Venice
July 1662

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1932

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158-168

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'Venice: July 1662', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 33: 1661-1664 (1932), pp. 158-168. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90106 Date accessed: 30 August 2014.


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July 1662

July 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
207. To the Resident in England.
The Senate takes note of the agreements made by the English and Dutch with the Barbareschi, leaving the latter free from any sort of diversion. He is to find out whether it is true that the Dutch will not ratify the agreement arranged by Ruiter, and when the frigates of the Vice Admiral arrive with the articles, he is to try and obtain a copy, advising the Senate upon the point of the patents to be carried for foreign ships.
Ayes, 111. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
208. Alvise Grimani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The king here had caused some vessels laden with wheat to come in to meet the scarcity which is being experienced in this country. Some days ago these were captured by the English, they say, by arrangement with the governor of Dunkirk, whither they took the corn, which has served for the garrison there. The Most Christian has caused strong representations to be made to King Charles, who said he knew nothing about it, but promised to cause the ships to be given up and the value of the corn in money. His Majesty here replied sharply that he did not want money, but the corn. We shall see what the other will decide to do.
In the mean time some disturbance has arisen in the Boulonnais from the objection of the people there to pay certain impositions. To check and punish the most seditious the king here yesterday sent troops, who will suppress the whole affair. Some believe that this despatch of troops to that quarter at this conjuncture may be observed in England.
Nantere, the 4th July, 1662.
[Italian.]
July 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
209. Giovanni Cornaro, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The Marquis of Caracena is asking for instructions about the exactions of the Dunkirk garrison; but to avoid an outbreak of war in Flanders without preparation for it, they give him inconclusive answers. The people will have to put up with their losses and the Catholic king with the affront. The naval force is making ready at Cadiz. It includes 24 ships armed in August. One may believe that, with their misgivings about the English, the fleet itself will be accompanied by a squadron of armed ships as far as the Canaries.
The succour supplied from England for Portugal has not yet appeared at Lisbon. Here it is stated that on their arrival there will be revealed the consequences of further prejudicial treaties, with the consignment to the English of fortresses in Portugal. Time will remove the veil, and the conditions agreed upon have never been learned with certainty. The results rather than the negotiations subsequently demonstrated them.
The interests of Barbary and of England are passed over in silence. Eighteen privateering ships are already scouring the seas and are constantly making prizes.
Madrid, the 5th July, 1662.
[Italian.]
July 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
210. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledge his letters No. 342. Learn from France that the Dutch do not approve of the agreement made by Ruiter, which affords some hope that in England they may do the like as on every count they ought.
With respect to the currant trade, since the state for its own profit desires that ships of that country shall resort to those parts, he will take such opportunities as offer to represent to the merchants who formerly devoted themselves to that trade, the certainty that they will receive the most favourable treatment.
Commend his action in going to Hampton Court to congratulate the king and queen. It is fitting that he should receive some relief for his expenses and for the losses which he has suffered in his long service at that Court.
That 400 ducats of good value be paid to the agents of the Resident Giavarina as a gift for his expenses on the occasion of the marriage of the king to the Infanta of Portugal.
Ayes, 114. Noes, 13. Neutral, 7. It requires 4/5ths.
In the Collegio:
Ayes, 17. Noes, 5. Neutral, 1. Two votes. It requires 4/5ths.
In the Collegio, the amount reduced to 300 ducats:
Ayes, 18. Noes, 1. Neutral, 1. It requires 4/5ths.
[Italian.]
July 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian.
Archives.
211. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Court's stay at Hampton Court, where they attend to little but amusements leaves us without news and compels me to silence. To avoid repeating this fault, seeing that London is abandoned by all and one can learn nothing, I thought it proper to come here, as all the other foreign ministers have done, rather than remain in the metropolis which much resents the absence of the Court and suffers greatly as where the Court is there generally are all the nobility and other persons of rank, so the tradesmen cannot make much.
The articles of peace with the Algerines have lately been published and I enclose a translation from the English, for the Senate's consideration. As the third article provides that all the English slaves in the hands of those barbarians shall be set at liberty on payment of the price for which they were sold in the public market by their captors the king has recommended this pious work to the bishops, knowing that he could not do better, as at present they hold all the gold of the country acquired in these two years since his Majesty's restoration by means which cause no little murmuring among the people and has scandalized others. To please him they have taxed themselves at so much a head and have got together 10,000l. sterling, which is ready to be sent to Algiers for the ransom of these English slaves.
In spite of these articles, in consequence of which Lawson had left Algiers to go and treat with the other Barbary pirates, the duke of York told me yesterday evening that a report was current that the Algerines were not observing the terms and he had gone back to force them to an open rupture if they seemed recalcitrant. This report lacks confirmation but it may easily be true, as any one who knows the Turks and especially those assassins of Barbary is aware that they rarely keep their word. It will be interesting to see what happens, and also the effect on those infidels of the disavowal by the States of Holland of the treaty concluded with them by Ruiter. This refusal is certain and they condemn the admiral for having acted too hastily and exceeded his instructions.
As the country cannot be brought to the quiet which is desirable, owing to the many evil humours which still remain and may not easily be purged, indeed they rather tend to increase, as men cannot easily adapt themselves to the two acts recently passed, for uniformity in religion and the hearth tax, which have unquestionably increased the number of malcontents, causing the Court to fear fresh insurrections and that they may originate in London, the king has issued a proclamation that within 3 days all who bore arms for the late government and have been disbanded and all other partisans of that usurpation shall leave the metropolis and not come within 25 miles of it until next December, when the order will doubtless be renewed. (fn. 1)
Such precautions are proper, but it is greatly to be feared that they will not suffice, as there is certainly great appearance of fresh troubles, as all cry out at the excessive burdens to which they are subject which equal those of the time of the rebellion although of a different kind and never known under his Majesty's predecessors. The officials, even of the Court and all who draw a salary from the palace are discontented because they cannot get paid, the grandees and the ecclesiastics in particular absorb everything and keep it close. The Court from time to time begs loans from individuals in the city, with assignments on the taxes as security. If any internal accidents should occur, as they threaten to do, it is not easy to see how the king could escape, with few supporters at home and fewer friends abroad, all having great occasion for disgust since his return, the foreigners because they can get nothing done, the natives because although they spent their fortunes and blood in the late commotions, they do not get the slightest consideration and suffer the intense mortification of seeing so many of Cromwell's party advanced, become exceedingly wealthy with their property and in possession of the first posts in the kingdom. The Presbyterians, who do not expect to realise their designs except by fishing in troubled waters, do all in their power to rekindle the fire both here and in Scotland and if it should take hold it would be much more difficult to quench than last time.
The Dutch ambassadors have had several conferences recently with the English commissioners, but all in vain from the obstinacy of both sides on their original claims. The king, imagining that the States would give way as they began the quarrel about the ships taken in the Indies, sent for the ambassadors and gave them a memorial for their superiors upon the satisfaction claimed, which is the same as Downing demanded at the Hague. They would easily and gladly break with Holland, as the people desire, the traders with passion, but the recent alliance of the States with France makes them fearful, and stays the vigorous measures that they would like to take, as they see clearly that the Most Christian would support and protect the Dutch. So they temporise and flatter France, which they know is not well disposed to them and are waiting to see what time will bring. This should soon appear as the season of the sardine and herring fishery is approaching, which the Dutch catch in great quantities off these coasts with much profit, and we shall see if they will yield to these pretensions to avoid being turned away from their fishing.
Hearing that the queen mother is about to leave Paris the duke of York will set out at the beginning of next week for Boulogne to meet her and bring her here. The king also will go to meet his mother and it is believed that the Court will then return to London. Accordingly the workmen have been doubled at Whitehall so that the apartments for the queen consort may be ready as soon as possible.
Sestri has not yet arrived from Denmark but is expected at any moment. Everyone calls him ambassador extraordinary, but no one knows since he brings commissions as ambassador and as envoy to take whichever character he sees fit. The Resident Petkun says publicly that he will only assume that of envoy as his king has sent a state embassy and many ministers, to which this king has made no response whatever. This may be in order to induce them to make an appointment, which has been expected for so long, for the various courts but which has been prevented by the difficulty of finding money which is the reason why those destined for France and Portugal do not move and it seems that they will not let M. de Cominges leave Paris until Baron Hollis goes there.
An envoy has arrived from Muscovy with letters for the king. He is only the precursor of an ambassador who is coming from the Grand Duke with a great train and much pomp. He is now at Riga in Courland whence a ship of this king will be sent to fetch him to England. (fn. 2) A person has arrived from Courland who besides offices about the nuptials brings demands which will not please them much for the restitution of a fort belonging to the duke, his master, of which the India Company here took possession some years ago in Guinea in the Rio del Gambo. (fn. 3) The one affair will be quickly despatched but the other will only encounter the dilatoriness and tedious procrastination habitual at this Court.
In obedience to the instructions of the 17th June I have spoken to the resident of Denmark as instructed about the request of Gibert Kuffler. He expressed his eternal obligation and said he would inform the party so that he may proceed or send to the dominions of the most serene republic to practise his secrets and in that case he would ask me for a few lines for your Serenity.
Hampton Court, the 14th July, 1662.
Postscript: I have just heard that further news about Algiers has at this moment reached the Court. They state that Lawson having arrived at Tunis to establish peace with them also and being asked by them for a sight of the capitulations of Algiers gave them a copy translated into Arabic in which it was found that the Algerines were to have liberty to search English ships for foreign goods. But Lawson and the Divan of Algiers had only signed in English and French, where it is agreed that they shall not be searched, so the translation was falsified. This made Lawson suspicious about the loyalty of the Algerines, and without concluding with those of Tunis he returned towards Algiers taking with him two of their ships found at Tunis, to see if they really mean to abide by the peace arranged in English and French, and what they mean to do. I will send any further news in my next despatch.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.212. Articles of Peace between Charles II, king of Great Britain etc. (fn. 4) and the town and realm of Algiers and its territories, concluded by Sir John Lawson the 23rd April, 1662.
Fifteen Articles.
[Italian, from the English.]
July 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
213. Giovanni Cornaro, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
We hear that his Britannic Majesty is promising his subjects to go privateering under the flag of any prince they please, which means war on Spain under the name of Portugal, unless steps are taken to prevent it. There will be no declaration of war from here, although the ministers talk about it as necessary and practically decided.
The garrison of Tanger is suffering from sickness and is reported to be reduced to very weak numbers. It is considered that the governor of Ceuta should contribute assistance to Gailan against the contrary party and to this end they are cultivating relations with those barbarians.
Madrid, the 19th July, 1662.
[Italian.]
July 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci.
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
214. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Court is anxiously waiting to hear what Lawson has been able to do with the Algerians for the keeping of the articles arranged with them. After several weeks without news from Tangier, the last being that brought by the Governor Peterborough letters have just come, of the 11th June. They report the good state of the place, consoled by the abundance of victuals brought by two of the king's ships, money and other provision, with which the garrison could live for a while. This comes very opportunely as a great part of the garrison perished in the late disasters and the survivors were torn between hunger and the fear of death if they went into the country to get food. They add that the Moors have written letters to the governor, not knowing that he had gone, and which they say have been sent on, with great professions of friendship and the good relations they propose to keep and strengthen with the English. But they know the duplicity of the Africans, and it is unlikely they will trust these professions, especially as they have been deceived before. But some of the wisest are of opinion that these reports are spread designedly to encourage the people to go more readily to live at this new acquisition, since for the rest they are much disgusted with the sojourn among the Moors and by the unfavourable accounts brought by some who returned to England with Peterborough, who are cowed by the sad fate of their compatriots. There are few or none who would dream of the voyage, so the Court will find great difficulty in bringing the place to the perfection that is intended, owing to the reluctance of the people and from the general lack of means.
All these evil impressions in the mind of the people pierce the chancellor's heart, as he wished to commit the king to support Portugal, chiefly for the acquisition of Tangier which he believed would be of great advantage and reputation to England, and now he realises that the reality does not correspond with his hopes while the successes of the Castilian arms against the duke of Braganza cause serious apprehension about the affairs of Portugal and serve to increase his regrets and apprehensions. He is the more distressed because in addition to the general murmuring of the people against him personally, he observes that the favour of the Court is no longer so propitious as of yore. But he has enough wit and sagacity to put everything straight and he hopes to realise his aims, especially with the arrival of the queen mother who is his protectress. Yet Sir [Henry] Benet, keeper of the king's privy purse, who is high in his Majesty's favour and sedulously cultivates it, so that it is whispered that he may soon be raised to a high position, gives him constant cause for uneasiness, as a rival.
Many Portuguese came to England with the queen consort, priests to serve the chapel, seculars for the music and other duties of her household, besides gentlemen and ladies of rank. The king would like them all to be back at Lisbon again, as they only cause confusion at Court and laughter for their deformities (fn. 5) and the extraordinary clothes they wear. They would be on the way by now but for the lack of money, which is scarcer than ever, as the taxes imposed only serve to increase discontent and bring nothing to the exchequer. Having discovered the king's disposition they have unanimously and with good sense presented a petition that they may be sent home and this will be done immediately they have the means. It is not known what will, happen about the musicians, because the queen only likes those of her own country, those here, who are English and French not suiting her taste, while the Portuguese do not please the king or any of his Court, who disgust everybody with their discordant concerts. She wishes to keep them, so we shall soon see if she prevails with the king or he with her.
Some months ago the duke of Ormond was nominated Viceroy of Ireland a most distinguished person, a knight of the Garter, Privy Councillor, and High Steward. He took leave of their Majesties on Monday and left London the day before yesterday for his most important post. He is proceeding through the kingdom with an enormous suite to the place of embarcation.
The sessions of parliament in Scotland and Ireland do not slacken and their progress seems to promise calm and quiet unless the numerous troublesome spirits who still exist in those countries spoil it. Some mutinous preachers were exiled from Scotland who even in the pulpit strove to seduce the people and persuade them to fresh disorders. Other clerics, over whom similar or other just punishments were hanging, have voluntarily absented themselves to escape the severity which they know they deserve.
In obedience to the ducali of the 24th June I will try to find out from Sir Waller on what terms he will bring ships to serve the republic. I hope that my release from this insufferable station is near, and implore the consideration of your Excellencies.
Hampton Court, the 21st July, 1662.
[Italian.]
July 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
215. Giovanni Battista Ballarino, Venetian Grand Chancellor at the Porte, to the Doge and Senate.
In accordance with my instructions I consigned to the English ambassador through Padavin the four vestments of cloth of gold, with seventeen points each, for his consort, who in the fourth month of another pregnancy is staying at the villa. The ambassador was exceedingly pleased and promised to answer the Senate's letter at once and to devote himself to the service of the most serene republic.
The matter of the lead, steel and tin is not yet settled for the account of that crown. In any case it goes under the name of William Jet and of the new treasurer sent by the merchants. With regard to granting his ships to the Turks, the ambassador binds himself to the most determined refusal and resistance. The results will be seen.
The negotiations of the Resident of Holland with the First Vizier for the hiring of the ships of his nation for the service of the Turks are not concluded as yet. With the help of the English ambassador, his enemy, I contrive cautiously to thwart him as much as I can, having pointed out to his Excellency that it is not to the advantage of that crown or of his own private interests that minister should cultivate more intimate relations with the Porte.
Nothing more is said about the Portuguese minister whom the ambassador proposed to have introduced at the Porte, because no fresh commissions have come from the Icing to conclude. The English merchants, through presents, have obtained the withdrawal of the imperial order to send to Tunis, at the instance of the Armenians, the precise quality and quantity of the goods plundered by corsairs.

Pera of Constantinople, the 22nd July, 1662.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
216. Alvise Grimani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Lord Germen has been presented with a most handsome diamond by the king and has set out with the queen of England, who postponed her departure until to-day. She will be accompanied by Monsieur and Madame as far as Borel, and the Prince Palatine will go as far as London with her, to obtain the confirmation of the pension already granted to him by King Charles. (fn. 6)
Nantere, the 25th July, 1662.
[Italian.]
July 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
217. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Letters have come this week from Algiers, which have been eagerly awaited by the Court and everyone. They state that Sir Lawson, returning to Algiers to see if they meant to keep the agreement, was received with the most friendly demonstrations, so he sailed back towards Tunis and Tripoli to try and arrange a similar capitulation. The alteration made in the adjustment with Algiers was due entirely to the malice of the Basha of the place, who falsified the most essential article to embroil matters, to conceal the true meaning of the treaty from those pirates and to delay an accommodation, as he has a large share in the plunder made by the pirates, does not like the peace, and for his private gain would prefer the war never to cease.
They have been equally anxious to know the effect on the Turks of the refusal of the States to acknowledge the agreement made by Ruiter. With regard to the ducali of the 1st I can only say that I have nothing to add especially as with the articles of the peace with Algiers was a description of what was meant by the patent or passport to be carried by all the ships of this nation.
There is talk at the palace this week of some engagement about the flag between the English and Dutch at the Lisbon estuary, in which the latter came off worse, but no confirmation has arrived and it is supposed to be a false report possibly spread by those who wish to see these two powers engaged in hostilities.
The Dutch ambassadors are still conferring with the deputies of the Council of State, saying that they are waiting for commissions from the States that will enable them to put the final touches to their negotiations and lead to an adjustment, unless fresh obstacles arise on this side. It is stated indeed that the States, having considered the memorial handed by the king to the ambassadors, have decided to accede to his Majesty's requests and have sent orders to their ministers to calculate the time with the India Company to state the losses and other things over which the dispute arose. For this they asked audience on Monday, but as this is put off there must be something unpleasant, or else it is known that their offices will not be in accordance with what is desired here.
Being under the impression that in Holland they are arming a new fleet, they have decided here to equip forty powerful ships of the many recently disarmed, and it only remains to furnish them with sailors, provisions and munitions of war to make them perfectly ready. They have already put it in hand and are hastening the armament. It will be as interesting as it is difficult to find out the true reason for this equipment.
The king being informed by the duke of Braganza that he has annulled all commissions and letters of reprisal granted by him to Portuguese and others against the States General and their subjects, his Majesty by proclamation has charged the governors and other ministers of ports and coast towns not to allow any one by virtue of Portuguese commissions to enter with ships or other prizes made against the States, under severe penalties. (fn. 7)
It has always been the custom at this Court that all ministers from Turkey, Tartary, Persia and similar places should be defrayed by the companies of merchants, although all was done in the king's name. Now that a state embassy is expected from the Muscovite his Majesty has warned the Muscovy Company to prepare what is necessary for his reception. On their pleading that they could not bear the expense for lack of money, they were summoned before the Council of State and told that it had always been done in like cases and were urged to do it now. But they absolutely refused to spend a farthing, not so much from lack of money as because in past years the Grand Duke of Muscovy has deprived the English of all the privileges they used to enjoy in his dominions, so that the trade there is rather a loss than a gain, and they will not agree to such an expense. Accordingly the king will be obliged to meet it himself, an innovation that will be very costly.
Since at the disarming of many ships following the king's return it is known that some sailors left England and entered foreign service, the king knowing he will need them for the fleet mentioned above has issued a proclamation recalling to England, under severe penalties all sea captains and other mariners in foreign service, and forbidding them to enter or command ships which are not English. (fn. 8) In view of the injury which might result from the departure of the English ships from your Serenity's fleet, I thought fit to ask the king to declare that the proclamation was not intended to affect his subjects serving the most serene republic especially as the like declaration made two years ago only served for that proclamation. The king consented, with expressions of sympathy, so I have given a memorial to the Secretary Nicolas for this to be done and am urging despatch.
On this occasion the king told me of his own accord that very soon an ambassador will be nominated to the republic and that Viscount Facomberge will have the appointment. He asked me if Sig. Mocenigo had left Venice, again assuring me that I might consider the Viscount's appointment absolutely certain although he had not yet been publicly nominated. I told him that if Sig. Mocenigo had not started yet it was from no lack of respect but because the summer heats forbad travelling, but I believed he would soon set out. The king seemed very pleased at this and I took leave.
Not understanding the reason for the king's question I have made inquiries and find that on the return of the Court to London, which is expected soon, his Majesty really means to appoint ministers to the foreign princes and wished to make sure of his Excellency's coming because something was said at the palace about his not coming to England at all. I have asserted the contrary and told my informant so.
Hampton Court, the 28th July, 1662.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Proclamation of 22 June, o.s. Steele: Tudor and Stuart Proclamations Vol. i, page 405, No. 3362.
2 On 16 September John Hebden was sent in the Monk to meet the Muscovite ambassadors. S.P. For. Russia Vol. iii.
3 The fort of Gambia. Sainsbury: Court Minutes of the East India Company 1660–3, page 138.
4 Printed in Dumont: Corps Diplomatique Vol. vi, pt. ii, page 420; also in Kingdom's Intelligencer June 23–30.
5 difformita, probably refers to their costumes, not their persons. Evelyn speaks of their “monstrous fardingales.” Diary, page 284.
6 The Prince Palatine Edward. See Giavarina's despatch of 11 August at page 171 below. For his pension see Vol. xxxii of this Calendar, page 224.
7 Proclamation of 20 June, o.s. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1661–2, page 413. Steele: Tudor and Stuart Proclamations Vol. 1, page 404, No. 3361.
8 The same proclamation of 20 June.


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