Venice
June 1662

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1932

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146-158

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'Venice: June 1662', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 33: 1661-1664 (1932), pp. 146-158. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90105 Date accessed: 31 July 2014.


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June 1662

June 2.
Senato,
Secrete.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
193. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
His Majesty having decided to set out for Portsmouth on Monday went in the morning to Westminster and entering the House of Lords sent for the Commons and gave his assent to all the bills passed, proroguing the session until the 28th February next. The function lasted until 8 in the evening, so he could only begin his journey late. He left parliament and mounted his coach at once, reaching Guildford in three hours. He arrived at Portsmouth the next day, having hastened his journey, as since landing the queen has suffered somewhat in her health, due to the trials of the long voyage and the change of clime. The marriage being consummated there or in some private house near by and all the functions of the same being performed privately, he will leave there and is expected to reach Hampton Court to-morrow. They say the Court will stay there all the summer, and talk of transferring the Council thither and transacting all business, which is at a standstill with his Majesty away.
Sixty-nine new bills were ratified on that day; 31 touching the public, the rest private. The latter are of no consequence; the former are. One provides for uniformity in the public prayers and administration of the sacraments and other ceremonies, setting up the form for consecrating bishops, priests and deacons in the Anglican Church. Another touches the militia of the counties, which are all placed in the king's hands, a very essential point of extreme consequence. Another concerns a tax for the three coming years one month only a year at the rate of 70,000l. sterling the month, but only in case of pure necessity which means a rupture with some power obliging the king to draw the sword. Another brings an addition to the king's revenues, imposing a tax of 2 shillings on each hearth yearly on houses of an annual value of 20s. Another forbids the importation into England of lace, cut work, embroidery and similar work, to improve the sale of these things which are made in the country. Another regulates the frequent abuses due to the licence of printing seditious and scandalous books and controls the printing presses. (fn. 1) The rest are of less importance and only concern internal affairs.
After giving his assent to all these bills the king made a speech, thanking both houses for their care for the public interests and his own and then the chancellor made a prolix and most learned speech in explanation of his Majesty's, amid general applause. (fn. 2) In this his Excellency inveighed against the Dutch, referred to the unequal and absurd adjustment made by Ruiter with the Barbary Turks, exposed their insatiable appetite and their efforts to take away the trade of this country and get it for themselves. He referred to their superiority at sea, which increases daily and pointed out the need for the crown of England to seek every means so that these neighbours should not become more formidable than itself and consequently to oppose it by any means. He concluded with a reference to the intolerable insolence and the obstinate unreasonable pretensions of the Barbary pirates, applauding his Majesty's pious intentions to prosecute hostilities against them with vigour.
There are indeed strong indications of some trouble with the Dutch and good cause for apprehension. The Dutch general of the India Company has sequestrated some English ships in Guinea, which were lading there, treating them and their crews with the most barbarous hostility. His Majesty has demanded satisfaction and compensation in Holland but has had no success. He has directed the Resident Douning to declare that he is determined to see justice done to his subjects, intimating that he will have Dutch ships and goods seized in the ports of England to the equivalent of the losses of the English. Douning has presented a memorial on this to the States (fn. 3) and it will be interesting to see what they will decide.
Confirmation comes from all sides that Ruiter has made an accord with the Barbary folk, indeed a pamphlet printed here states that he has bought it for 30,000 reals on shameful conditions, permitting the Turks to search Dutch ships and remove foreigners and their goods and promising to furnish the Algerines with every sort of munitions of war. Hitherto the Dutch ambassadors here have denied the accord absolutely, but now hearing it announced on every side as unquestionable, they admit it, but say that Ruiter went beyond his instructions and the States will not ratify it. As regards search they say that it is limited to Dutch ships going from one place of Italy to another or to a dominion not dependent on the States, and those going from Holland to Italy or from Italy to Holland will be exempt. However that may be there is no doubt that the accord is improper and most injurious to all Christendom.
In accordance with the instructions of the 29th April, I have tactfully refused the earl of Castelhaven's offer of a levy, in the manner prescribed. He declared that he was ready to take any employment whenever he was considered capable of exercising it. Since then Sir William Waller has offered a levy of 5000 foot and to take out a fleet of 25 to 30 ships of 30 and 40 guns each against the Ottoman. I let it drop for the reasons aforesaid.
London, the 2nd June, 1662.
[Italian.]
June 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
194. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Hard necessity compels me to break silence. This is my seventh year at this Court after six at Zurich and in France. I hoped I should be removed from a country always agitated by strange events, always subject to serious peril, never free from expense and unbearable discomfort. But it was always being postponed. When the king returned it was proposed to send an ambassador and Sig. Pietro Mocenigo was chosen. I hoped that he would come and that I should go elsewhere. But months and years have passed and the hope is vanishing.
I was instructed to try and get an ambassador appointed for Venice and have done so, and his Majesty has always expressed the best intentions thereupon. France and Spain have sent theirs without any response from here, where the delay is only due to the question of expense. I should be sorry that they should provide for France and not for Venice under the pretext that none has come thence, as they are very punctilious and pretentious here.
Amid all this hesitation and delay I beg your Excellencies to remove me from here, where the climate is bad for my health and my ill fortune has been such that the recital may have irritated your Serenity at times. The changes and charges here are too heavy for my slender purse. Sig. Sarotti shares the inconvenience, as if he is not released from Zurich he cannot go to Naples, for which he is chosen, and Sig. Bianchi cannot return home. I beg your Excellencies to consider my case and give me that breathing space that is not generally refused to any one.
London, the 2nd June, 1662.
[Italian.]
June 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
195. Domenico Vico, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate,
The English frigate expected from Algiers has brought letters from Vice Admiral Lauson which confirm the peace with the Algerians, but on terms quite different from those reported. The articles provide that when the Turks meet a ship at sea and recognise that it is English, they may not search it but must allow it to proceed on its voyage without hindrance.
Florence, the 3rd June, 1662. [Italian.]
June 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
196. Giovanni Cornaro, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate,
The English garrison at Tanger, having made a sortie and engaged with. Galian, the leader of the Africans, has suffered serious losses, 600 English being left on the field. The Moors appeared on the field with fire arms, and in wonderfully good order. Here they have rejoiced at the news seeing that at the beginning of this new possession the English may not be without loss and trouble. This leader of the Moors is in high esteem, strength and valour. He has correspondence with the Spaniards. He has offered them harness and horses at very low prices, on condition that they do not send over succour from the Spanish shore to the opposite party with whom he is engaged in hostilities.
Madrid, the 7th June, 1662.
[Italian.]
June 9.
Senato,
Secreta
Deliberazioni.
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
197. To the Grand Chancellor at Constantinople.
Now that the English ambassador has been made fully acquainted with the title and claim and has admitted the error of the ship destined for Candia, we are inclined to believe that if he is approached suitably he may be disposed not to allow this to occur again. Of his negotiations with the Pashas of Algiers and Tunis we also have some corroboration from Leghorn. It is stated that an adjustment has already been made, on condition that freedom from search is granted, not for all the ships of the nation as he has asserted, but only for those voyaging between Constantinople and Smyrna and London, backward and forward. The others, even if English which are voyaging to other places, will all be liable to be stopped and will have to render account. If this is true the injury will be great and universal. The information will serve you to obtain corroboration and to ascertain the truth.
Of no less consequence is the king's new design to assume to himself in the future the trade of lead and tin, since it would do great injury to all and to us most of all. We also see that it will be more difficult to prevent it, since it is a question of an important advantage. This matter also is left to your skill and prudence, to keep on the watch to see what can be done, cautiously, to a good end.
Ayes, 116. Noes, 2. Neutral, 8.
[Italian.]
June 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives
198. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On the last of May, the 21st English style, the nuptials of King Charles II with Donna Caterina di Braganza were celebrated at Portsmouth. The ceremony was performed in private by a Roman Catholic priest and then in public, the Secretary Nicolas acting for the king and the Secretary of the Portuguese embassy for the queen. The instrument of marriage is confirmed by the bishop of London who declared it to the peers of the realm and to other subjects assembled for the purpose, as valid, legal and entirely complete. (fn. 4) The rest of the day was celebrated with banquets and fireworks at Portsmouth and other parts of the kingdom, as the news arrived. In this city it lasted three evenings, only ending yesterday night when they exceeded the rest as it was also his Majesty's birthday. Their Majesties and the Court will not leave Portsmouth before Tuesday, travelling easily in the coolest hours of the day to avoid the excessive heat which has lasted six days, contrary to what is usual in this changing climate. Staying at Winchester and other interesting places they should reach Hampton Court to-day where it is confirmed they will stay all the summer or at least until the apartments are ready which are now being rebuilt for the queen at Whitehall and fit for habitation, which cannot be for two months at soonest.
There is no announcement of the marriage articles, but it is sufficiently understood that this union will not have all the advantages for England that were looked for. The dowry does not exceed 400,000l. sterling although a year ago they wanted it to be thought 6 millions. It consists in jewels, in unwrought gold, in sugar and spices, and for complete fulfilment a Portuguese Jew merchant has come with the queen (fn. 5) who has undertaken to make good to the king all that the duke of Braganza has promised him. Many chests with part of these effects have already reached the house of the Ambassador Melo, and they have given him a company of infantry to guard it until it is all consigned to the treasury. If from this sum are deducted more than 100,000l. sterling for the cost of the fleet that fetched the bride, and 70,000l. for the maintenance for three months of the succour sent to Braganza, without counting the cost of Tangier and the mass of gold that the mole they propose to build there will cost, and the cost of the squadron they mean to send to the East Indies to take possession of the places ceded by the Portuguese, it will be clear that they do not derive so much advantage.
There is also the prospect of a rupture with the Catholic, as it is impossible for the peace to last in the present crisis. They already announce the seizure in Spanish ports of English ships and goods, causing strong feeling among the merchants, who say that this is the result of the marriage and of the help sent to Braganza in contravention of the peace with Spain. Further confirmation of this is awaited, but as the merchants have it and discuss it, it cannot be false. The Spanish secretary declares that he knows nothing about it, but he must know something, and he dissimulates because he has orders to leave here at once without seeing the king, and is asking the secretary of state for a passport on the pretext that he wants to go to Flanders on his affairs. He is waiting for the secretary to go to Hampton Court to make this request and will immediately set out with all speed for Madrid, as instructed. I will keep an eye on his proceedings and see that your Excellencies are kept informed.
Not only is the adjustment between Ruiter and the Turks of Algiers confirmed, though the States will not consent, but positive news has come of an agreement between the English and those barbarians. It was concluded on the 23rd and the letters are of the 27th. They have not yet received the news from Vice Admiral Lawson, but it is coming together with the articles for ratification by his Majesty, in a frigate which is expected any moment. (fn. 6) The conditions are honourable and conform to the claims of the English. The Algerines are not to search their ships but to let them pass freely. The English on their side undertake to carry patents for foreign ships to show that they belong to them. Lawson will now go to Tripoli and Tunis to obtain like terms from them, to which it is believed they will readily consent, following the example of Algiers.
I have the ducali of the 13th May with which came those for the king touching Lieut. Col. Annand. When his Majesty is at Hampton Court I will go and present it and report to your Excellencies.
London, the 9th June, 1662.
[Italian.]
June 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
199. To the Resident in England., We believe the report current about a fight and a blow inflicted by the ships of that nation upon those of Algiers to be absolutely without foundation, since we have received a report, which has been confirmed, from the Resident at Florence that peace has been concluded between them on condition that the ships of that crown shall not be liable to search by the corsairs.
Next week we shall take in hand the affair of Kufler, and inform you of what has been decided.
Ayes, 117. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
June 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
200. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The country at present is full of nothing but rejoicing at the coming of the queen. Although there have been no public festivities, they have had a superabundance of amusements at the Court. On Friday evening their Majesties arrived here, in excellent health, acclaimed by all their subjects and have passed through with the most lively demonstrations of rejoicing and respect. The day after the queen received the compliments of the Privy Council, the mayor and common council of London, the judges and all the magistrates, who came from London in a body, and the nobility, who crowded to kiss her hand. In these last days three envoys extraordinary from France had audience, in the name of the Most Christian, and the duke and duchess of Orleans, (fn. 7) persons coming from every quarter to congratulate the nuptials of so great a monarch. Yesterday the ambassadors extraordinary of Holland performed the function and to-day I went and presented my credentials with an appropriate office, to which the queen responded graciously. I saw the king also, congratulating him and giving him the Senate's letter about Thomas Annand, speaking as instructed. His Majesty showed his pleasure at both, but urged me strongly to petition your Serenity to grant Annand his licence, saying it was most necessary for him to return home early, chiefly because of his father's death.
The gondolas sent by your Serenity have to-day been taken to Hampton Court, where everyone applauds and values them. The king again referred to the fisolera. I excused the delay in the terms of the ducali of the 22nd April, so the king and Court are eagerly expecting it, in the assurance that it cannot be long.
The Court offers nothing of moment, being taken up with diversions. On the journey from Portsmouth to this place the queen was very pleased to see the numbers who flocked to see her pass, and was even more delighted at the rich decorations of this palace, which indeed could not be more sumptuous.
Confirmation has come of the adjustment between Vice Admiral Lawson and the Algerines by his own letters. The terms he has obtained are as advantageous as those arranged by the Dutch are the contrary.
The earl of St. Albans has left for Paris to fetch the queen mother, who is expected in England in a few days. The forces for Portugal are also gone, some from Plymouth and some from Scotland. They consist of 2000 foot and 1000 horse, veteran troops, who should render excellent service if the change of climate does not occasion disorders which usually occur in such remote expeditions.
The ducali of the 20th May have just reached me, one about the currant trade to which I will attend when I return to London to-morrow, the other to watch for and have arrested Giacomo Bandini and Gasparo Rizzo, sending them to Venice.
In the universal celebrations I have been obliged to follow the general example and incur heavy expenses. Other expenses will be necessary when the queen enters London, and to make a suitable display, in accordance with the Senate's orders of the 10th December. I have not ventured to specify the amount which might seem fraudulent or boastful, but I trust that the generosity of the Senate will not allow me to sink under the weight.
Hampton Court, the 16th June, 1662.
[Italian.]
June 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
201. To the Resident in England.
The Senate rejoices to hear of the arrival of the queen in England. He already has letters of credence for the occasion and tnt necessary instructions.
With regard to the agreements made by the English and the Dutch with the Algerines, he is to get to the bottom of the matter, since it is of great conseqence to the republic's interests under present circumstances to know what is forthcoming between these nations. Commend his office with the Secretary Nicolas and the promise obtained from him of fresh orders for the Ambassador Winchelsea.
With respect to Huffler, the Senate considers it superfluous to grant him the privilege in his absence; but if he cares to come to Venice or to send to the republic's dominions, to be worked, the Senate is ready to gratify him. He may tell the Resident of Denmark this.
Ayes, 112. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
202. Alvise Grimani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
On hearing of the arrival of the new queen of England, Monsieur and Madame sent the Marquis of Viantes and the Earl of St. Alban with congratulations, and the king did the same, sending M. de l' Estrade. Lord Germen has since arrived and has seen the king, to take leave at the same time. The Queen Mother of England, who is waiting for Lord Germen, does not seem to have received the money required to pay her debts, but with the arrival of some remittances, which she is expecting, she will set out in a few days.
They understand here that the governor of Dunkirk proposed to let in the sea water to bathe the fortifications constructed at that place, to render it that much stronger and impregnable, and to this end he is having some dunes and sandbanks cut which serve as a barrier against the sea. This has greatly perturbed the Marquis of Caracena, because it would flood the lower part of the surrounding country. The Marquis has sent this news to Spain with a further report that the governor has an interest and share with others who have armed vessels which, with letters of reprisal from Portugal, go about inflicting great losses on the traders and subjects of his Majesty, infesting those coasts. Some Dutch ships also have not been able to escape, and were only allowed to ge free upon payment of a considerable sum of money, at which the States complain bitterly.
Paris, the 20th June, 1662.
[Italian.]
June 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
203. Giovanni Cornaro. Venetian Ambassador in Spain to the Doge and Senate.
The English garrison of Dunkirk is causing trouble by exacting contributions from the soldiers of the Catholic in Flanders. The breaking off of trade and the exchange of hostilities with England, although considered necessary and resolved upon, do not yet appear, for it behoves them first to look to their defences. They hear of the disposition of the succours for Portugal and the resolution of that king to assist his brother-in-law Braganza. Some serious blow is feared in the Indies, since they have already heard of the departure of a powerful squadron for Jamaica; but their greatest trouble is over the safety of the remittances by the fleet and over the injury to trade. Letters of the secretary resident in England are frequently transmitted to me for the king here by the Resident Giavarina. One notes simultaneously their jealousy at having recourse to the republic, and their gratitude.
Madrid, the 21st June, 1662.
[Italian.]
June 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghiltera.
Venetian
Archives.
204. Francesco Giavarina. Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
As this remarkable climate does not suit the constitution of foreigners especially those accustomed to warm countries, the queen, since her arrival in England has suffered from the change and the damp unsettled weather here. The moment she landed she experienced some derangement of her health, but soon recovered. But she does not eat as she cannot accustom herself to the ways of the country, or drink anything but water, which in England is so much poison, caring little for any diversion as she is of a melancholy disposition, extremely delicate and accustomed to quiet and solitude; disgusted rather than pleased at the confusion of this Court and the crowds of people and new faces constantly coming forward, crowding about and making obeisance, even incommoding her. without intermission and without discretion. She has been obliged these last days to confine herself to her apartments and keep quiet owing to another derangement of her health. They greatly feared smallpox, but by repeated bleedings she was saved from infection and may now be pronounced entirely recovered. She still keeps quiet to prevent any further upset, especially as her delicate constitution seems to be subject to such derangements.
Parliament having ordered the two principal leaders and fomenters of the late rebellion, Sir [Henry] Vane and John Lambert, to be brought back to England, both inveterate protectors of the sectaries who swarm in this country, especially Anabaptists and Quakers or Tremblers; they have been tried and being found guilty of high treason have been condemned to death in the same form as their accomplices, who lately paid the penalty. The sentence against Vane will be carried out shortly, but that of Lambert is postponed by the king's authority, without the motive being known, (fn. 8) unless it be that during the trial he showed great reserve and with great address, neither condemned not excused his deeds but cast himself on the king's mercy; whereas the other gloried in his actions maliciously questioning the authority of the Court and impiously abjuring the king and his hereditary lordship over these realms.
There is no more news of Algiers, but they hope to hear soon of an agreement with the corsairs of Tripoli and Tunis also. Meanwhile the king has ratified Lawson's agreement with the Algerines, much to his honour for the advantages he has gained for the country, which will assist the trade of foreigners also.
No confirmation has come of the seizure of English goods in the dominions of the Catholic, but they fear it and the merchants expect to hear of it any day, especially as the Spanish secretary, Don Alonso Rancano is leaving to-day or to-morrow. He already has an ample passport. He did not see the king, declaring that he was only going on his private affairs, but every one sees through the artifice. He is going to Flanders, to stay until some reply comes from Spain. He will then travel straight to Madrid through France, in accordance with his instructions.
Owing to their interest in the affairs of Portugal they are not too pleased at the news of the progress of the Catholic arms there, especially as they note the determination of Don John of Austria to pursue the enterprise vigorously, being apprehensive that the campaign may produce the worst consequences to the Portuguese cause.
A year ago a certain Cavalier di Bullois, a Fleming of birth distinguished with the order of Jerusalem and with the character of Agent of the Cardinal of Hesse, who acts in Germany as grand Prior for the Knights of Malta, came to England to ask the king's patronage for the claims of that order against the States of Holland. (fn. 9) He asked to be included in the peace in negotiation with the Dutch, which is still under discussion, or shelter in the ports of England for the ships which Malta proposed to send to sea for reprisals. The latter request was absolutely rebutted by the Council but they held out all sorts of hopes for the other. But seeing the matter hanging fire the agent bethought him of other means to serve his master. In various instruments made at the establishment of the republic of Holland there are several articles stipulated at the time and recently ratified, in which the Dutch declare that they will allow the religion of Malta peacefully to enjoy and freely to dispose of all the commendaries and goods which they hold in those Provinces, pledging their own persons and goods in case of contravention, and referring to the justice of any prince in the world. Having consulted certain lawyers he found that this provision made the Dutch amenable to the laws of England, which in certain cases are much more favourable than elsewhere. He told the king and the chancellor of the information he had and of what he proposed to do and both approved, indeed the chancellor said he was glad of the manner, as by way of justice he could serve him better than in any other. Without losing time he had two ships sequestrated with an order of the Admiralty. These took oath, a false one, that they were not Dutch and were released and in their stead six others were arrested. As these could not get off on the same pretext, the Dutch ambassadors immediately presented a memorial to the king complaining of the action of the Maltese and declaring that they could not allow this to be done with the consent and permission of his Majesty. (fn. 10) The Council was at once summoned and for three days was engaged on this question alone. The judges were sent for to state the law in such cases. Although this was shown to be in favour of Malta, and the majority of the councillors leaned to that side, yet the affair being referred to the king and by him to the chancellor, the latter caused the sequestration to be removed and the Dutch ships to be released, forgetful of what he had said to the Maltese minister and of the offers made to him. Meanwhile at the Hague the States have set guards over the Agent resident there for the order, keeping him prisoner in his own house. (fn. 11) It will be interesting to see what follows.
On Wednesday evening the earl of Peterborough, governor of Tangier, arrived suddenly on these shores and to-morrow he will be at Hampton Court. This unexpected arrival has caused general surprise. The reason is not known, but it cannot be other than calamitous for the people there, whose misfortunes are increasing, especially at present when no sustenance will be supplied to them from the ports of Spain, as heretofore, while the barbarians round about do not afford them the conveniences and advantages which they expected and which were practically arranged. We hear that many have died of hunger and others languish, repenting that they ever dreamed of that journey.
The Grand Duke of Florence has sent a present of several sorts of precious wines to the king, the duke of York and the chancellor, which were presented in the name of his Highness by the Resident Salvetti. They were much appreciated by all.
London, the 23rd June, 1662.
[Italian.]
June 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
205. To the Resident in England.
Commend him for sending particulars of the peace of the Dutch with Algiers with the comments of the king and chancellor thereon. His attention is required to know what further will ensue therein, what resolutions will be taken there and all other particulars which he judges to be worthy of the state's knowledge.
The Senate wishes to know the terms for the levy offered by Colonel Waller. They sympathise with him (Giavarina) over his long residence and the various occasions he has had for expenditure. He may rest assured that they have his relief at heart and they will not fail to afford him such present comfort as will be sure to gratify him.
Ayes, 91. Noes, 2. Neutral, 14.
[Italian.]
June 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
206. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The queen has recovered, to the king's great joy, and now, in perfect health, is beginning to enjoy the delights of Hampton Court. Both their Majesties amuse themselves greatly on the river and other waters that surround that place, in the gondolas sent by your Serenity, which remained idle during the winter cold but are now seen every day and often used.
The sentence against Sir [Henry] Vane was carried out on Saturday. Although similar to that of the other regicides, at the request of his relations, who have always been faithful to the royal side, his sentence was commuted by the king's clemency, and instead of being hanged and quartered he was beheaded on an eminence near the Tower, his body being given to his relations for burial. At the end of his life he behaved as before, only expressing seditious ideas on the scaffold, closing his eyes and exhaling his spirit without showing shame or compunction for the crimes committed, indeed glorying in all that had taken place of late in this unfortunate country.
From Plymouth where he landed the earl of Peterborough came post to Court. He at once saw the king and queen and gave an account of the state in which he had left the place. The reasons for his coming are said to be merely to inform his Majesty of affairs there, to receive fresh instructions and to take back his wife and family. But those who profess to know the secrets of the Court declare that his chief object is to ask for means of subsistence and to represent the calamitous condition of the garrison, mostly perished of hunger and by the sword of the Africans, as some squadrons which went out to seek food in the country were set upon by the barbarians, who laid an ambush, so that they not only failed in their intent, but only a few escaped, the rest falling victims to the inhuman ferocity of those who only rejoice in the blood of Christians. Although the Court does not let these particulars be known, there is no doubt about there being some trouble. This is shown clearly by the chancellor, going late to Hampton Court the day before yesterday, which causes great intrigue and talk among the speculative. Time will disclose the truth.
The secretary of Spain left on Tuesday for Flanders, but previously he went to Hampton Court to speak to the king about the behaviour of the governor of Dunkirk, who demands contributions or free intercourse of the marquis of Caracena more vigorously than ever. The king said he was fully informed and would write to Caracena. He meant to have one or the other and would prefer free intercourse as less burdensome to the people. We, must wait to see what the council of Flanders will decide. There is no doubt that the contributions must be a great burden to the people and free intercourse a great loss to the customs of the Catholic and no small injury to the traders of that province.
The principal of the Dutch ambassadors has also gone, having heard of the indisposition of his wife. (fn. 12) It is generally believed that the others will follow as there is no hope of accomplishing their negotiations, which are clogged by the pretensions of both parties, who will not yield a jot, so the belief in a rupture between this crown and those Provinces is strengthened. As one seems imminent also with the Catholic it will be remarkable if England alone, strong as she is at sea, can resist two formidable powers, especially as internal affairs cannot be considered as stable, indeed they are not a little troubled at present as the people grumble loudly about the yearly tax imposed by parliament on hearths, and the Act of Uniformity causes a great stir in England and Scotland, chiefly among the Presbyterians, who are the irreconcileable enemies of the Episcopalians. So it will be interesting to see how these numerous clouds will discharge themselves, which threaten rude storms.
With envoys arriving from every quarter to congratulate their Majesties upon their nuptials an extraordinary has recently arrived from the Elector Palatine, (fn. 13) who having performed his commissions is now in this city preparing to return home. They also expect from Denmark Sestri who was viceroy of Norway to perform a like office, (fn. 14) after which he will proceed to France as ambassador extraordinary to compliment the Most Christian on his marriage.
London, the 30th June, 1662.
Italian.]

Footnotes

1 These Acts in order are the Act of Uniformity 14 Chas. II. cap. 4; the Act for ordering the forces, id. cap. 3; the next two items are one Act for establishing additional revenue for the better support of the crown, id. cap. 10; the fifth is the Act prohibiting foreign lace etc., id. cap. 13, and the last the Act for the prevention of abuses in printing, id. cap. 33. Statutes of the Realm Vol. v, pp. 358, 364, 390, 405, 428.
2 His speech, on 9–19 May, is printed, Journals of the House of Lords Vol. xi, pp. 474–7.
3 Downing's memorial concerning the ships Daniel, Experience, Henry Bonadventure and Bona Esperanza, seized in Guinea, was presented to the States General on 3–13 May. Kingdom's Intelligencer May 12–19.
4 According to Salvetti the king was not married by a bishop or priest but by his own declaration, standing in front of the church. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962Q, f. 198. Giavarina's account is confirmed by James in his Memoirs. The ceremony was performed by the Abbot Aubigny. Clarke: Life of James II Vol. i, page 394.
5 Duarte Sylva, Cal. S.P. Dom. 1661–2, pp. 380, 400, 403 etc. Miss Strickland calls him Diego Silvas. Lives of the Queens of England Vol. viii, page 291.
6 The news was being brought by Capt. Berkeley in the Assurance. Kingdom's Intelligencer May 19–26.
7 M. de l' Estrade from the king, and the Marquis of Viantes and the earl of St. Alban from the duke and duchess. See below.
8 The judge told Lambert that he was respited because he spoke not in justification but only in extenuation of his action. Kingdom's IntelligencerJune 2–9.
9 See the preceding volume of this Calendar, page 272.
10 Expostulation at the proceedings of the Admiralty court and desiring the release of the eight ships seized, presented by the Dutch ambassadors on 15 June, 1662. S.P. For Holland Vol. clxv.
11 The arrest of Reyner Kempingh, agent for the Knights in Holland, was ordered on 15 June. Aitzema; Saken Van Staet en Oorlog Vol. iv, page 900.
12 Louis of Nassau, heer van Beverweert. S.P. For. Holland Vol. clxv,letter of 24 June.
13 Ludwig von Bonstedt, lord of Germersheim. His letters of credence dated at Heidelberg on 30 May, 1662. S.P. For. Germany States.
14 Hannibal Sehested.


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