Venice
May 1662

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1932

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137-146

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'Venice: May 1662', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 33: 1661-1664 (1932), pp. 137-146. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90104 Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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May 1662

May 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
177. Alvise Grimani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The treaty with Holland is concluded and signed. (fn. 1) It is a defensive alliance and it expressly guarantees the fishing to the Dutch, which has constituted the chief difficulty to be overcome here. Before conceding it his Majesty sent an intimation to the king of England, and subsequently represented it to him as a matter that was settled, and since that monarch made no objection it made it easy for France to take the step. To justify it they say that a place has been left for King Charles to enter the league, but I cannot say for certain whether this is so.
Paris, the 2nd May, 1662.
[Italian.]
May 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
178. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
People are leaving this city every day for Portsmouth to be there when the fleet comes with the queen. She should have arrived by now, indeed on Monday a report got about that she had landed, which proved untrue. The wind which was favourable when she should have left Lisbon, has since changed and may hold her back and if she is at sea she will have no little trouble. A felucca is to announce her arrival, with the news of her leaving Portugal; but even this has not yet come. The duke of Ormond and the earl of Manchester have gone with other palace officials to the place of landing and are waiting there. Nothing more is said about the king's going, indeed it seems that his decision to go to Portsmouth is abandoned and that the duke of York will alone go there to receive the queen and take her to Hampton Court where the king will be to accomplish the necessary functions. But nothing can be asserted positively, as things are so subject to alteration at this Court, so dilatory, tedious and unstable as it is.
No news comes from Algiers and Tangier, to the general surprise, or from anywhere else of any consequence. Here everything proceeds peacefully and there is nothing to report.
The Dutch ambassadors continue their conferences, but their negotiations encounter unforseen difficulties which may delay the conclusion which they sigh for. Many are firmly of the opinion that there are so many things between this crown and the States to cause friction that in the end they will come to a rupture. The merchants desire this beyond expression, and not without cause, seeing that the Dutch are cleverly drawing to themselves a great part of the trade of this country, so the envy and hatred of this mart may be imagined.
The three regicides taken in Holland were executed on Saturday before an immense crowd. They spoke long at the gallows, and equivocally, neither approving nor disapproving the past. But one in dying exhorted the people to be loyal to the king and to pray for his Majesty, as he did himself and so the king, with his natural clemency, ordered that his body should be buried in the Tower of London, (fn. 2) while the heads and quarters of the others were exposed in the usual places. Lambert, known to all for his part in the revolution, who was sent away to an island, has recently been brought back to England by his Majesty's order and shut up in prison. It is expected that before long he also will pay the debt together with Sir [Henry] Vene, who is momentarily expected from the place he was transported to.
In obedience to the ducali of the 8th April I will keep on the alert about the embassy, but nothing positive is heard yet. I will tell his Majesty that the fisolera is ready and will be sent with the first cargo that goes, at which I am sure he will be greatly delighted.
London, the 5th May, 1662.
[Italian.]
May 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
179. To the Resident in England.
He is to watch the negotiations about Dunkirk with the closest attention, as well as the operations of the fleets which have gone against the corsairs. The Senate is much rejoiced to learn that the exercise of the Catholic faith is making such good progress there and that the late holy days have been solemnized by him with due reverence in his chapel.
Ayes, 147. Noes, 0. Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
May 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
180. Domenico Vico, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Letters from Alicante state that Admiral Reuter has made peace with the Barbareschi, to begin from the 6th April last. The English are greatly annoyed about it. It seems to them that the Admiral has done something dishonourable, since he has agreed to pay the Turks 30,000 pieces for the ransom of slaves and has consented to allow search. The English declare openly that for their part they will not accept such terms on any consideration. Sir [John] Lauson promised himself that he would exact better conditions from the Turks by force, which it would have been much easier for him to do if the Dutch had been more steadfast and refused to accept the settlement aforesaid. This same English commander, with seven frigates of war seems to be hovering about off the port of Bugia, waiting to engage some ships which are to bring soldiers to Algiers, brought from the islands of the Archipelago, and in the meanwhile he has driven on shore two Algerine ships laden with grain of which there is a great scarcity in Barbary.
We learn that the Turks have taken a small English ship with seven guns, which had left London with provisions and was making for Tanger. It is further stated that the Spaniards are doing their utmost to maintain peace and friendship with England, having only too much to think about in the war against Portugal. Florence, the 6th May, 1662.
[Italian.]
May 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
181. Giovanni Cornaro, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Indications point ever more strongly to the conclusion that the war of Portugal must of necessity lead to an open rupture with England. The fortress of Tanger, the despatch of troops to Portugal, the departure of the bride, the snares which are manifestly being laid for the fleets, the hostilities threatened in the Indies, the diversion of trade, the absence of negotiation, the name of peace with the effects of war, secret enmity with open injury, are all acts of violence which do not allow of any pretence or forbearance, and compel resentment, even though they lack the necessary means here. The steps which are being taken in advance are evidence of the peril. The garrisons of Gibraltar and Ceuta are being reinforced, money being sent to those parts. The statements of ministers fully confirm belief in this new trouble, and the interests of Christendom are thrown into worse confusion. The sole injury to England will be the interruption of trade, but the conveniences which they receive from Portugal, direct trade in other names, the mutual need of contracts, may perhaps prevent them from feeling those serious losses which are talked about here.
Spain is indeed in a state to receive and not to inflict injuries, and her present weakness is greater than is believed or discussed. No declaration has been issued, but there is abundant material for forming a good judgment about it…. Orders have been despatched to Italy, Flanders and the ports of Spain for a considerable number of ships to be armed by the kingdoms at their own cost, and so to gather a great Armada without great expense. Castile has already contributed 500,000 crowns. If this, which they talk about, is actually carried out, the force will be strong and considerable.
Spain, with her wars on land has ceased to pay any attention to the sea, and although her dominions are wide spread and can only unite by means of wooden bridges, namely fleets, she is now entirely destitute of these. The galleys of Naples and Sicily only form feeble squadrons. For the present campaign they recognise that things are not ready for action. The cost for the most part renders their decisions vain. One may imagine that this will also afford a diversion for the war of Portugal. It will not be easy to get together a powerful army by land and to form a considerable fleet on the sea, and Portugal will derive the only profit and security.
An English ship laden with arms and munitions, has been captured by privateers of this state in the sea of Biscay, on its way to Portugal.
Eight English ships are off Toulon and there is talk of the union of this squadron with that of France which is waiting for that of Toulon in the neighbourhood of Majorca.
Madrid, the 10th May, 1662.
[Italian.]
May 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
182. To the King of England.
Acknowledge his letter in favour of Colonel Thomas Anand. The Senate is always ready to give him every satisfaction, to show the esteem which the republic has always professed for his royal house. For the rest they refer him to what the Resident will say in their name.
Ayes, 123. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
May 13.
Senato,
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
183. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledge his letters No. 334 forwarding the king's recommendation of Col. T. Anand. Enclose a copy of the reply. For his better information, this Anand came from the fleet to this city, but of his own accord he again undertook the service and left with the last fleet, greatly consoled by the satisfaction received, and in particular by that of 1000 ducats which had been paid to him. He is to present the letter with a suitable office, so that the king may recognise the perfect disposition of the Signory.
Enclose copy of news from Florence about a treaty of peace between the Dutch and the Barbareschi. This will serve to enlighten him so that he may devote his close attention to the matter and advise the Senate.
Ayes, 123. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
May 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
184. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Being absolutely without material I neglected to write last week, for which I ask pardon. In the total absence of news of the queen they are beginning to murmur, especially as the delay is very hurtful to the crown owing to the heavy daily expense of the fleet which is bringing her. But at midnight on Tuesday Montagu, the general's nephew, arrived at the palace from Lisbon with the assurance of her embarcation and of her arriving soon. This has comforted everybody and made them change their opinion. He reports that she embarked three weeks ago but encountered contrary winds so they travelled slowly, with great inconvenience to the fleet and especially to her Majesty who suffered much from the sea. He had left her at Cape Finisterre and had seen them three days later sailing with all the fleet together, but making no way. He also had great difficulty in approaching this island and spent several days. It is calculated that the queen's entry to Portsmouth cannot be far off, and every one is eagerly waiting for authentic news.
As soon as this news reached Court the king sent a message to parliament to inform them and urge the despatch of public affairs so that they might adjourn before he was obliged to leave London to meet his bride. This will only be when they hear that she has set foot on shore. Parliament at once put aside all private business and the time is spent over public matters to get through with them as quickly as possible.
The duke of York started yesterday to be at Portsmouth at the time of the queen's arrival. The guards are marching to-day and the king also will go, in spite of reports to the contrary. He will spend four days on the journey, the stages being already arranged. As food and forage are exceedingly dear throughout the kingdom, especially now when the people expected to make great profits from his Majesty's journey, a tariff has been published abating the price of everything that can be needed by the Court and those who follow it, which the vendors of the places through which the king passes will have to observe. But as this does not apply to this city and is only for the present occasion, the people will have other ways of satisfying their greed.
The duchess of York has lately given birth to a daughter. (fn. 3) The child with its mother, is in perfect health and will soon be christened.
The governor of Dunkirk has continued to claim contributions from the subjects of the Catholic about that fortress. He sent to demand them, but was met with an absolute refusal, the marquis of Caracena having forbidden them to pay anything. The Spanish secretary here has complained to the king of the governor's behaviour and has obtained a promise in general terms to issue the necessary orders to prevent any disturbance, but it is probable that some difficulty will arise one day upon those borders.
The succour for Braganza is marching to the coast to embark for Portugal, and Lord Inciquin will be leaving here to-morrow. Prince Rupert having obtained a promise from the king of an appointment in England befitting his rank, has recently sent a gentleman to the emperor with letters thanking his Majesty for his numerous favours and resigning the post he had in the imperial armies. So he will not go back to Germany and will remain here awaiting the fulfilment of the king's promises, who has already made him a member of the Privy Council.
News reached this city to-day via France that Vice Admiral Lawson, left in the Mediterranean with only 12 ships, the rest having gone with Montagu to serve the queen, has inflicted considerable losses on the Algerines, sinking them under the very fortress of Algiers, whose guns could do no harm to the English, who approached within pistol shot. He burned, captured and sank their ships, so that practically the entire squadron of those pirates may be said to be destroyed. (fn. 4) The news was received at Court with great rejoicing, and confirmation is eagerly awaited. No doubt it will give equal satisfaction to all Christendom.
At the instance of the resident of Denmark I asked a favour some months ago for one Kuffler. He has asked me to write again, as I do, begging for a definite reply. Four packets of ducali reach me practically together, those of the 15th and 22nd April and two of the 29th. With them I have the edict published by the duke of Savoy about the book, and the information about renewed relations with that house. I will let drop the earl of Castelhaven's proposal for a levy and will try to obtain evidence about the letter of the Ambassador Winchelsea upon the ships stayed by the Turks to take troops and munitions to Canea.
London, the 19th May, 1662.
[Italian.]
May 20.
Seneto,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
185. To the Resident in England.
His close attention is required to observe the issue of the negotiations of the Dutch, to acquaint the Senate therewith from time to time
The Senate has issued suitable orders for the voyage of the Fregata di Zante to the Levant Islands. He did well in giving assurances to the owners. Fresh instructions have been sent to the public representatives and to the Proveditori of Zante and Cephalonia. As the Senate wishes to have definite corroboration upon the matter, he is to take steps, on the arrival home of the first ships from thence, to find out from the captain if they have been obliged to make other payments beyond the usual duties and by whom, because after the abolition of the mischievous innovation of the payment of a real for every thousand, the service of the state requires that the names of those who venture to disobey its orders in this matter should be known. All this is to facilitate trade and to afford consolation to the merchants. He is to attend carefully to what is expressed above and to report what he has done.
That the passage in the letter to the Resident in England touching the owners of the Fregata di Zante be sent to the two Esecutori appointed for the despatch of state affairs, to issue the necessary orders for the more speedy despatch and dismissal of that vessel.
Ayes, 103. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1. [Italian.]
May 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
186. Domenico Vico, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The English continue their hostilities against the Barbareschi, and they are encouraged because the duke of Belfort has arrived off Lampedosa. But they have suffered the loss of the William Sarra, an English ship, which left Venice with a cargo of over 300,000 pieces for Smyrna and Constantinople (fn. 5) which was taken by the Tripolitans, though they let the ship go and paid the captain for the hire, owing to the peace which they have with England.
Florence, the 20th May, 1662.
[Italian.]
May 24.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
187. The Abbot Dini, being introduced into the Collegio intimated that he had letters of the duchess of Savoy to present and also of the duke. He handed in the letters to be opened and read. They are given below. He then handed in the memorial (below), which was also read. He then said that he had passed through Modena on his return from Turin, and handed in another memorial, which was read.
The doge expressed thanks for the letters of the duke and duchess of Savoy and reciprocated their good will. The Signory would consider what the Abbot had said and the request of the duchess of Modena. For the rest his character was well known to all and left no room for doubting that his operations were always disinterested.
The Memorial.
Most Serene Prince: When I was passing through Modena the duchess commanded me to recommend to your Serenity the release of the two English brothers Ravenferat. Her Highness relies upon your clemency to receive this favour, especially as she is assured that His Britannic Majesty will not take umbrage but will be glad of this favour to his subjects, who have made every effort to obtain peace from the offended parties, as will appear from the paper I leave. I must needs obey the commands of my mistress, even against my will, as I have heard it said that I received 100 doubles for the other, who was released at the duchess's instance. I ask that inquiry may be made about this and the slanderer punished.
[Italian.]
May 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci.
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
188. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After a most tiresome voyage of a whole month and a week spent in sight of Portsmouth without being able to approach, the queen landed there the day before yesterday. The king had the news yesterday morning when he rose, by a gentleman sent express, and was greatly delighted, with all the Court. The city celebrated the occasion by the firing of the guns of the Tower, ringing the bells, and with bonfires and illuminations. There were few houses that did not show some sign of rejoicing, all vieing with each other to show their respect and affection for the sovereign.
Now the queen has landed the king proposes to go to her, and as he thinks fit to suspend the sitting of parliament before he goes, he decided to spend Monday morning in giving his assent to the bills passed and then to set out at once for Portsmouth. After spending two or three days there, where the marriage will be consummated, he will proceed to Hampton Court, staying until everything is ready for the public entry.
The duke of York went out to sea to meet his sister-in-law who welcomed him with every courtesy, subsequently accompanying him to shore. It is thought that before the king leaves his Highness may return to London to stay there during his brother's absence, notwithstanding the guards who remain, only three companies going with the king besides the carabineers on horse who always follow the royal person, to prevent any disturbance among the turbulent spirits who are superabundant in this city, during the absence of the king and Court and the majority of the inhabitants of London.
Confirmation has come of the success against the Algerines, but it does not amount to the destruction of so many ships as was reported. The Admiral is sunk, the Vice admiral a wreck; some were taken, including one or two laden with grain from Bogia for Algiers. What is considered most important, the English were so near the castles guarding the port that they were able to dismount the guns and open some breaches in two of them. The news comes from Vice Admiral Lawson, who complains greatly of Ruiter for having allowed the Barbary squadron to pass between his ships without the slightest opposition, and this by virtue of an arrangement made with those infidels in the name of his superiors. This is believed to be only too true although the Dutch ambassadors here will not admit it. Baron Hollis, publicly announced at last as ambassador in ordinary to France, is beginning to get ready to go there as soon as possible. No other appointments have followed, but it is hoped that after the celebration of these nuptials they will proceed to choose ministers for all the Courts.
Obeying the instructions of the 15th April I have tried to obtain evidence about the letter on the Turks taking an English ship to convey men and munitions to Canea. I have learned from the Secretary Nicolas that Winchelsea informed the king that a ship had been seized for that purpose. By virtue of his instructions he had tried to get it released, but was not very hopeful. He promised to report what happened, but no letters have arrived from him since. This is all I have to report, but I obtained a fresh promise from the secretary to repeat the orders to the ambassador to resist strongly such violence of the Turks.
London, the 26th May, 1662.
[Italian.]
May 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
189. To the Resident in England.
Have to report to him the multiplication of the most considerable losses to Christendom under the flag of that nation, since there is a report that the ship William Sarra with a cargo of over 300,000 reals has been taken by Tripolitan corsairs and all the cargo seized, the ship being allowed to go free and the captain satisfied for the hire. The disgrace to the nation and the injury to trade are manifest. If the report is found to be true he is to make representations for some generous resolution and for repressing the excessive audacity of the Barbareschi, reporting to the Senate what the ministers there have been led to decide.
Nothing is wanting but an opportunity to ship the fisolera. If nothing comes sooner it will be sent by the Fregata di Zante.
That orders to this effect be given to the magistracy of the Rason Vecchie.
Ayes, 138. Noes, 2. Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
May 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
190. Domenico Vico, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
We understand from ships arrived from Algiers that the English have made a treaty with the Barbareschi on much worse terms than the Dutch, as they have agreed that all the ships which leave England direct for Constantinople and Smyrna and which leave those places for London, shall not be searched by the Turks, but that all others may be searched, and in the case that the English captain does not report that he has foreign goods the Barbareschi may make him confess the truth by a beating. The merchants are scandalised and complain that whereas some good results were hoped from the English and Dutch, as being most powerful at sea, the exact contrary has happened. The English, however, defend themselves and the consul of the nation writes to me, that this is only to last for 6 months. But emulation has exaggerated the facts beyond what is possible, for he can never persuade himself that Sir John Lauson has come to an arrangement so dishonourable for them.
Florence, the 27th May, 1662.
[Italian.]
May 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
191. Alvise Grimani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
I hear that the king of England has refused to enter the treaty between France and the Dutch, saying that he has another open one apart, with the States. Actually it is known that he heard of this alliance with scant satisfaction.
Meanwhile reports are circulating that the corsairs of Algiers have begun to enjoy a very considerable advantage [from their peace with the Dutch], because when their ships were chased by the English right up to that port, before which the Dutch fleet was stationed, they must of necessity have fallen a prey to one fleet or the other, being caught between them, but Ruiter, who had signed the treaty two days before, decided to keep his word and not prevent their entry into that port into which they accordingly sailed, triumphantly, to the deep regret and disgust of the English.
Paris, the 30th May, 1662.
[Italian.]
May 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
192. Alvise Grimani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
A courier from London, sent by King Charles, has reached the queen of England with the news that the fleet with the bride has been sighted in those waters, and begging his mother to make haste to proceed to that country as soon as possible, telling her that as soon as the new queen has arrived, Lord Germen will set out for these parts to fetch her Majesty and attend upon her. The queen does not leave her daughter without hope that she will return to France again.
Paris, the 30th May, 1662. [Italian.]

Footnotes

1 On 27th April. Dumont: Corps Diplomatique Vol. vi, part ii, page 412.
2 Col. John Okey. Cal. S.P. Dom 1661–2, page 344.
3 Princess Mary, afterwards Queen Mary II, born at St. James' Palace on 30 April, o.s. Mercurius Politicus April 14–May 1,
4 The attack on Bogia (Bougie) on 22 March, o.s., after which, on the 29th, the Turkish fleet was driven into Algiers, as recorded in the Kingdom's Intelligencer May 5–12.
5 The William and Sarah. Hist. MSS. Comm. Finch Papers Vol. i, pp. 198, 202.


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