects reported. This is the more probable as some brulots and other fire ships are going with the fleet. Time will show. It would be desirable for them to come to an open breach with those barbarians, because of the advantage to the most serene republic; but it is to be feared that the infidels will give way before the superior power of the English, granting this nation, out of apprehension, all the satisfaction that it desires, to establish peace with that Divan.
The Portuguese minister who was expected to sail with the fleet has not embarked, but is making his arrangements to go with another squadron which is being prepared to put to sea as soon as possible, the object so far unknown, although some say it is to fetch the Infanta, the future queen of England, in view of the declaration made by the king. Time will show.
Count Strozzi, appointed by the emperor in place of Count Collalto for this Court, has arrived at Brussels. It appears that as the interests of the emperor are not disconnected with those of Spain, when he heard on the road of the marriage arranged with Portugal he suspended his journey to England. He writes from Brussels to Batteville that as he has instructions from Caesar to regulate himself here according to his Excellency's orders, when he received the news he decided not to take another step until he heard from him. He was going to Paris and there in the house of the Count of Fuendalsagna he would await his Excellency's opinion and advice. If he comes I will follow my instructions with regard to Collalto, now repeated in the ducali of the 4th June.
The day before yesterday letters reached me from Cologne from the Ambassadors Corraro and Morosini, to say that they intended to cross from Dunkirk and should arrive in a few days. I went at once to the king to ask for a ship to fetch them. His Majesty seemed very pleased that they were so near and at once, in my presence, directed the duke of York, who has the disposition of the ships, as Lord High Admiral, to send a commodious one for the purpose. His Highness at once named the Monk, which is large and roomy, and yesterday evening orders were sent to the captain (fn. 1) in the Downs to proceed to Dunkirk to receive their Excellencies with all their suite and bring them over to whichever port pleases them best and where the wind serves; so in a few days they will be here.
London, the 1st July, 1661.
[Italian.]
July 1.
Cod.1245
Museo
Correr.
Venice.
2. Angelo Correr and Michiel Morosini, Venetian Ambassadors extraordinary to England, to the Doge and Senate.
On arriving here last evening we received your Serenity's letters and despatches from the Resident Giavarina in reply to certain enquiries. The most important confirm that the king there has changed the custom of honouring ambassadors extraordinary, and the representations of the resident quoting the case of the last ambassadors extraordinary to his Majesty's father, were of no avail. He thinks it practically impossible to get coaches or horses in England, and after a hopeless search here we have sent to the Hague and Brussels, and we trust to the fair at Malines for horses. We should be distressed at this but for the assurance that the state will afford us partial relief, as our private fortunes cannot support the expense of this long journey. To save time we have ordered the liveries to be begun here, so that they will only have to be completed in London. The heat in these parts has not been equalled in the memory of man, and we had great trouble in guarding against it.
We have not been able to remark anything worthy of the Senate's notice. At Nimbergh a place belonging to the Elector of Cologne, but which the Dutch have held for many years, we saw a garrison of about 2,000 men, which is constantly being increased because of the Elector's declared intention of regaining it, though the States will not consent, at least so the general there told us. We hear that the king of England has sent a reinforcement of about 8,000 men to Dunkirk, and that more will follow, to the great alarm of the marquis of Caracena, who has hastily pushed to the frontier the few troops under his command, which do not number 4,000 in all. The alliance between England and Portugal increases the fears of Spain, and the peace between the Dutch and the Portuguese (fn. 2) does not tend to allay this feeling. It was concluded after many disputes and differences between the Provinces, and all did not accept it willingly because of the profit some of them derive from disorder at sea. We remark that the garrison of this fortress is very torpid and, what is worse, so ill paid that the soldiers parade the city and country in bands imploring alms, declaring openly that for more than two months they have received neither money nor bread.
Antwerp, the 1st July, 1661.
[Italian.
July 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
3. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledge his letters No. 291. Commend his offices with the king about ships serving the Turks. He must see that the king's promise is observed.
The gondolas, gondoliers and furnishings have been sent to Leghorn and the Resident Vico is busy about forwarding them. On their arrival the Senate wishes them to be presented to the king with a suitable office.
The Senate is always ready to oblige English merchants and the frigate Madonna has been allowed to pursue its voyage to the Levant Islands to lade currants.
Enclosed letters from the consul at Genoa concern a serious misadventure which has happened to six English ships, which allowed themselves to be searched by corsairs, who took away goods of great value laded by subjects of various nationalities, in all confidence and trustfulness. (fn. 3) Since the prejudice is a matter of common concern the Senate has wished to send this for his information so that if he observes that any other foreign ministers there make any remonstrance about this incident, he shall make common cause with them, pointing out the inconveniences, the prejudice to trade and the need for a remedy.
That the paragraph concerning the ship Madonna be sent to the Esecutori with instructions to allow that ship to proceed freely to the said islands, to lade currants.
Ayes, 107. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Genova.
Venetian
Archives.
4. Paris Tasca, Venetian Consul at Genoa, to the Doge and Senate.
With regard to the affair of the six English ships it transpires that on the 10th of last month a chiaus arrived at Algiers with present orders from the Porte that twenty of their ships should proceed to the Levant with all speed for the transport of troops and munitions to Canea. They replied that they were unable to comply, as 34 ships were out cruising against the Christians. Seven other powerful ships are building there.
Genoa, the 2nd July, 1661.
[Italian.]
July 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
5. Giovanni Battista Ballarino, Venetian Grand Chancellor at the Porte, to the Doge and Senate.
For the private affairs of the captains of two English ships which arrived from Venice, they have detained for the present the one that was to have taken the artillery to Calamota. (fn. 4) Incensed by this delay the Vizier sent word by a chiaus to the house of the ambassador that if it did not start at once he would hive the officers in command hanged. I think therefore that they will find it advisable to weigh to-day, to avoid some mischance.
Pera of Constantinople, the 5th July, 1661.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
6. Alvise Grimani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
I have hopes of obtaining succour here, but I am bound at the same time to report that I notice that at present the marriage of the king of England to the Infanta of Portugal, the irresolutions of the emperor and the deliberations pending in Poland have placed this Court in a posture of watchful and close attention.
Moret, the 5th July, 1661.
[Italian.]
July 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
7. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On Sunday after dinner the king and the ambassador of Portugal met in the chancellor's house where in the presence of witnesses the ratification of the agreement made by Mello, said to have arrived from Lisbon, was corroborated by his Majesty with exchange of copies, as is usual on such occasions. They say that at this meeting the king signed and gave power to the ambassador to espouse the Infanta Catherine in his name, following the recent example of the Most Christian who gave like powers to Don Luis d'Haro, favourite of the Catholic. The articles concluded between this king and the duke of Braganza should now come to light and the advantages which the marriage is to bring to this country, which will be solemnized in a few months. It seems that they will shortly be sending ships to Lisbon to fetch her, as the Ambassador Mello is to leave soon with two ships, which are already fully equipped to take to his master the ratification of his negotiations and to make all necessary arrangements for the nuptials and for the coming of the Infanta, so that on the arrival of the English fleet all will be ready to pass to his kingdom without delay, though they reckon that she cannot be in England before next Autumn. They have already begun work on the liveries and other things required for the queen, every individual beginning to make the necessary preparations when they will vie with each other in the splendour which is usual at this Court on such occasions.
Before he went his Majesty chose to honour the ambassador beyond any other who has been at his Court since his return. So yesterday he entertained him at dinner at the palace, where they drank to the health of Braganza and his sister. The earl of Bedford was sent with a royal coach to fetch him, besides the master of the ceremonies and other persons, and all the formalities were observed that are practised at the first audiences of ambassadors extraordinary of the greatest crowns. After dinner it seems he took leave of his Majesty and was taken back to his house with the same ceremony. He is now getting ready to start, which they say will be to-morrow or a few days later.
In spite of all these things, which should leave no doubt about the accomplishment of these nuptials the Ambassador Batteville still cherishes hopes that they will come to nothing in the end; for although the advantages promised by the Portuguese may not take effect, it is probable that from pique or scorn or because they are so far committed, they will go through with the marriage, because if they break off this one it is unlikely they will find any one to risk offering another, in view of their inconstancy here, and to dispose of it there is no other way than the arrival of some unexpected news, well substantiated, of an encounter between the Castilians and Portuguese resulting in a considerable victory for the Spaniards, which without doubt would suffice to upset and annul the treaties, even though confirmed.
If this alliance between England and Portugal consists in nothing more than the simple marriage without any obligation to assist Braganza except with his own money, as in the case of the horses reported, the Spaniards would not attach much importance to it, because at their own charge the Portuguese are in no case to make great provision here, and if in the end they are unable to keep their promises, the English will only have themselves to blame. Time will show and as they claim at Court that they can carry out the marriage without breaking the friendship with Spain it follows that they are not thinking of assisting Portugal. On the other hand it seems absurd that the Portuguese should have brought themselves to this alliance solely for the marriage without hope of the assistance that they need so much. Undoubtedly there is some mystery about this affair that cannot be learned by guesswork.
Meanwhile Batteville has refurnished his palace, (fn. 5) which he had dismantled and stays on to see what is going to happen. He sees the king when occasion requires it, but he goes no more to Court and no longer visits the ministers so frequently as he used. He will stay in England as it seems he has orders from Spain to start nothing fresh and not to move from here as they do not wish to give this nation any occasion for umbrage, unless they themselves supply the cause and take the first steps by putting the Spaniards on the defensive.
They are equipping twenty more ships of war for sea and it will not be long before they are ready to start on their voyage, as they are working with great energy and without ceasing. It is said that this squadron will go to fetch the queen. Mean time his Majesty frequently visits the Arsenals where the ships are fitting out, as he greatly delights in watching such work and he urges it on because he would like to see the fleet sail before he starts on his proposed journey through the realm, which he wishes to begin at latest in the first days of next August, touring through several Counties to come to a halt at Plymouth where he will await the landing of his bride, so that they may return together to London to celebrate the nuptials and consummate the marriage.
Before the king starts three embassies extraordinary should reach the Court, but it is impossible that everything should be done in so short a time. That of the most serene republic should arrive in a few days, as from their letters from Antwerp I learn that Signori Corraro and Morosini are in Flanders. The second is Genoa, Brignoli being replaced by one Durazzo, who was in France and is busy with his liveries in Paris and other matters, so that he may be able to proceed speedily to England. The third, Sweden, (fn. 6) may not arrive before the king starts, although he is hurrying on the road.
There is no news as yet of the squadron which sailed under General Montagu. They still say that it is going to Algiers to take down the pride of those pirates. The need for this grows steadily as their insolence is constantly increasing. News has reached the merchants here that the two ships Zante frigate and Louis were encountered some weeks out from here, on the way to Leghorn with goods belonging to this mart. On a claim to search being made a fight ensued and after a fierce and bloody action the two English ships were sunk by the pirates. If the report is confirmed this country will be bound to seek revenge and that will not be bad for the interests of the most serene republic.
After this squadron had left port the Dutch immediately sent out some of their sail, following after the English to keep a watch on their proceedings. Meanwhile it would seem that Holland has practically concluded the adjustment with Portugal; indeed some say that although all the Provinces were not agreed, and Gelderland and Zeeland protested against it, while Holland and the others had decided to come to terms without the adhesion of these two, the negotiations were pressed so vigorously after the arrival of the English resident Douning that the accommodation was stipulated. Confirmation is awaited.
I hear that the Imperial envoy, Count Strozzi, has proceeded from Brussels to Paris under the pretext of recovering from some indisposition, but really from his reluctance to proceed to England, for the reasons already reported. He asked the advice of the Ambassador Batteville, who, I fancy, urges him to come, as with the former staying on at Court and there being no rupture between the two crowns, his coming can do no harm especially as it is purely complimentary with no other matters of consequence.
Some leading merchants of this mart came to me two days ago saying that they were interested in a cargo of divers goods with Mr. Edward Wyld, an English merchant, now at Venice, sent by the ship Zante frigate to be unladed and sold at the Island of Zante. They say these could not be discharged there because they were at the bottom of the hold, and they were obliged to proceed to Venice, where the goods were unladed on payment of the usual import duty. Being unable to dispose of the goods at Venice, they were put on board the ship Hannibal to be taken to Zante again. Wyld, being ignorant of the customs of the country, having never been at Venice or at Zante, had the goods put in casks, to prevent damage, which he also sent empty to the island to take currants, without obtaining the usual seals for the export. On arriving at Zante they paid the new import duty. Being denounced secretly by rivals to the Proveditore General of the three Islands, Ciuran, for having defrauded the duty, they were fined 2,000 reals by his Excellency. They have now appealed at Venice. They petition the Senate to direct the magistracy concerned to despatch their case with all promptitude, to save them the expense of keeping someone there for this purpose. They rely on the justice of your Excellencies, as they never had the slightest intention of defrauding the customs, and the omission of the seals for export was a pure oversight due to the ignorance of the person in charge.
London, the 8th July, 1661.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
8. To the Ambassadors extraordinary in England.
Six English ships have been taken by Turks of Algiers laden with capital of great value, but by an understanding with the captains of the ships. The merchants of this mart who are interested have presented a petition, whereof a copy is enclosed, complaining of the serious loss which they have suffered. We therefore require you, immediately on receiving this, to demand a special audience of the king, representing to him the unexampled impropriety of the act, all confidence being abused by the improper behaviour of the captains, to the prejudice of trade, by their collusion with the Turks, the common enemies, and making use of the king's flag in so serious a crime, to the detriment of the whole nation, and so forth.
If any other foreign minister is to perform the same office, you will unite with him to give greater weight to the affair, and at the same time ask his Majesty not only for compensation for the loss inflicted, but a remedy for the future.
Ayes, 113. Noes, 2. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
9. To the consul at Genoa.
Acknowledge his letters of the 2nd inst. with the account of the English ships going to Tunis, which left Lisbon for divers ports of this province and since one of these was laded for that city with an important cargo, he is to be on the look out for any resolutions taken by the Signory there, in order to advise the Senate thereupon.
Ayes, 113. Noes, 2. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Filza.
Venetian
Archives.
10. Petition to the Senate.
In the month of May last six large English ships were laded at Lisbon with most precious goods, for the following destinations: the ship Aquila Nera, Captain Francis Sanders, the ship Unita, Captain John Chlague, the ship Merchant Adventurer,Captain Robert Ris, for that place; the ship Rainbow, Captain Thomas Raven, the ship Joanna, Captain Thomas Pesche, for Leghorn, and the ship Louiggi Carlotta, Captain Thomas Brun, for Genoa. The English captains, instead of going on their appointed voyages, by a devilish and iniquitous arrangement with the Turks of Algiers, joined themselves with the ships of those corsairs, and by agreement proceeded to that city where the goods were unladed. Of these the Turks took possession, and the captains having received double hire with considerable gifts from the same goods, left the place, some for England and the rest for other parts. This operation causes considerable losses as well to your Serenity in customs duties to the amount of some 20,000 ducats, to the insurers of some 70,000 ducats, with other great losses to merchants not insured, not to speak of the sustenance of a countless number of poor artisans. Accordingly we, the parties interested on this mart, petition your Serenity to send instructions to your ambassadors resident with the king of England, to take such steps as they shall consider best fitted for our relief.
1661. 8 July.
That the petition be referred to the Savii of both sides.
Ayes, 6. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
11. Domenico Vico, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassador who put in at Leghorn some days ago on his way back from Constantinople, (fn. 7) has come on here incognito, to see the festivities. It now seems that he is planning to abandon the sea voyage and to make the rest of the journey to London by land.
Florence, the 9th July, 1661.
[Italian.]
July 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
12. Alvise Grimani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Orders have been sent to the Ambassador de l'Estrade that if he has not left London, he is to suspend his journey and to hold himself in readiness to proceed to his governorship at Gravelines and to await fresh royal commands. Much attention and observation has been excited by its being understood that instead of asking the king of England for a ship to take him across he has applied to the Dutch ambassadors to get him one from their masters.
Another object of remark occasioning much talk is the king's urging his mother to leave France and to come and live with him, giving rise to various opinions and conjectures.
Moret, the 12th July, 1661.
[Italian.]
July 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
13. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Being despatched since Sunday from the office of the Secretary of State the Portuguese ambassador stayed on at Court two whole days longer than was expected for some private letters which the king wished to write with his own hand to the Infanta, who will be queen of England, to the duke of Braganza, her brother, to her mother and to others of that state. Having received these he set out for the coast yesterday and will sail by the two ships of war destined for him, steering for Lisbon, where he should arrive in a few days, in the present calm weather. Besides the royal letters he takes presents for the bride, but it is not known what these may be as even in such matters they show circumspection and maintain the most complete silence.
Meanwhile they press on, without intermission, the equipment of the second fleet. Apparently its only object is to go and fetch the queen, and this seems the more likely because it is composed of the finest vessels that England possesses and they are being decorated and embellished more than is usually done. So if this squadron sails in a few weeks, as they propose and as the Court desires there is no doubt but that it will return in a few months with the queen and these nuptials will be consummated before next Christmas. Time will show.
Melo has left in charge in London, with the title of agent an individual named Collonello, a Portuguese by birth, but a Hebrew in religion, who makes public profession of Judaism, and attends daily at the synagogues in the Ghettos here. (fn. 8) On this side they have appointed Sir [Richard] Fanscio, with the character of envoy or resident, a matter not yet settled, who will go with this fleet to Lisbon to transact the necessary business concerning this crown.
Nothing has been heard yet of the first squadron, but as the wind has been nearly always favourable since it sailed, there is no doubt it is well away at sea. The reports persist as to its destination.
The king seeing the slow progress of parliament with its deliberations especially in confirming the Act of Indemnity passed in the last one, but which requires the confirmation of this owing to the doubt about the other being lawful, and being particularly anxious that this should be completed before he starts on his journey next August, has recently written a letter to parliament expressing his desire and pressing for its more speedy effectuation. The matter was accordingly taken in hand and some resolutions were passed this week; and so they go on. (fn. 9)
Sir [Henry] Vene and John Lambert, well known for their part in the late troubles, being excepted from this Act have been relegated to the Common Laws, and they will certainly be found guilty and punished accordingly. Lord Monson, the knights Mildmay and Harrington and one Walop, who sat as judges in the Court that condemned the late king, are not comprised in the Act and have been condemned to imprisonment for life, to be dragged at the horse's tail with ropes round their necks to the usual place of execution, there degraded from all the honours and titles they hold and afterwards taken back to prison, with confiscation of all their goods and revenues, present or future, to be paid to the royal exchequer. The descendants of Sir [Arthur] Halserig have also been deprived of all the honours enjoyed by him and the property confiscated. Others are in prison, who may not share the pardon, on which they are at present engaged. Very soon they will know the punishments appointed for them, as is but just, especially as these punishments serve for an example to others. But it is very mischievous that the same thing is not done against some others, who are as guilty, if not more so, than those mentioned, many of whom, instead of being punished for their detestable actions, have so far succeeded in pushing themselves at Court that they at present enjoy the most eminent and distinguished posts.
Sir [Henry] Bennet, sometime resident with the Catholic king for his Majesty and recently returned from Madrid, has just been appointed keeper of the king's privy purse, an honourable and lucrative appointment. Being high in his Majesty s favour it will not be difficult for him to achieve other honours and rewards.
The Swedish minister Frisendorf has complained of the permission to raise levies in this country granted to the Grand Duke of Muscovy, at the instance of a certain Englishman, some weeks ago. The only answer he got was that any one will be allowed to enlist men here with their own money. But although the reply was not satisfactory, he has the satisfaction of seeing the grant without effect, not only for lack of cash, but because of the complete disinclination of the people here to go to parts so remote.
London, the 15th July, 1661.
[Italian.]
July 16.
Cod. 1245
Museo
Correr.
Venice.
14. Angelo Correr and Michiel Morosini, Venetian Ambassadors extraordinary to England, to the Doge and Senate.
We have just arrived and seize an opportunity of sending quickly. The delay at Antwerp was due not only to the arrangement of our equipage, but to the necessity of caring for many of our attendants, who, owing to the great heat fell ill of fever, and we have only brought them here, though convalescent, with great difficulty. We shall hasten our sea passage if the wind serves, but we have not yet heard if the ship has arrived which his Majesty destined for our passage. We observe that the garrison of this place far exceeds all need, and this encourages reports, circulated through all Holland and Flanders, though without much foundation, of an approaching rupture. They talk of nothing but the suspicions entertained by the merchants through the departure of the English fleet. They maintain that it has gone to meet the Spanish ships which are much more heavily freighted with gold than usual, though their armed escort is less, and it is believed that this has encouraged the desire to capture them, while the Spaniards, caressing the English, possibly in proportion to their fears, have given orders that they may trade freely in Brabant and Flanders. A few days will clear up all doubts on this important matter, from which great results may follow.
Since the letters of your Serenity received at Antwerp no others have reached us from Venice, either public or private, but the Resident Giavarina speaks of receiving some, which he is keeping for our arrival.
Dunkirk, the 16th July, 1661.
[Italian.]
July 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli,
Venetian
Archives.
15. Giovanni Battista Ballarino, Venetian Grand Chancellor, to the Doge and Senate.
Two servants of the English ambassador who had gone hunting with his Excellency, were encountered by some of the Bustangi Pasha and seriously wounded. One of them is dead. His Excellency has remonstrated strongly to the Grand Vizier, who lost no time in giving him the utmost satisfaction. Two of the culprits have been taken. They are in the ambassador's house where they receive some torture every day (dove ricevono qualche tormento ogni giorno); and they will be hanged. The execution is put off so that they may point out the other accomplices.
Pera of Constantinople, the 16th July, 1661.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
16. Domenico Vico, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
With respect to the Grand Duke's attitude about the English captains who were in collusion with the Barbary pirates and betrayed cargoes laded at Lisbon, about which all the merchants make a pother, the secretary of war, Count Bardi, has stated that he has talked with the two captains of the ships in question which were destined for Leghorn and has pointed out to them the poor opinion that will be held of their countrymen if their transgression is brought home to them. But the captains excused themselves on the ground that their ships were not strong enough to put up a fight with the Barbareschi, and that they were faithful and by no means guilty of the crime with which they were charged, as they will try to make good. They added that the squadron of ships of war now being made ready in London, will assuredly arrive in the Mediterranean and in Barbary, to inspire the Turks with the respect which is due to their ships and at the same time to recover what has been taken. But their excuses are considered very feeble and the belief in their good understanding with the Moors is general. It seems probable that the Grand Duke will not take any steps in the matter, as not only does he fear the power of England, but it does not suit his interests to make even the smallest demonstration of irritation over what has happened.
Florence, the 16th July, 1661.
[Italian.]
July 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Genova.
Venetian
Archives.
17. Paris Tasca, Venetian Consul at Genoa, to the Doge and Senate.
With reference to the action of the government here about the goods laded on the six English ships, one of these vessels, named Luigi came here. Before coming within range of the cannon of the fort it asked for a general safe conduct. The Senate was reluctant to grant one, but the very Genoese who were interested asked for it, as the ship would have gone to Leghorn, and obtained it. The captain performed the consulage of the sea, reporting the incident that had occurred with the Barbareschi and professing himself ready to consign all that he had been able to retain from the violence of the Turks, always provided he was paid fully for his hire. He states that he has recovered 140 chests of sugar, on the pretext that they were for the account of Englishmen, and also saved some clusters of diamonds together with 4,000 reals. A dispute having arisen between the interested parties about the consignment of these effects the magistracy of the sea decided that all of it should be deposited in the hands of that magistracy in order that a computation might be made. So far the captain has not chosen to render entire obedience. He has landed about one half of the chests, retaining the rest as a pledge against his claims. They are treating him with the utmost mildness both because of the safe conduct which he holds as also not to offend his countrymen, and it is not thought that the Signory here will do anything else except inform his Britannic Majesty about it through the Ambassador Durazzo. Among the chests put ashore I noticed some with the mark of your Serenity.
Genoa, the 16th July, 1661.
[Italain.]
July 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Diapacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
18. Giovanni Cornaro, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The English marriage, the consequences which accompany it and the disturbances (alterationi) which they bring to these realms constitute motives for the greatest business, and afford material for constant discussion and intense curiosity. The government is tossed between doubts and considers means of prevention with hopes that it may not happen, the result of a desire which deceives and of reason as well, which meets with difficulties in execution. They say that the king there is not well assured in his kingdom, that parliament is not favourable, that the people are against it, that the merchants complain of the interruption of trade that will ensue; it does not please them for the daughter of Braganza, a Catholic, to be the king's wife; it is of evil augury that the nuptials should be made with the beginnings of wars and the suspension of trade; the king has followed the evil counsels of the High chancellor who has persuaded him that the marriage will not interrupt the friendship with Spain.
These reports have quieted the universal repugnance, but in the comprehension of divers results there may also be hope for variety in resolution (ma nel comprendersi effetti diversi potersi anco sperar varieta di risolutione). But their chief reliance is founded on seeing that Portugal has not the means to carry out her promises, being poor in money; that the conditions of the agreement are excessive and have never been published; that the Portuguese will not so easily tolerate the prejudice to the Catholic faith, which they steadfastly profess, or suffer themselves to be given to the heretics.
Don Luis himself has expressed opinions to me not far from the confidence that it may be broken off, and informed me that the oldest parliamentarians object; they had believed that the marriage would not lead to war, but this cannot be for the prestige of the crown, from the character of the accidents and because the states which had been given as dowry belonged to the king, his master. Batteville had recently been sent for by the king and assured that England wishes to continue in the peace; that Montagu had only put to sea to prevent the damage done by the Barbary pirates, who harry navigation and render it too perilous.
He spoke afterwards of how much Spain had done for that king, of the debt of gratitude he owed; at the Pyrenees they had tried to procure for him every possible satisfaction; he had been assisted with the money of the crown; he had beguiled them with untruthful assertions and in short he had behaved in a manner very far from what was proper and right. The king, his master, from the very beginning of the announcement, had given orders that the English merchants should be well treated and that nothing subversive should be done, as a demonstration that he desired peace; and this was carried out. He went on to speak of the fleet that is expected in the coming month, and they are not afraid of a mishap. It is worth 20 millions, and divers nations are interested, the Dutch in particular. The Spaniards have sent ships of Biscaya and Cadiz to meet it, to ensure its safety on the way.
Talk of this kind still goes on, even among ministers, about the affairs of England, but they do not continue to cherish any well founded hopes because the advices from without give them no support. The business is too far advanced.
Orders have been issued for dispositions of war at Cadiz and in Biscaya, for naval equipment, but the absence of money and the government's methods of procedure lead one to expect delays and difficulties, as they lack the things necessary for speedy arming.
Madrid, the 20th July, 1661.
[Italain.]
July 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
19. Giovanni Cornaro, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
At Cadiz they are getting ready the ships, which are already docked for careening, and money has been sent from Seville to hasten their completion. Other ships again are arming in Biscaya. The English ships have put to sea and some English frigates have proceeded to Lisbon, they say, with presents for the bride. The vessels of Biscaya and two frigates of Cadiz have gone to meet the fleet. Orders have reached them for their route and the dispositions are such as to render difficult any attempt that might be made. Fifteen warships accompany it and there will be forty or fifty with cargo. With such great interests involved in its safe arrival and with such preventive dispositions, together with the scanty forces which the English have at sea, they hope that it will arrive quite safely in the middle of next month.
Madrid, the 20th July, 1661.
[Italain.]
July 22.
Cod. 1245.
Museo
Correr,
Venice.
20. Angelo Correr and Michiel Morosini, Venetian Ambassadors extraordinary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After three days and two nights at sea we approached the Downs on the evening of the day before yesterday. The wind did not permit us to enter Dover, as we had intended, and this day we arrived here. We shall now make all necessary arrangements for our public entry at his Majesty's convenience. The vessel which brought us was a new frigate of about 60 guns, called the Monk, commanded by a man of low birth, (fn. 9) but who stands high with the king, as he is the one who took his Majesty safe to France in a small collier after the unfortunate battle which lost England. We rewarded him very liberally, because he will blazon us at Court and because he deserved it for his good treatment of us.
In the few hasty lines sent from Dunkirk we could not dwell on the honours we received there. The commander, who only arrived a fortnight since, is a Scottish gentleman, a man of birth and of great military repute and experience. (fn. 11) He was summoned to England while on duty with a Scotch regiment of the French king's guards, but on reaching Calais he received secret instructions charging him with the government of Dunkirk and ordering him to go there at once. He told us all this in confidence. He sent an escort and received us in person at the landing place. Guns saluted our entrance and the streets were lined with troops. After conducting us to our quarters he sent us refreshments, and showed us similar honours on our departure, leaving us nothing to desire. We responded suitably, informing him that we would tell his Majesty, disclosing his merits and our obligations. He took pleasure in our seeing several times the entire garrison, which is composed of over 6,000 very fine troops, well clothed and better paid, and all English except a few Walloons of the best that could be picked, in exchange for those introduced by Cromwell, a practice that is constantly going on. The horse do not exceed 600 and in the fortress of Mardyke there are 3,000 Irish. Strict guard is kept, as is usual in places with an enemy at hand, though they will not thus qualify the very numerous garrison kept at their front by the king of Spain at Furne a few miles away. We noticed the same wariness with them and a garrison of very fine troops.
If the people and especially the soldiers may be believed war between Spain and England must be very near, but it is unlikely that the Spaniards will move unless attacked, as their present force is not even equal to defence. The governor of Dunkirk told us he thought it impossible his king could have given him the command of so brave and numerous a garrison in order to remain idle and he is hourly expecting considerable reinforcements by sea. He says that he has ammunition and provisions for three years, but he would feel doubtful about the burgesses if he did not make sure of them by quartering soldiers in all their houses, and if it were not for their constantly leaving the place, although not molested in their religion or their municipal charges, but for the sake of avoiding the contributions which the Spanish commanders levy on the surrounding country. Yet the difficulties still exist and though the English have hitherto proceeded with great moderation, the knot must be loosed, for affairs of such weight cannot long remain in their present position.
We noticed fifteen ships of war in the Downs and the Vice-Admiral told us that there were many other in the River which would soon be out. He assured us that those which had already sailed had no intention of meeting the Spanish fleet on its return from the Indies, as feared by the merchants, since it was undoubtedly destined for the Mediterranean. If this is true it will be a great relief to those concerned.
We have just received through the Resident Giavarina your Serenity's missive of the 11th June with instructions to offer the Senate's congratulations to the king on his marriage with the Infanta of Portugal. We shall punctually obey unless the occasion is removed by a certain coolness which seems to be coming over the affair, upon which we have not yet been able to inform ourselves thoroughly. To-morrow we may be able to see the Master of the Ceremonies to make the necessary arrangements for our entry, though the Resident, who took the trouble to come here, has not yet been able to show his usual despatch.
Gravesend, the 22nd July, 1661.
[Italain.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Genova.
Venetian
Archives.
21. Paris Tasca, Venetian Consul at Genoa, to the Doge and Senate.
The English ship Rainbow has also arrived off this port. It is another of the six that went to Algiers. This one also asked for a safe conduct with the benefit of the free port, and it was granted by the government exactly as in the case of the Luigi. Both of them do exactly as they please; the hire claimed is paid at their caprice upon the goods retained with interest, and so they draw notable profit to themselves from the misfortunes of others. Nothing more has been done here, nor will it be.
Genoa, the 23rd July, 1661.
[Italain.]
July 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
22. To the Ambassadors extraordinary in England.
The letters of the Resident Giavarina of the 8th inst. report the petition of Edward Wyld, an English merchant. You can say that orders have at once been issued to the effect desired.
We hear from Germany that Count Strozzi has been instructed to proceed to London without delay, to support the interests of Spain. This is the more necessary as war between the emperor and the Turks may be considered to have begun.
That the paragraph from the Resident Giavarina's letter be sent to the Capi of the Consiglio de' Quaranta Civile, for the despatch of the case of the merchant Wyld.
Ayes, 78. Noes, 1. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 29.
Cod. 1245.
Museo
Correr,
Venice.
23. Angelo Correr and Michiel Morosini, Venetian Ambassadors extraordinary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In spite of our diligence it has been impossible to fix our public entry before to-morrow, and all the rest of the ceremonies will be performed in the course of the week. The Court officials have so far been busy with the first audience of M. d'Estrades, the French ambassador in ordinary, lately arrived from his government of Gravelines, and with the conge and escort of the ambassadors extraordinary from Brandenburg. Such are the chief reasons given by the Master of the Ceremonies, who visited us in the king's name, with many compliments, to which we made a suitable reply.
The brother of the duke of Arundel, (fn. 12) who was for many years grievously ill at Padua, although we were not personally acquainted, came to visit us, because of the regard of his family for the most serene republic. We thanked him and having been informed that he filled some post of confidence about the king's person, we hinted that he might be able to procure us the royal favour. He seemed pleased, and after making the most ample offers he entered into details concerning the past troubles and present interests of his house. He also said a few words about the king's affairs from which we gathered that the reports recently circulated about the failure of the Portuguese marriage are spread by Spanish arts. So the congratulations with which we are charged will be welcome, especially as so far they have only been offered by the Dutch ambassadors.
As a matter of fact everyone insists that the fleet is bound for Portugal to take possession of the places agreed on by the settlement, and will afterwards proceed to the Indies for the same purpose. The Infanta is already called queen here and prints of her as such are sold, while for some time the queen dowager has been called the queen mother. So it would seem that no change is discernible in the forms stipulated by the Portuguese ambassador before his departure. But the ships to fetch the bride are not yet ready, so it may be inferred that the consummation is not imminent.
In the midst of parliament's fiercest persecutions the House of Arundel professed with constancy the Catholic religion, regardless of seeing itself stripped of its most valuable possessions; and it continues in the same course, but with all quiet, although the king gives it the confidence mentioned. If he does not restore to it the earl marshalship, it is because he hesitates, at the start, to excite any troublesome jealousy and the post remains vacant, to be restored at a safer and more opportune moment. From this and other circumstances it seems that when the present government is perfectly settled the Catholic religion will enjoy great advantages, and already many of the king's own guards are Catholics, as are almost all the attendants of the duke of York. Indeed it seems that parliament had some thought of discussing whether, for the establishment of universal quiet, it would not be better to grant entire liberty of conscience to all, as in France, to profess any religion without distinction. But the Lord Chancellor has not thought it well to discuss so great a project, possibly feeling that the moment is not opportune, or thinking by the delay to increase his influence and authority. So, for the present, to ameliorate the lot of the Catholics, it is proposed that the exercise of their religion shall entail exile merely instead of death, and it is hoped that even the minor penalty may lack enforcement. May the Lord God who relieved these kingdoms by restoring their rightful sovereign at the least likely moment when the need was greatest, enlighten men's hearts with the true faith.
Tuesday next is appointed for our first audience, after which we shall visit the ministers and do our utmost that our interview with the chancellor shall not prove fruitless, for on him depends the disposal of the most important affairs, and we are impatient to fulfil our mission from our inability to support for any length of time the immense expenditure for food and raiment and everything else. Within the last year prices have risen exorbitantly, and though all complain there is no sign of any approaching amendment. With our numerous attendants we do not know what to do, as all our public allowance was consumed on the journey. Since the king's restoration the price of house rents has been doubled, many of the nobility having come to reside in London, and all this in spite of the extreme narrowness and inconvenience of the houses. We pay for lodging alone 30 of our Venetian (cotesti) ducats a day, and their only care is to impose on foreigners here, particularly such as fill any conspicuous post, all looking to make extravagant profits. The Master of the Ceremonies, angling for himself and the Court officials, artfully contrived to show us the fist of the presents left by the last ambassadors extraordinary of France and Spain, which, if true, are intolerably exorbitant. We pretended not to see them and gently intimated that we required no other light than the precedents of your Serenity's former ambassadors; and in this business we will do our best to avoid being overreached by the audacity of these people while maintaining a proper decorum.
London, the 29th July, 1661.
[Italain.]
July 29.
Cod. 1245.
Museo
Correr,
Venice.
24. The Same to the Same.
Parliament is still sitting, in order to pass some more bills before its adjournment and one day the king will appear and give his assent or veto with due regard to the country's quiet and the increase and confirmation of his own authority. To this end and before parliament had discussed the last bills, which were subsequently published, his Majesty assisted personally expressing his opinions and showing his anxiety for some of the more important measures to be despatched speedily. (fn. 13) On this occasion, as is his wont, he repeated his obligation to God for his happy restoration, declaring afresh that all his efforts would be directed to enhance their honour and interests, and expressing the hope that as he aimed solely at the welfare and safety of his people, this might serve to eradicate all sinister thoughts from those who had not yet become his sincere friends but who now, by acknowledging their duty, would enable him to rank them among his most faithful subjects, and to esteem them as such and assist them in their need, more particularly for the sake of establishing perfect confidence and so consolidate a tranquil and durable state, to the general advantage of the whole kingdom.
The Speaker replied that the greatest attention should be paid to the safety of his Majesty's person and of all the royal family. Acts had already been passed to this end, and some of the chief members caused the grant of a general pardon, impunity and total oblivion to those who might be discovered as accomplices in the past troubles, subsequent to the punishments already inflicted on these accounts. Parliament also defined the means by which the appointments and increase of his Majesty's revenues may be punctually fulfilled, which have hitherto been attended with much disorder, producing infinite inconvenience to the royal household, whose officers complained loudly. Arrangements were also made for the disbanding of the troops dispersed in several garrisons and for the punctual satisfaction of their arrears; and apparently these acts will for the future relieve the crown of this superfluous expenditure. They would also adopt some reformation of the excessive naval expenditure if the aspect of foreign affairs should permit it, but they cannot yet foresee what circumstances may bring forth.
It is considered certain that parliament will adjourn next week until the month of November. That of Scotland, in the meantime, continues to function, to the king's satisfaction. It has sent certain arms and military equipment which will be kept here, and it really seems as if all efforts were directed to the regulation and quiet of these kingdoms, though there is no lack of ill wishers to the present government who would gladly see fresh troubles. Though the king is not altogether free from apprehension, he betrays no outward sign of it, spending most of his time in hunting or in other pleasures suited to his tastes, so that but for the chancellor's application it would appear that his Majesty would scarcely be able to ensure the stability of a people that has already furnished so many memorable proofs of its natural fickleness.
London, the 29th July, 1661.
[Italain.]
July 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Genova.
Venetian
Archives.
25. Paris Tasca, Venetian Consul at Genoa, to the Doge and Senate.
The English captain of the ship Luigi persists in his claim for the complete fulfilment of his hiring, even for his return to Lisbon. The merchants Castri, the hirers, have declared the contract broken in view of all that happened. In spite of this the captain pays himself after his own fashion, detaining the greater part of the sugar on board his ship.
Genoa, the 30th July, 1661.
[Italain.]

Footnotes

1 Nicholas Tettersell. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1661–2, page 10.
2 It was not signed until 6th August. Le Clerc: Hist. des Provinces Unies, Vol. iii., page 19.
3 See the preceding Volume of this Calendar, pp. 308–9.
4 The Welcome (Benvenuta). Vol. xxxii. of this Calendar, page 305.
5 He was at York House, near Charing Cross, in the Strand. Pepys: Diary, Vol. ii., page 37. Wheatley and Cunningham: London, Past and Present, Vol. iii., page 539.
6 Nicholas Brahe. He had not yet left Sweden. Mercurius Politicus Aug. 8–15. His letters of credence are dated at Stockholm on 19th June, 1661. S.P. For. Sweden, Vol. v.
7 Sir Thomas Bendish.
8 Sir Augustus Coronel. S.P. For. Portugal, Vol. v, letter of 18 October, 1661.
9 The king's letter was dated 21st June and was read in the House on 22nd June, o.s., when the bill of Indemnity was passed. The question of pains and penalties against the regicides was discussed on 1st July, o.s.,and a bill introduced three days later. Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. viii, pp. 278, 286, 290.
10 Nicholas Tettersell.
11 Andrew, lord Rutherford.
12 Henry second son of Henry Frederick Howard, third earl of Arundel.
13 This was on 8–18 July. The king's speech is printed. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol, xi., page 303.


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